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What parts make up the CNS?
What parts make up the PNS
- Cranial Nerves
- Spinal Nerves
- Enteric NS
- Sensory Receptors
Where are Purkinje cells located?
Where are pyramidal cells located?
How many pairs of cranial nerves?
How many pairs of spinal nerves?
What are the 4 glial cells? CNS
Astrocytes help how?
Restricts movement of substances through blood brain barrier
Oligodendrocytes help how?
Myelination in the CNS
Microglia help how?
Brain macrophages, clean up debris
Ependymal cells help how?
What are the 2 glial cells? PNS
Schwann cells do what?
Myelinate as one axon in segments in internodes
Satelite cells do what?
Support and nourish the cells in the ganglia
- Not electrically excitable
- Make up half the volume of the NS
- Can multiply and Divide
- 6 kinds (4 CNS, 2 PNS)
Hyperpolarizing and Depolarizing
- Sodium going in = hyperpolarizing (IPSP)
- Potassium going in = depolarizing (EPSP)
Nodes of Ranvier
Where no myelin is present and makes AP jump from one node to the next
Factors that effect propogation in AP?
- Axon diameter
- Amount of myelination
Gap junctions allow cells to connect and transfer information to synchronize the activity of a group of cells
One way transfer of information from a presynaptic neuron to a postsynaptic neuron
Can mature neurons replicate?
Where is anesthesia given?
In the epidural space
Can the brain modulate spinal reflexes?
What is propioception?
The unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation
What is ducussation?
What is spatial summation?
Releasing all at once to generate an AP
What is temporal summation?
Releasing each bulb to increase frequency which eventually add up to generate an AP
AP vs GP
- AP=voltage gated, 100mv, refractory period
- GP=ligand gated, 1-50mv, no refractory
Removal of Neurotransmitter
- Enzymatic degradation
- Uptake into cell
Repair of PNS
- Wallerian degeneration
- Formation of a regeneration tube
Repair in CNS
- Not possible
- Rapid formation of scar tissue
- Inhibitory influences from neruglia
- Absence of growth stimulating cures
The capability to change based on experience
Meninges in order from deepest to farthest out?
- Pia Mater
- Arachnoid Mater
- Dura Mater
Roots from the spinal cord, near the end of the spinal cord, reaching down to sacrum
Nerves in Spinal Nerves
- Cranial Nerves-8
- Thoracic Nerves-12
- Lumbar Nerves-5
- Sacral Nerves-5
- Coccygeal Nerves-1
- Medulla oblongata
Certain segments of skin that are supplied by spinal nerves that carry somatic sensory nerve impulses to the brain
Spinal nerves have what covering them?
- Connective tissue
Cervical Plexus Important Nerves? (Deep Branches)
- Ansa Cervicalis-Divides into superior and inferior roots
Cervical Plexus Roots?
Brachial Plexus Roots?
Lumbar Plexus Roots?
Sacral Plexus Roots?
Brachial Plexus Branches #1
Musculocutaneous-Coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, and brachialis muscles.
Brachial Plexus Branches #2
Axillary-Deltoid and teres minor muscles; skin over deltoid and superior posterior aspect of arm.
Brachial Plexus Branches #3
Radial-Triceps brachii, anconeus, and extensor muscles of forearm; skin of posterior arm and forearm, lateral two-thirds of dorsum of hand, and fingers over proximal and middle phalanges.
Brachial Plexus Branches #4
Median-Flexors of forearm, except flexor carpi ulnaris; ulnar half of flexor digitorum profundus, and some muscles of hand (lateral palm); skin of lateral two-thirds of palm of hand and fingers.
Brachial Plexus Branches #5
Flexor carpi ulnaris, ulnar half of flexor digitorum profundus, and most muscles of hand; skin of medial side of hand, little finger, and medial half of ring finger.
Lumbar Branches #1
Femoral-Largest nerve arising from lumbar plexus; distributed to flexor muscles of hip joint and extensor muscles of knee joint, skin over anterior and medial aspect of thigh and medial side of leg and foot.
Lumbar Branches #2
Obturator-Adductor muscles of hip joint; skin over medial aspect of thigh.
Sacral Main Nerve
Sciatic-Actually two nerves—tibial and common fibular—bound together by common sheath of connective tissue; splits into its two divisions, usually at the knee. As sciatic nerve descends through thigh, it sends branches to hamstring muscles and adductor magnus.
Sacral Side Nerves #1
Tibial-Gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus, popliteus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus muscles. Branches of tibial nerve in foot are medial plantar nerve and lateral plantar nerve.
Sacral Side Nerves #2
Common fibular-Divides into superficial fibular and deep fibular branch.
Branches of Tibial Nerve #1
Medial Plantar-Abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and flexor hallucis brevis muscles; skin over medial two-thirds of plantar surface of foot.
Branches of Tibial Nerve #2
Lateral Plantar-Remaining muscles of foot not supplied by medial plantar nerve; skin over lateral third of plantar surface of foot
Branches of Common fibular #1
Superficial fibular-Fibularis longus and fibularis brevis muscles; skin over distal third of anterior aspect of leg and dorsum of foot.
Branches of Common fibular #2
Deep fibular-Tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, fibularis tertius, and extensor digitorum longus and extensor digitorum brevis muscles; skin on adjacent sides of great and second toes.
Sacral Plexus other Nerve
Pudendal-Muscles of perineum; skin of penis and scrotum in male and clitoris, labia majora, labia minora, and vagina in female.
Regulates? temperature, pain, taste, and tickle
Simultaneously cause contraction of one muscle and relaxation of its antagonists
Paralysis of one limb
Paralysis of both upper limbs or both lower limbs
Paralysis of both lower limbs
Paralysis of the upper limb, trunk, and lower limb on one side of the body
Paralysis of all four limbs
Or association neurons are located in the CNS and are multipolar in structure