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general arrangement of the natural teeth in the jawbone
- 1st dentition
- 20 baby teeth
- decicous dentition (exfoliated/shed)
- permanent dentition
- secondary dentition
- succadaneous dentiton
biting and cutting food during mastacian
pierce or tear food
assist molars in grinding and assist canines in tearing during mastacian
grind food during mastacian
clinical consideration for tooth type
the goal for the clinician in restoring teeth is to get the teeth to their proper shape, because maintaining toothe shape=maintaining tooth function
Universal system for tooth designation
used most in the U.S. becuase it is adaptable to electronic data transfer. Observed as though facing pt.
Primary teeth in universal system
- Max. Jaw= A-J from pt. right-left
- Mand. Jaw= K-T from pt. left-right
Permanent teeth in universal system
- Max. Jaw= 1-16 from pt. right-left
- Mand. Jaw= 17-32 from pt. left-right
International standards organization (ISO)
Federation dentitaire internationale's system (FDI)
system used internationally and also used by World Health Organization. Observed as though facing pt.
ISO or FDI use a ______ code.
What are the 2 digits used in the FDI or ISO?
- 1st digit= quadrant
- 2nd digit= tooth
- permanent teeth go from 1-8 from midline-distal
- primary teeth go from 1-5 from midline-distal
commonly used in orthodontics. observed as though facing pt.
Palmer method design
designated with a right angle representing the quadrant, and the number or letter of tooth in that quadrant
permanent 1-8 from midline-distal
primary a-e from midline-distal
Primary dentition period
- starts with eruption of first tooth, and ends with eruption of first permanent tooth
- between 6 months-6 yrs
What is usually the first primary tooth to erupt?
mandibular central incisors
What is usually the first permanent tooth to erupt?
mandibular 1st molar
Describe the jawbone during primary dentition period
it is growing to accomodate more teeth
starts with eruption of first permanent tooth (usually mandibular first molar) and ends with shedding of last primary tooth. from about 6 yr.-12 yr.
Describe the jawbone during the mixed dentition period.
it is growing the most in this stage, thus it is a good stage for braces.
Why are primary teeth whiter than permanent teeth?
primary teeth have more enamel and less dentin. Permanent teeth are reversed.
Do females or males typically loose their primary teeth faster?
Ugly duckling stage
clinical consideration of mixed dentition stage because the teeth are all different sizes and colors
gingiva during mixed dentition stage
inflammed gums caused by temporary crowding of teeth and edentulous
bone loss around molars and mandibular anterior teeth as young as 10 years old.
Oral hygiene during mixed dentition stage
poor due to biofilm retention. Pt.s at this age and stage need to be well educated on how to take care of their teeth
Permanent dentition stage
starts at shedding of last baby tooth. about 12 yrs. teeth usually errupt in pairs
How can you tell if teeth are congenitally missing? Or impacted?
tooth bearing portion of each jawbone
the way the teeth of the mandibular arch come in contact with the teeth of the maxillary arch. Also describes anatomical alignment of teeth and their relationship with the rest of the teeth
incisors and canines
molars and premolars
instead of 4 quads, use 6 sections 2 sets of molars on right side, 2 sets of anterior teeth, and 2 sets of molars on left side
Cementoenamal junction (CEJ)
an external line at the neck or cervix of the tooth, an area where the enamal of the crown, and cementum of the root come close to meeting
What are the 3 ways the enamel and cementum may meet? and the percentage of which they do?
- overlapping= 60%
- edge to edge= 30%
- gap between= 10%
portion of tooth covered by enamal. Most constant over tooth life, except in cases of attrition where teeth have been physically grownd down
portion of tooth you can see above gums (it changes with the gingival level)
portion covered by cementum
portion of root that is visible (varies over time and age)
Where is the root of tooth the widest?
widest at CEJ and taper towards apex
Is the root of the tooth bulkier on the facial and buccal side? Or lingual side?
facial and buccal side
On what side does the root taper?
Root axis line
imaginary line representing the long axis of the tooth. It helps determine angulation during instrumentation
samll camera showing root surface, helpful in perio
close to face
close to lips (anterior)
close to cheecks (buccal)
surface closest to midlin
surface farthest from midline
mesial and distal surface between adjacent teeth
area between adjacent tooth surfaces
proximal surface where adjacent teeth touch
height of contour
contact area on a specific crown surface which is the greatest elevation of tooth (mesial distal contact)
proximal CEJ curvature
- greatest on anterior teeth-least on posterior teeth.
- greater on mesial than distal of tooth
- helps distinguish left from right on extracted teeth
triangular spaced shape between 2 teeth continuous with the interproximal space
formed by junction of 2 crown surfaces
formed by the junction of 3 crown surfaces
- horizontally= cervical, middle, incisal/occlusal
- vertically= mesial, middle, distal
horizontally= cervical, middle, apical
Describe the naming sequence
- mesial precedes distal - mesiodistal
- mesial and distal precede all other terms
- labial, buccal, lingual, follow mesial and distal, but precede incisal and occlusal
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