Dental Anatomy

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Author:
sthomp88
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33387
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Dental Anatomy
Updated:
2010-12-12 00:07:19
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Chapter fifteen
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Description:
Overview of dentitions
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  1. Dentition
    general arrangement of the natural teeth in the jawbone
  2. Primary dentition
    • 1st dentition
    • 20 baby teeth
    • decicous dentition (exfoliated/shed)
  3. Second dentition
    • permanent dentition
    • secondary dentition
    • succadaneous dentiton
  4. Incisors
    biting and cutting food during mastacian
  5. canines
    pierce or tear food
  6. premolars
    assist molars in grinding and assist canines in tearing during mastacian
  7. molars
    grind food during mastacian
  8. clinical consideration for tooth type
    the goal for the clinician in restoring teeth is to get the teeth to their proper shape, because maintaining toothe shape=maintaining tooth function
  9. Universal system for tooth designation
    used most in the U.S. becuase it is adaptable to electronic data transfer. Observed as though facing pt.
  10. Primary teeth in universal system
    • Max. Jaw= A-J from pt. right-left
    • Mand. Jaw= K-T from pt. left-right
  11. Permanent teeth in universal system
    • Max. Jaw= 1-16 from pt. right-left
    • Mand. Jaw= 17-32 from pt. left-right
  12. International standards organization (ISO)
    or
    Federation dentitaire internationale's system (FDI)
    system used internationally and also used by World Health Organization. Observed as though facing pt.
  13. ISO or FDI use a ______ code.
    2 digit
  14. What are the 2 digits used in the FDI or ISO?
    • 1st digit= quadrant
    • 2nd digit= tooth

    • permanent teeth go from 1-8 from midline-distal
    • primary teeth go from 1-5 from midline-distal
  15. Palmer method
    commonly used in orthodontics. observed as though facing pt.
  16. Palmer method design
    designated with a right angle representing the quadrant, and the number or letter of tooth in that quadrant
  17. permanent 1-8 from midline-distal
    primary a-e from midline-distal
  18. Primary dentition period
    • starts with eruption of first tooth, and ends with eruption of first permanent tooth
    • between 6 months-6 yrs
  19. What is usually the first primary tooth to erupt?
    mandibular central incisors
  20. What is usually the first permanent tooth to erupt?
    mandibular 1st molar
  21. Describe the jawbone during primary dentition period
    it is growing to accomodate more teeth
  22. Mixed dentition
    starts with eruption of first permanent tooth (usually mandibular first molar) and ends with shedding of last primary tooth. from about 6 yr.-12 yr.
  23. Describe the jawbone during the mixed dentition period.
    it is growing the most in this stage, thus it is a good stage for braces.
  24. Why are primary teeth whiter than permanent teeth?
    primary teeth have more enamel and less dentin. Permanent teeth are reversed.
  25. Do females or males typically loose their primary teeth faster?
    females
  26. Ugly duckling stage
    clinical consideration of mixed dentition stage because the teeth are all different sizes and colors
  27. gingiva during mixed dentition stage
    inflammed gums caused by temporary crowding of teeth and edentulous
  28. Juvenlie periodontitis
    bone loss around molars and mandibular anterior teeth as young as 10 years old.
  29. Oral hygiene during mixed dentition stage
    poor due to biofilm retention. Pt.s at this age and stage need to be well educated on how to take care of their teeth
  30. Permanent dentition stage
    starts at shedding of last baby tooth. about 12 yrs. teeth usually errupt in pairs
  31. How can you tell if teeth are congenitally missing? Or impacted?
    pano
  32. Alveolus/alveoli
    tooth socket
  33. alveolar process
    tooth bearing portion of each jawbone
  34. occlusion
    the way the teeth of the mandibular arch come in contact with the teeth of the maxillary arch. Also describes anatomical alignment of teeth and their relationship with the rest of the teeth
  35. Anterior teeth
    incisors and canines
  36. posterior teeth
    molars and premolars
  37. sextants
    instead of 4 quads, use 6 sections 2 sets of molars on right side, 2 sets of anterior teeth, and 2 sets of molars on left side
  38. Cementoenamal junction (CEJ)
    an external line at the neck or cervix of the tooth, an area where the enamal of the crown, and cementum of the root come close to meeting
  39. What are the 3 ways the enamel and cementum may meet? and the percentage of which they do?
    • overlapping= 60%
    • edge to edge= 30%
    • gap between= 10%
  40. Anatomical Crown
    portion of tooth covered by enamal. Most constant over tooth life, except in cases of attrition where teeth have been physically grownd down
  41. clinical crown
    portion of tooth you can see above gums (it changes with the gingival level)
  42. Anatomical root
    portion covered by cementum
  43. clinical root
    portion of root that is visible (varies over time and age)
  44. Where is the root of tooth the widest?
    widest at CEJ and taper towards apex
  45. Is the root of the tooth bulkier on the facial and buccal side? Or lingual side?
    facial and buccal side
  46. On what side does the root taper?
    lingual side
  47. Root axis line
    imaginary line representing the long axis of the tooth. It helps determine angulation during instrumentation
  48. endoscopy
    samll camera showing root surface, helpful in perio
  49. facial surface
    close to face
  50. labial surface
    close to lips (anterior)
  51. buccal
    close to cheecks (buccal)
  52. lingual/palatal
    tongue side
  53. incisal/occlusal
    biting surface
  54. mesial
    surface closest to midlin
  55. distal
    surface farthest from midline
  56. proximal
    mesial and distal surface between adjacent teeth
  57. interproximal space
    area between adjacent tooth surfaces
  58. contact
    proximal surface where adjacent teeth touch
  59. height of contour
    contact area on a specific crown surface which is the greatest elevation of tooth (mesial distal contact)
  60. proximal CEJ curvature
    • greatest on anterior teeth-least on posterior teeth.
    • greater on mesial than distal of tooth
    • helps distinguish left from right on extracted teeth
  61. embrasure
    triangular spaced shape between 2 teeth continuous with the interproximal space
  62. line angles
    formed by junction of 2 crown surfaces
  63. point angle
    formed by the junction of 3 crown surfaces
  64. Crown thirds
    • horizontally= cervical, middle, incisal/occlusal
    • vertically= mesial, middle, distal
  65. Root thirds
    horizontally= cervical, middle, apical
  66. Describe the naming sequence
    • mesial precedes distal - mesiodistal
    • mesial and distal precede all other terms
    • labial, buccal, lingual, follow mesial and distal, but precede incisal and occlusal

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