Chapter 12/13 Test

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  1. What parts make up the CNS?
    • Brain
    • Spinal Cord
  2. What parts make up the PNS
    • Cranial Nerves
    • Spinal Nerves
    • Enteric NS
    • Sensory Receptors
  3. Where are Purkinje cells located?
  4. Where are pyramidal cells located?
    Cerebral Cortex
  5. How many pairs of cranial nerves?
  6. How many pairs of spinal nerves?
  7. What are the 4 glial cells? CNS
    • Astrocytes
    • Oligodendrocytes
    • Microglia
    • Ependymal
  8. Astrocytes help how?
    Restricts movement of substances through blood brain barrier
  9. Oligodendrocytes help how?
    Myelination in the CNS
  10. Microglia help how?
    Brain macrophages, clean up debris
  11. Ependymal cells help how?
    Make CSF
  12. What are the 2 glial cells? PNS
    • Schwann
    • Satelite
  13. Schwann cells do what?
    Myelinate as one axon in segments in internodes
  14. Satelite cells do what?
    Support and nourish the cells in the ganglia
  15. Neuroglia facts.
    • Not electrically excitable
    • Make up half the volume of the NS
    • Can multiply and Divide
    • 6 kinds (4 CNS, 2 PNS)
  16. Hyperpolarizing and Depolarizing
    • Sodium going in = hyperpolarizing (IPSP)
    • Potassium going in = depolarizing (EPSP)
  17. Nodes of Ranvier
    Where no myelin is present and makes AP jump from one node to the next
  18. Factors that effect propogation in AP?
    • Axon diameter
    • Amount of myelination
    • Temperature
  19. Electrical Synapse
    Gap junctions allow cells to connect and transfer information to synchronize the activity of a group of cells
  20. Chemical Synapse
    One way transfer of information from a presynaptic neuron to a postsynaptic neuron
  21. Can mature neurons replicate?
  22. Where is anesthesia given?
    In the epidural space
  23. Can the brain modulate spinal reflexes?
  24. What is propioception?
    The unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation
  25. What is ducussation?
    Crossing over
  26. What is spatial summation?
    Releasing all at once to generate an AP
  27. What is temporal summation?
    Releasing each bulb to increase frequency which eventually add up to generate an AP
  28. AP vs GP
    • AP=voltage gated, 100mv, refractory period
    • GP=ligand gated, 1-50mv, no refractory
  29. Removal of Neurotransmitter
    • Diffusion
    • Enzymatic degradation
    • Uptake into cell
  30. Repair of PNS
    • Chromatolysis
    • Wallerian degeneration
    • Formation of a regeneration tube
  31. Repair in CNS
    • Not possible
    • Rapid formation of scar tissue
    • Inhibitory influences from neruglia
    • Absence of growth stimulating cures
  32. Plasticity
    The capability to change based on experience
  33. Meninges in order from deepest to farthest out?
    • Pia Mater
    • Arachnoid Mater
    • Dura Mater
  34. Cauda equina
    Roots from the spinal cord, near the end of the spinal cord, reaching down to sacrum
  35. Nerves in Spinal Nerves
    • Cranial Nerves-8
    • Thoracic Nerves-12
    • Lumbar Nerves-5
    • Sacral Nerves-5
    • Coccygeal Nerves-1
    • Medulla oblongata
    • Dermatomes
  36. Dermatomes
    Certain segments of skin that are supplied by spinal nerves that carry somatic sensory nerve impulses to the brain
  37. Spinal nerves have what covering them?
    • Connective tissue
    • Endoneurium
    • Perineurium
    • Epineurium
  38. Cervical Plexus Important Nerves? (Deep Branches)
    • Phrenic-Diaphragm
    • Ansa Cervicalis-Divides into superior and inferior roots
  39. Cervical Plexus Roots?
  40. Brachial Plexus Roots?
  41. Lumbar Plexus Roots?
  42. Sacral Plexus Roots?
  43. Brachial Plexus Branches #1
    Musculocutaneous-Coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, and brachialis muscles.
  44. Brachial Plexus Branches #2
    Axillary-Deltoid and teres minor muscles; skin over deltoid and superior posterior aspect of arm.
  45. Brachial Plexus Branches #3
    Radial-Triceps brachii, anconeus, and extensor muscles of forearm; skin of posterior arm and forearm, lateral two-thirds of dorsum of hand, and fingers over proximal and middle phalanges.
  46. Brachial Plexus Branches #4
    Median-Flexors of forearm, except flexor carpi ulnaris; ulnar half of flexor digitorum profundus, and some muscles of hand (lateral palm); skin of lateral two-thirds of palm of hand and fingers.
  47. Brachial Plexus Branches #5
    Flexor carpi ulnaris, ulnar half of flexor digitorum profundus, and most muscles of hand; skin of medial side of hand, little finger, and medial half of ring finger.
  48. Cords of Brachial Plexus
    • Posterior
    • Lateral
    • Medial
  49. Lumbar Branches #1
    Femoral-Largest nerve arising from lumbar plexus; distributed to flexor muscles of hip joint and extensor muscles of knee joint, skin over anterior and medial aspect of thigh and medial side of leg and foot.
  50. Lumbar Branches #2
    Obturator-Adductor muscles of hip joint; skin over medial aspect of thigh.
  51. Sacral Main Nerve
    Sciatic-Actually two nerves—tibial and common fibular—bound together by common sheath of connective tissue; splits into its two divisions, usually at the knee. As sciatic nerve descends through thigh, it sends branches to hamstring muscles and adductor magnus.
  52. Sacral Side Nerves #1
    Tibial-Gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus, popliteus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus muscles. Branches of tibial nerve in foot are medial plantar nerve and lateral plantar nerve.
  53. Sacral Side Nerves #2
    Common fibular-Divides into superficial fibular and deep fibular branch.
  54. Branches of Tibial Nerve #1
    Medial Plantar-Abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and flexor hallucis brevis muscles; skin over medial two-thirds of plantar surface of foot.
  55. Branches of Tibial Nerve #2
    Lateral Plantar-Remaining muscles of foot not supplied by medial plantar nerve; skin over lateral third of plantar surface of foot
  56. Branches of Common fibular #1
    Superficial fibular-Fibularis longus and fibularis brevis muscles; skin over distal third of anterior aspect of leg and dorsum of foot.
  57. Branches of Common fibular #2
    Deep fibular-Tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, fibularis tertius, and extensor digitorum longus and extensor digitorum brevis muscles; skin on adjacent sides of great and second toes.
  58. Sacral Plexus other Nerve
    Pudendal-Muscles of perineum; skin of penis and scrotum in male and clitoris, labia majora, labia minora, and vagina in female.
  59. Spinothelamic
    Regulates? temperature, pain, taste, and tickle
  60. Reciprocal Innervation
    Simultaneously cause contraction of one muscle and relaxation of its antagonists
  61. Monoplegia
    Paralysis of one limb
  62. Diplegia
    Paralysis of both upper limbs or both lower limbs
  63. Paraplegia
    Paralysis of both lower limbs
  64. Hemiplegia
    Paralysis of the upper limb, trunk, and lower limb on one side of the body
  65. Quadriplegia
    Paralysis of all four limbs
  66. Interneurons
    Or association neurons are located in the CNS and are multipolar in structure
Card Set:
Chapter 12/13 Test
2017-08-29 20:13:03

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