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What are the changes needed for shunts to close properly? 3
- Increase in blood oxygen levels
- Shift in pressure in the heart and lungs
- Closing of the umbilical vessels
When the baby's lungs inflate to cause pressure decrease in the pulmonary artery, it causes this shunt to close.
Pressure increase in the left side of the heart causes this shunt to close
What are the hazards of cold stress?
Increased oxygen need leads to respiratory distress, leading to metabolic acidosis
What happens during metabolism of brown fat
- When brown fats are metabolized in the presence of insufficient O2 supply, increased acid production will result.
- Acidosis can be life threatening, and can interfere with transport of bilirubin to the liver, increasing risk of jaundice
Fill in Normal Vital statistics:
- 1. Weight: 5.5 lbs to 8 lbs (1 lb = 454 grams)
- 2. Length: 19-21 inches (1 inch = 2.54 cm)
- 3. Head: 13-14 inches
- 4. Chest: 1 inch less than head
T or F: a newborn baby's heart rate could be irregular
True d/t immaturity
What is normal BP of newborn?
80/46 (not routinely measured; may be inaccurate)
T or F: Bilirubin will be low in the first week of being born
False: will be high in first week (12mg/dl) from destruction of unneeded RBCs
What is RDS in newborns? What causes it?
Neonatal respiratory distres syndrome, often seen in premature babies.
- Causes: occurs in infants whose lungs have not yet fully developed.
- Lack of substance in lungs called surfactant, which helps lungs fill with air and keep the air sacs from deflating.
What are some tx options for RDS?
- warm, moist O2, blow-by
How much urine should you see the first 2 days? first week?
- First two days: 30-60 ml/day
- First Week: 300 ml/day by first week
T or F: Uric acid crystals in newborn urine is common
What is another name for the startle reflex?
What is normal physiologic range of jaundice?
What is a higher amount that would need phototherapy? How much that could cause Kernicterus (brain damage d/t Jaundice)?
- Normal: >7mg/100mL
- Phototherapy needed: 10-12mg/dl, sometimes 15-17
- Kernicterus: 20mg/dl
What is vernix caseosa? (hint: appears as a white/ cheese-like substance)
Protective layer on the baby's skin. Developed on the baby's skin while in the womb.
Match term with definition:
1. an edema of the scalp at the neonate’s presenting part of the head. It often appears over the vertex of the newborn’s head as a result of pressure against the mother’s cervix during labor.
2. a collection of blood between the periosteum of a skull bone and the bone itself. It occurs in one or both sides of the head. It occasionally forms over the occipital bone.
b. Caput Succedaneum
What is choanal atresia? (Hint: choana = back of the nasal passage)
a congenital disorder where the back of the nasal passage (choana) is blocked, usually by abnormal bony or sift tissue.
How can choanal atresia be temporarily treated?
Inserting an NPA. Surgery might be needed.
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