Final Exam Terms

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  1. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
    The most advanced and fatal stage of an HIV infection.
  2. allergen
    A substance that produces an allergic reaction in an individual.
  3. anaphylaxis
    A severe response to an allergen in which the symptoms develop quickly, and without help, the patient can die within a few minutes.
  4. antibiotics
    A medication that is capable of inhibiting the growth of or killing pathogenic bacterial microorganisms.
  5. antibody
    A disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen.
  6. antifungal
    An agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi.
  7. antigen
    Any substance that the body regards as foreign.
  8. antigen–antibody reaction
    The binding of antigens to antibodies
  9. bacilli
    Rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria
  10. bacteria
    A group of one-celled microscopic organisms, some of which are pathogenic.
  11. benign
    Not life-threatening.
  12. candidiasis
    An infection caused by yeast, a type of fungus.
  13. carcinoma
    A malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue.
  14. carcinoma in situ
    A malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues.
  15. complement system
    A group of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form
  16. cytomegalovirus
    A group of large herpes-type viruses found in most body fluids and most often causing an infection without signs or symptoms
  17. cytotoxic drug
    Medication that kills or damages cells.
  18. ductal carcinoma in situ
    Breast cancer at its earliest stage, before the cancer has broken through the wall of the milk duct.
  19. hemolytic
    Destroying worn-out erythrocytes (red blood cells) and releasing their hemoglobin for reuse.
  20. herpes zoster
    An acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of the inflamed nerve.
  21. Hodgkin’s lymphoma
    A malignancy of the lymphatic system that is distinguished from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma by the presence of large, cancerous lymphocytes.
  22. human immunodeficiency virus
    A bloodborne infection in which the virus damages or kills the T cells of the immune system
  23. immunoglobulins
    Bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response.
  24. immunosuppressant
    A substance that prevents or reduces the body's normal immune response.
  25. immunotherapy
    A treatment of disease by either stimulating or repressing the immune response
  26. infectious mononucleosis
    An infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that is characterized by fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes.
  27. infiltrating ductal carcinoma
    Breast cancer that starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall of that duct, and invades the surrounding fatty breast tissue; also known as invasive ductal carcinoma.
  28. interferons
    Produced in response to the presence of antigens, particularly viruses or tumor cells. They activate the immune system, fight viruses, and signal other cells to increase their defenses.
  29. lymphadenopathy
    Any disease process affecting a lymph node or nodes
  30. lymphangioma
    A benign tumor formed by an abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels due to a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system.
  31. lymphedema
    Swelling due to an abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid within the tissues.
  32. lymphocytes
    One of three types of cells that are formed in bone marrow as stem cells that act as specialized antibodies.
  33. lymphoma
    A general term applied to malignancies affecting lymphoid tissues.
  34. lymphoscintigraphy
    A diagnostic test to detect damage or malformations of the lymphatic vessels.
  35. macrophage
    A type of leukocyte that surrounds and kills invading cells.
  36. malaria
    A disease caused by a parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes and is transferred to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito.
  37. malignant
    Becoming progressively worse and life-threatening.
  38. mammography
    A radiographic examination of the breasts to detect the presence of tumors or precancerous cells.
  39. metastasis
    The process by which cancer is spread to a new site; may refer to the tumor itself.
  40. metastasize
    To spread from one place to another.
  41. myoma
    A benign tumor made up of muscle tissue.
  42. myosarcoma
    A malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue.
  43. opportunistic infection
    Caused by a pathogen that normally does not cause illness in healthy humans, but is able to cause an infection in a weakened host.
  44. osteosarcoma
    A hard-tissue sarcoma usually involving the upper shaft of long bones, the pelvis, or the knees
  45. parasite
    A plant or an animal that lives on or within another living organism at the expense of that organism.
  46. rabies
    An acute viral infection transmitted to humans through the bite or saliva of an infected animal.
  47. rickettsia
    Small bacteria that live in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites that transmit infection to humans.
  48. rubella
    A viral infection characterized by a low-grade fever, swollen glands, inflamed eyes, and a fine, pink rash; also known as German measles or 3-day measles.
  49. sarcoma
    A malignant tumor that arises from connective tissue; plural, sarcomas or sarcomata.
  50. spirochetes
    Long, slender spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement.
  51. splenomegaly
    Abnormal enlargement of the spleen.
  52. staphylococci
    Group of about 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes.
  53. streptococci
    Bacteria that form a chain.
  54. systemic reaction
    A severe reaction to an allergen; also described as anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock.
  55. teletherapy
    Radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body that is precisely targeted with the use of three-dimensional computer imaging.
  56. toxoplasmosis
    A parasite that is most commonly transmitted from pets to humans by contact with contaminated animal feces.
  57. varicella
    A highly contagious disease caused by a herpes virus characterized by a fever and rash; also known as chickenpox.
  58. alveoli
    The very small grapelike clusters found at the end of each bronchiole.
  59. anoxia
    The absence of oxygen from the body's tissues and organs even though there is an adequate flow of blood.
  60. antitussive
    Medication administered to prevent or relieve coughing.
  61. aphonia
    Loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds.
  62. asbestosis
    The form of pneumoconiosis caused by asbestos particles in the lungs.
  63. asphyxia
    The loss of consciousness that occurs when the body cannot get the oxygen it needs to function.
  64. asthma
    A chronic, inflammatory disease of the bronchial tubes, often triggered by an allergic reaction and characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing.
  65. atelectasis
    The incomplete expansion of part or all of a lung due to a blockage of the air passages or pneumothorax.
  66. bradypnea
    An abnormally slow rate of respiration, usually of less than 10 breaths per minute.
  67. bronchodilator
    A medication that relaxes and expands the bronchial passages into the lungs.
  68. bronchorrhea
    An excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi.
  69. bronchoscopy
    The visual examination of the bronchi through using a bronchoscope.
  70. bronchospasm
    A contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze the airway shut.
  71. Cheyne–Stokes respiration
    An irregular pattern of breathing characterized by alternating rapid or shallow respiration followed by slower respiration or apnea.
  72. croup
    An acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and swelling around the vocal cords, resulting in a barking cough and stridor.
  73. cyanosis
    A bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by a lack of adequate oxygen in the blood.
  74. cystic fibrosis
    A life-threatening genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus.
  75. diphtheria
    An acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract
  76. dysphonia
    Difficulty in speaking, which may include any impairment in vocal quality, including hoarseness, weakness, or the cracking of a boy's voice during puberty.
  77. dyspnea
    Difficult or labored breathing; also known as shortness of breath.
  78. emphysema
    The progressive, long-term loss of lung function, usually due to smoking.
  79. empyema
    An accumulation of pus in a body cavity.
  80. endotracheal intubation
    The passage of a tube through the mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway.
  81. epistaxis
    Bleeding from the nose that may be caused by dry air, an injury, medication to prevent blood clotting, or high blood pressure; also known as a nosebleed.
  82. hemoptysis
    The expectoration of blood or bloodstained sputum derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as the result of pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage.
  83. hemothorax
    A collection of blood in the pleural cavity.
  84. hypercapnia
    The abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood.
  85. hyperpnea
    An increase in the depth and rate of the respiratory movements.
  86. hypopnea
    Shallow or slow respiration.
  87. hypoxemia
    The condition of having low oxygen levels in the blood.
  88. hypoxia
    The condition of having deficient oxygen levels in the body's tissues and organs; less severe than anoxia.
  89. laryngectomy
    The surgical removal of the larynx.
  90. laryngitis
    Inflammation of the larynx; also commonly used to describe voice loss that is caused by this inflammation.
  91. laryngoscopy
    The visual examination of the larynx using a laryngoscope.
  92. laryngospasm
    The sudden spasmodic closure of the larynx.
  93. mediastinum
    The middle section of the chest cavity located between the lungs. This cavity contains the heart and its veins and arteries, the esophagus, trachea, bronchi, the thymus gland, and lymph nodes.
  94. nebulizer
    An electronic device that pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient via a face mask or mouthpiece.
  95. otolaryngologist
    A physician with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the head and neck
  96. pertussis
    A contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by recurrent bouts of a paroxysmal cough, followed by breathlessness and a noisy inspiration.
  97. pharyngitis
    An inflammation of the pharynx.
  98. phlegm
    Thick mucus secreted by the tissues lining the respiratory passages.
  99. pleurisy
    An inflammation of the pleura, the membranes that cover the lungs and line the pleural cavity; causes pleurodynia.
  100. pleurodynia
    A sharp pain that occurs when the inflamed membranes rub against each other with each inhalation.
  101. pneumoconiosis
    Any fibrosis of the lung tissues caused by dust in the lungs after prolonged environmental or occupational contact.
  102. pneumonectomy
    The surgical removal of all or part of a lung.
  103. pneumonia
    A serious inflammation of the lungs in which the alveoli and air passages fill with pus and other liquid.
  104. pneumothorax
    The accumulation of air in the pleural space, causing a pressure imbalance that causes the lung to fully or partially collapse
  105. polysomnography
    The diagnostic measurement of physiological activity during sleep; also known as a sleep study
  106. pulmonologist
    A physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the respiratory system.
  107. pulse oximeter
    An external monitor placed on the patient's fingertip or earlobe to measure the oxygen saturation level in the blood.
  108. pyothorax
    A collection of pus in the pleural cavity between the layers of the pleural membrane.
  109. sinusitis
    Inflammation of the sinuses.
  110. sleep apnea
    A potentially serious disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep for long enough periods to cause a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels.
  111. spirometer
    A recording device that measures the amount of air inhaled or exhaled and the length of time required for each breath.
  112. tachypnea
    An abnormally rapid rate of respiration, usually of more than 20 breaths per minute
  113. thoracentesis
    The surgical puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity
  114. thoracotomy
    A surgical incision into the chest walls to open the pleural cavity for biopsy or treatment
  115. tracheostomy
    The surgical creation of a stoma into the trachea in order to insert a temporary or permanent tube to facilitate breathing
  116. tracheotomy
    An emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage.
  117. tuberculosis
    An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that usually attacks the lungs; also known as TB, it can also affect other parts of the body.
  118. aerophagia
    The excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach.
  119. anastomosis
    A surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures;
  120. antiemetic
    Medication administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting.
  121. aphthous ulcers
    Gray-white pits with a red border that appear in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers.
  122. ascites
    An abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
  123. bariatrics
    The branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases
  124. borborygmus
    The rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine.
  125. cachexia
    A condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS.
  126. celiac disease
    An inherited autoimmune disorder characterized by a severe reaction to food containing gluten; also known as gluten intolerance.
  127. cheilosis
    A disorder of the lips characterized by cracklike sores at the corners of the mouth.
  128. cholangiography
    A radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium.
  129. cholangitis
    An acute inflammation of the bile duct characterized by pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, fever, and jaundice.
  130. cholecystectomy
    The surgical removal of the gallbladder.
  131. cholecystitis
    Inflammation of the gallbladder; usually associated with gallstones.
  132. choledocholithotomy
    An incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones
  133. cholelithiasis
    The presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
  134. cirrhosis
    A progressive degenerative disease of the liver characterized by scarring.
  135. colonoscopy
    The direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon, from the rectum to the cecum.
  136. colostomy
    The surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface.
  137. Crohn’s disease
    A chronic autoimmune disorder that can occur anywhere in the digestive tract; however, it is most often found in the ileum and in the colon.
  138. dental prophylaxis
    The professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque and calculus.
  139. diverticulitis
    Inflammation or infection of one or more diverticula in the colon.
  140. diverticulosis
    The chronic presence of an abnormal number of diverticula in the colon.
  141. dyspepsia
    Pain or discomfort in digestion; also known as indigestion.
  142. dysphagia
    Difficulty in swallowing.
  143. enema
    The placement of a solution into the rectum and colon to empty the lower intestine through bowel activity.
  144. enteritis
    Inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral or bacterial pathogens.
  145. eructation
    The act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach.
  146. esophageal varices
    Enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus.
  147. esophagogastroduodenoscopy
    An endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of the upper GI tract; this includes the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum.
  148. gastroduodenostomy
    The establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum.
  149. gastroesophageal reflux disease
    The upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus; also known as GERD.
  150. gastrostomy tube
    The surgical placement of a feeding tube from the exterior of the body directly into the stomach.
  151. hematemesis
    The vomiting of blood.
  152. Hemoccult test
    A laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools; also known as fecal occult blood test.
  153. hepatitis
    Inflammation of the liver usually caused by a viral infection.
  154. herpes labialis
    Blisterlike sores on the lips and adjacent tissue caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); also known as cold sores or fever blisters.
  155. hiatal hernia
    An anatomical abnormality in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest though an opening in the diaphragm.
  156. hyperemesis
    Extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration.
  157. ileus
    The partial or complete blockage of the small intestine, large intestine, or both caused by the stopping of normal peristalsis.
  158. inguinal hernia
    The protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin.
  159. jaundice
    A yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and eyes caused by greater-than-normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood.
  160. leukoplakia
    An abnormal white precancerous lesion (sore) that develops on the tongue or the inside of the cheek
  161. melena
    The passage of black, tarry, and foul-smelling stools that is caused by the presence of digested blood.
  162. morbid obesity
    The condition of weighing two or more times the ideal weight or having a body mass index value greater than 40; also known as severe obesity.
  163. nasogastric intubation
    The placement of a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach.
  164. obesity
    An excessive accumulation of fat in the body.
  165. palatoplasty
    The surgical repair of a cleft palate or cleft lip.
  166. peptic ulcers
    Sores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylorior by medications, such as aspirin, that irritate the mucous membranes.
  167. peristalsis
    A series of wavelike contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction that moves the food forward into the digestive system.
  168. polyp
    A mushroomlike growth from the surface of a mucous membrane; not all are malignant.
  169. proctologist
    A physician who specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum, and anus.
  170. regurgitation
    The return of swallowed food into the mouth.
  171. salmonellosis
    An infectious disease of the intestines that is transmitted by food contaminated with feces
  172. sigmoidoscopy
    The endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon.
  173. stomatitis
    An inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth.
  174. trismus
    Any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer.
  175. ulcerative colitis
    A chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation.
  176. volvulus
    Twisting of the intestine upon itself, causing an obstruction.
  177. xerostomia
    The lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands; also known as dry mouth.
  178. ablation
    The removal of a body part or the destruction of its function.
  179. anuria
    The absence of urine formation by the kidneys.
  180. benign prostatic hyperplasia
    An abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland.
  181. chronic kidney disease
    The progressive loss of renal function over months or years
  182. cystitis
    Inflammation of the bladder.
  183. cystocele
    A hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall; also called a prolapsed bladder.
  184. cystolith
    A stone located in the urinary bladder.
  185. cystopexy
    The surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall.
  186. cystoscopy
    The visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope.
  187. dialysis
    A procedure to remove waste products from the blood of patients whose kidneys no longer function.
  188. diuresis
    The increased output of urine.
  189. edema
    Excessive fluid accumulation in body tissues.
  190. enuresis
    The involuntary discharge of urine.
  191. epispadias
    A congenital abnormality affecting the opening of the urethral opening.
  192. extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy
    The use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel to break up kidney stones into fragments, which are then excreted in the urine.
  193. glomerulonephritis
    A form of nephritis caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells and proteins to leak into the urine
  194. hemodialysis
    A procedure that filters waste products directly from the patient's blood to replace the function of damaged kidneys
  195. hydronephrosis
    The dilation of one or both kidneys that is the result of an obstruction of the flow of urine.
  196. hydroureter
    Distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked.
  197. hyperproteinuria
    The presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine.
  198. hypoproteinemia
    The presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood.
  199. hypospadias
    A congenital abnormality in the placement of the urethral opening.
  200. incontinence
    The inability to control the excretion of urine and/or feces.
  201. interstitial cystitis
    A chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder.
  202. nephrolith
    A stone located in the kidney; also known as renal calculus or a kidney stone.
  203. nephrolithiasis
    The presence of a stone or stones in the kidney.
  204. nephrolysis
    The freeing of a kidney from adhesions.
  205. nephrons
    The microscopic functional units of each kidney where urine is produced through the processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
  206. nephropathy
    Any kidney disease including degenerative and inflammatory conditions.
  207. nephroptosis
    The prolapse, or dropping down, of a kidney into the pelvic area when the patient stands; also known as a floating kidney.
  208. nephropyosis
    Suppuration of the kidney.
  209. nephrostomy
    The placement of a catheter to maintain an opening from the pelvis of one or both kidneys to the exterior of the body.
  210. nephrotic syndrome
    A groups of conditions in which excessive amounts of protein are lost in the urine, resulting in abnormally low levels of protein in the blood.
  211. nocturia
    Frequent and excessive urination during the night.
  212. nocturnal enuresis
    Urinary incontinence during sleep.
  213. oliguria
    Scanty urination.
  214. percutaneous nephrolithotomy
    The surgical removal of a nephrolith through a small incision in the back.
  215. peritoneal dialysis
    Dialysis in which the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood
  216. polyuria
    Excessive urination.
  217. pyelotomy
    A surgical incision into the renal pelvis.
  218. suprapubic catheterization
    The placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made in the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone.
  219. uremia
    A toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which urea and other waste products are retained in the blood; also known as uremic poisoning.
  220. ureterectasis
    The distention of a ureter.
  221. ureterolith
    A stone located anywhere along the ureter.
  222. ureterorrhagia
    The discharge of blood from a ureter.
  223. ureterorrhaphy
    The surgical suturing of a ureter.
  224. urethritis
    Inflammation of the urethra.
  225. urethroplasty
    The surgical repair of damage or a defect in the walls of the urethra.
  226. urethrorrhagia
    Bleeding from the urethra.
  227. urethrostenosis
    Narrowing of the urethra.
  228. urethrotomy
    A surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture.
  229. vesicovaginal fistula
    An abnormal opening between the bladder and the vagina.
  230. Wilms tumor
    A rare type of malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children.
  231. acrophobia
    An excessive fear of heights.
  232. Alzheimer’s disease
    A group of disorders involving the parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language.
  233. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    A rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles, resulting in complete paralysis and death;
  234. anesthetic
    Medication used to induce anesthesia.
  235. anorexia nervosa
    A false perception of body appearance which leads to an intense fear of gaining weight and inability to maintain a healthy body weight.
  236. anxiety disorders
    Mental conditions characterized by excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations or fear that is out of proportion to the real danger in a situation.
  237. Bell’s palsy
    Temporary paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve that causes paralysis only on the affected side of the face.
  238. causalgia
    Persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve.
  239. cerebral contusion
    Bruising of brain tissue as a result of a head injury that causes the brain to bounce against the rigid bone of the skull.
  240. cerebral palsy
    A condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects, and other neurologic deficiencies.
  241. cerebrovascular accident
    Damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted; also known as a stroke.
  242. coma
    A deep state of unconsciousness marked by the absence of spontaneous eye movement, no response to painful stimuli, and the lack of speech.
  243. concussion
    A violent shaking up or jarring of the brain that may result in a temporary loss of awareness and function.
  244. cranial hematoma
    A collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain.
  245. delirium
    An acute condition of confusion, disorientation, disordered thinking and memory, agitation, and hallucinations.
  246. delirium tremens
    A disorder involving sudden and severe mental changes or seizures caused by abruptly stopping the use of alcohol
  247. dementia
    A slowly progressive decline in mental abilities--including memory, thinking, and judgment--that is often accompanied by personality changes.
  248. dura mater
    The thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges
  249. encephalitis
    Inflammation of the brain.
  250. epilepsy
    A chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures of varying severities.
  251. factitious disorder
    A condition in which a person acts as if he or she has a physical or mental illness when he or she is not really sick.
  252. hemorrhagic stroke
    Occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks or ruptures;
  253. hydrocephalus
    A condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain.
  254. hyperesthesia
    A condition of abnormal and excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli.
  255. ischemic stroke
    A type of stroke that occurs when the flow of blood to the brain is blocked by the narrowing or blockage of a carotid artery
  256. myelitis
    Inflammation of the spinal cord
  257. Reye’s syndrome
    A potentially serious or deadly disorder in children that is characterized by vomiting and confusion; sometimes follows a viral illness in which the child was treated with aspirin.
  258. sciatica
    Inflammation of the sciatic nerve.
  259. syncope
    The brief loss of consciousness caused by the decreased flow of blood to the brain; also known as fainting.
  260. ametropia
    Any error of refraction in which images do not focus properly on the retina
  261. anisocoria
    A condition in which the pupils are unequal in size.
  262. astigmatism
    A condition in which the eye does not focus properly because of uneven curvatures of the cornea.
  263. audiometry
    The use of an audiometer to measure hearing acuity.
  264. cataract
    The loss of transparency of the lens of the eye that causes a progressive loss of visual clarity.
  265. chalazion
    A nodule or cyst, usually on the upper eyelid, caused by obstruction in a sebaceous gland.
  266. conjunctivitis
    Inflammation of the conjunctiva, usually caused by an infection or allergy; also known as pinkeye.
  267. diplopia
    The perception of two images of a single object; also known as double vision.
  268. ectropion
    The eversion (turning outward) of the edge of an eyelid.
  269. emmetropia
    The normal relationship between the refractive power of the eye and the shape of the eye that that enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina.
  270. entropion
    The inversion (turning inward) of the edge of an eyelid.
  271. esotropia
    Strabismus characterized by an inward deviation of one eye or both eyes; also known as cross-eyes.
  272. exotropia
    Strabismus characterized by the outward deviation of one eye relative to the other; also known as walleye.
  273. glaucoma
    A group of eye diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) that causes damage to the optic nerve and retinal nerve fibers.
  274. hemianopia
    Blindness in one-half of the visual field.
  275. hordeolum
    A pus-filled and often painful lesion on the eyelid resulting from an infection in a sebaceous gland; also known as a stye.
  276. hyperopia
    A vision defect in which light rays focus beyond the retina; also known as farsightedness.
  277. iridectomy
    The surgical removal of a portion of the iris tissue.
  278. iritis
    Inflammation of the uvea affecting primarily structures in the front of the eye.
  279. keratitis
    Inflammation of the cornea.
  280. mydriasis
    The dilation of the pupil.
  281. myopia
    A vision defect in which light rays focus in front of the retina; also known as nearsightedness.
  282. nyctalopia
    A condition in which an individual with normal daytime vision has difficulty seeing at night; also known as night blindness.
  283. nystagmus
    Involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball.
  284. otitis media
    Inflammation of the middle ear.
  285. otomycosis
    A fungal infection of the external auditory canal; also known as swimmer's ear.
  286. otopyorrhea
    The flow of pus from the ear.
  287. otorrhea
    Any discharge from the ear.
  288. papilledema
    Swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye through the optic disk; also known as choked disk.
  289. periorbital edema
    Swelling of the tissues surrounding the eye or eyes.
  290. photophobia
    Excessive sensitivity to light.
  291. presbycusis
    A gradual sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as the body ages.
  292. ptosis
    Drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis
  293. tarsorrhaphy
    The partial or complete suturing together of the upper and lower eyelids
  294. tinnitus
    A ringing, buzzing, or roaring sound in one or both ears
  295. albinism
    A genetic condition characterized by a deficiency or absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and irises due to a missing enzyme necessary for the production of melanin.
  296. alopecia
    The partial or complete loss of hair, most commonly on the scalp; also known as baldness.
  297. blepharoplasty
    Surgical reduction of the upper and lower eyelids by removing sagging skin; also known as a lid lift.
  298. bulla
    A large blister that is usually more than 0.5 cm in diameter
  299. capillary hemangioma
    A soft, raised, pink or red vascular birthmark.
  300. carbuncle
    A cluster of connected furuncles (boils).
  301. cellulitis
    An acute, rapidly spreading infection within the connective tissues.
  302. chloasma
    A pigmentation disorder characterized by brownish spots on the face; also known as melasma or the mask of pregnancy.
  303. cicatrix
    A normal scar resulting from the healing of a wound
  304. comedo
    A noninfected lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle; also known as a blackhead;
  305. debridement
    The removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound to prevent infection and promote healing.
  306. dermatitis
    Inflammation of the skin.
  307. diaphoresis
    Profuse, but not necessarily excessive, sweating.
  308. eczema
    A form of persistent or recurring dermatitis characterized by redness, itching, and dryness with possible blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding.
  309. erythema
    Redness of the skin due to capillary dilation.
  310. erythroderma
    Abnormal redness of the entire skin surface.
  311. exanthem
    Refers to a widespread rash, usually in children.
  312. exfoliative dermatitis
    A condition in which there is widespread scaling of the skin
  313. folliculitis
    Inflammation of the hair follicles that is especially common on the limbs and in the beard area on men.
  314. furuncles
    Large, tender, swollen areas caused by a staphylococcal infection around hair follicles or sebaceous glands; also known as boils.
  315. ranuloma
    A small knotlike swelling of granulation tissue in the epidermis.
  316. hematoma
    A swelling of clotted blood trapped in the tissues.
  317. hirsutism
    Excessive bodily and facial hair in women, usually occurring in a male pattern.
  318. keloid
    An abnormally raised or thickened scar that expands beyond the boundaries of the original incision.
  319. lipoma
    A benign, slow-growing fatty tumor located between the skin and the muscle layer.
  320. macule
    A discolored, flat spot, such as a freckle, that is less than 1 cm in diameter.
  321. malignant melanoma
    A type of skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes.
  322. necrotizing fasciitis
    A severe infection caused by Group A strepbacteria that enters the body through a wound. If untreated, the infected body tissue can be destroyed and the illness may be fatal; also known as flesh-eating bacteria.
  323. onychocryptosis
    Ingrown toenail in which the edges of a toenail curve inward and cut into the skin.
  324. onychomycosis
    A fungal infection of the nail
  325. papilloma
    A benign, superficial, wartlike growth on the epithelial tissue or elsewhere in the body, such as in the bladder.
  326. papule
    A small, raised, red lesion, such as an insect bite, that is less than 0.5 cm in diameter.
  327. paronychia
    An acute or chronic infection of the skin fold around a nail.
  328. pediculosis
    An infestation with lice.
  329. psoriasis
    A common skin disorder characterized by flare-ups in which red papules covered with silvery scales occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, back, or buttocks.
  330. purulent
    Producing or containing pus
  331. rhytidectomy
    The surgical removal of excess skin and fat from the face for the elimination of wrinkles; also known as a facelift.
  332. scleroderma
    An autoimmune disorder in which the connective tissues become thickened and hardened.
  333. tinea
    A fungal infection of the skin, hair, or nails; also known as ringworm.
  334. xeroderma
    Excessively dry skin; also known as xerosis.
  335. Addison’s disease
    A condition that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone
  336. antidiuretic hormone
    The hormone that helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted through the kidneys
  337. Conn’s syndrome
    A disorder of the adrenal glands due to excessive production of aldosterone.
  338. cortisol
    A hormone that has an anti-inflammatory action; it also regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body.
  339. Cushing’s syndrome
    A condition caused by the overproduction of cortisol by the body or by taking corticosteroids to treat inflammatory diseases such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis; also known as hypercortisolism.
  340. diabetes insipidus
    A condition caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  341. diabetes mellitus
    A group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both
  342. electrolytes
    Mineral substances, such as sodium and potassium, normally found in the blood.
  343. epinephrine
    A hormone that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system in response to physical injury or to mental stress such as fear; also known as adrenaline.
  344. exophthalmos
    An abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit.
  345. gigantism
    Abnormal growth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone before puberty.
  346. Graves’ disease
    A disorder of unknown cause in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland and stimulates it to make excessive amounts of thyroid hormone, resulting in hyperthyroidism.
  347. leptin
    A protein hormone secreted by fat cells that is involved in the regulation of appetite.
  348. luteinizing hormone
    The hormone that stimulates ovulation in the female and production of the female sex hormone progesterone. In the male, it stimulates the secretion of testosterone.
  349. myxedema
    A severe form of adult hypothyroidism.
  350. polyphagia
    Excessive hunger.
  351. polydipsia
    Excessive thirst.
  352. polyuria
    Excessive urination.
  353. thymosin
    Hormone secreted by the thymus gland that stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells of the immune system.
  354. azoospermia
    The absence of sperm in the semen.
  355. amniocentesis
    A surgical puncture with a needle to obtain a specimen of amniotic fluid.
  356. chlamydia
    A sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
  357. chorionic villus sampling
    A diagnostic test to search for genetic abnormalities in the developing fetus.
  358. colostrum
    The specialized form of milk that delivers essential nutrients and antibodies in a form that the newborn can digest.
  359. colpopexy
    The surgical fixation of a prolapsed vagina to a surrounding structure
  360. colporrhaphy
    Surgical suturing of a tear in the vagina.
  361. colposcopy
    Direct visual examination of the tissues of the cervix and vagina
  362. dysmenorrhea
    Pain caused by uterine cramps during a menstrual period.
  363. hematospermia
    The presence of blood in the seminal fluid.
  364. hysterectomy
    The surgical removal of the uterus.
  365. mastalgia
    Pain in the breast; also known as mastodynia.
  366. mastopexy
    A surgical procedure to affix sagging breasts into a more elevated position.
  367. nulligravida
    A woman who has never been pregnant.
  368. nullipara
    A woman who has never borne a viable child.
  369. oligomenorrhea
    Infrequent or very light menstruation in a woman with previously normal periods.
  370. oophorectomy
    The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
  371. orchidectomy
    The surgical removal of one or both testicles;
  372. Peyronie’s disease
    A form of sexual dysfunction in which the penis is bent or curved during erection.
  373. priapism
    A painful erection that lasts 4 or more hours and is not accompanied by sexual excitement.
  374. primigravida
    A woman during her first pregnancy.
  375. primipara
    A woman who has borne one viable child.
  376. pruritus vulvae
    Severe itching of the external female genitalia.
  377. varicocele
    A knot of widening varicose veins in one side of the scrotum.
  378. vasovasostomy
    A procedure performed as an attempt to restore fertility to a vasectomized male; also known as a vasectomy reversal

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Author:
st2478
ID:
333578
Filename:
Final Exam Terms
Updated:
2017-08-19 06:19:53
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final
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MedTerm
Description:
unit 3,4,5
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