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How are Rhone Valley AOCs categorized?
Those that can produce regional Cotes du Rhone AOC wines and those that cannot
T or F? Indication Geographicque Protegee (IGP) wines can be made throughout the entire Rhone Valley
True, though IGP falls below both categories of AOC wines
What is the Cotes du Rhone zone of production?
- All Northern Rhone Crus (which excludes the Diois) plus
- Southern Rhone AOCs that can produce regional Cotes du Rhone wines
List the production areas(ha) and volume(hl) of AOCs in the Rhone Valley
- Rhone Valley: 70,014 ha, 2,519,136 hl
- Regional CDR: 31,926 ha (46%), 1,205,746 hl (48%)
- CDRV: 9,201 ha (13%), 301,119 hl (12%) -- includes CDRV-named villages
- CDRV-named village: 5,822 ha (8%), 184,866 hl (7%)
- Northern Crus: 3,513 ha (5%), 122,886 hl (5%)
- Southern Crus/VDNs: 9,972 ha (14%), 270,784 hl (11%)
- Other AOCs: 15,402 ha (22%), 618,601 hl (25%)
- Source: InterRhone 2013, RV AOCs = Regional CDR + CDRV + Crus/VDNs + Other AOCs
Name the 5 AOCs that produce 75% of all Rhone Valley wines
- Cotes du Rhone: CDR regional AOC
- Cotes du Rhone Villages: 95 villages in the Southern Rhone
- Cote du Rhone Villages - Named Village: 20 CDRV villages as of 2016
- Crus: 17 (including 2 VDN; Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise and Beaumes-de-Venise are different AOCs)
- Vins Doux Naturels: Rasteau AOC (red, white, rose) and Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise AOC (mainly white)
What is the maximum yield for VDN?
Max: 25 hl/ha, 1.5 tons/acre
Describe Vins Doux Naturels (VDN) wine
- 5-10% by volume of neutral grape alcohol (min 96% abv) is added to stop fermentation when sugar content is 252 g/l.
- The finished wine has abv 15-21.5% and RS min 45g/l
When was mutage discovered?
In 1285 by Arnau de Vilanova, a director of the University of Montpellier and a doctor at the court of Majorca
T or F? Muscat of Beaumes-de-Venise was originally a non-vintage non-fortified sweet wine
True, but all are fortified today and most of these bear a vintage.
T or F? Muscat de Baumes de Venise may be made from a white or a black grapes
True BUT this is a trick question. It may be made only from Muscat à Petits Grains, but the grape skins may be either golden (blanc) or dark (noir). The golden version predominates in the vineyards, but the local cooperative does make a rose version.
Describe the saignée (say "sonyay") method of rosé production
Bleeding off the juice after limited contact with the skins; the remaining wine can still be made into a red wine.
Name the 7 Southern Rhone AOCs and the 4 Diois AOCs that produce 25% of all Rhone Valley wines (but are outside of the CDR zone)
- Cotes du Vivarais
- Grignan-les-Adhemar (before 2010 named Coteaux du Tricastin)
- Ventoux (before 2008 named Cotes du Ventoux)
- Luberon (before 2008 named Cotes du Luberon)
- Clairette de Bellegarde
- Costieres de Nimes
- Duche d'Uzes
- Clairette de Die (sparkling)
- Cremant de Die (sparkling)
- Coteaux de Die (still)
- Chatillon en Diois (still)
T or F? 95% of the CDR AOC wine is produced in the Southern Rhone
Why is so little CDR wine produced in the Northern Rhone?
Northern Rhone vineyards may use more prestigious AOCs
T or F? After Bordeaux, CDR produces more wine than any other AOC in France
Name 2010 statistics for the CDR
- Production: 1.4m hl (15.5m cases) = 68% Les Cotes du Rhone (50% Rhone Valley)
- Red/Rose/White: 89%, 8%, 3%
- Producers: 1282 (81% of Rhone Valley)
- Coops: 67 (70% of Rhone Valley)
- Vineyards: 86,450 acres (35,000 ha)
- Max yield: 3.06 tons/acre (51 hl/ha)
- Ave yield: 2.4 tons/acre (40 hl/ha)
- Min ABV%: 11% (red, white, rose)
Distinguish La Cote de Rhone, Les Cotes du Rhone, CDR, CDRV, CDRV-Named VIllages, Crus, and the Rhone Valley
- La Cote du Rhone (1600s): name of a district in the Vicariate of Uzes
- CDR (1650): name of wines produced in La Cote du Rhone
- Les Cotes du Rhone (1800s): name of region from Vienne to Avignon on both banks
- CDR (today): regional AOC for Les Cotes du Rhone region
- CDRV, CDRV-Named Villages, and the Crus are AOCs also within the CDR region
Are CDR zone, CDR region, and Les Cotes du Rhone region the same thing?
Name the AOCs and % production within Les Cotes du Rhone region
- CDR: 69%
- CDRV: 5%
- CDRV-Named Villages: 9%
- Crus: 17% (including 1% for VDNs)
What are the wines from Les Cotes du Rhone that hail from the *Northern Rhone* called?
- CDR Septentrionales (translation: Northern, "sep-tan-trionale")
- North of the town of Montelimar
What are the wines from Les Cotes du Rhone that hail from the *Southern Rhone* called?
- CDR Meridionales (translation: Southern, "merry-du-nal")
- South of the town of Montelimar
Describe the cepages for red or rose CDR wines:
- min 40%: Grenache
- other varieties: max %
- max 5%: white varieties
- max 60%: Sryah and/or Mourvedre
- max 30%: Together or separately: Carignan, Cinsault, Counoise, Muscardin, Vaccarese, Piquepoul Noir, Terret, Grenache Gris, Clairette Rose
Can a CDR Septentrionales be 100% Grenache?
No because no Grenache is grown in the North
Can a CDR Septentrionales be 100% Syrah?
Yes (because blend refers to % grapes in the ground, not in the bottle)
Can a CDR Meridionales be 100% Grenache?
Describe the cepages for white CDR wines:
- 80%: Blend of Grenache Blanc, Clairette, Marsanne, Roussanne, Bourboulenc, Viognier
- max 20%: Other Grapes (Ugni Blanc, Piquepoul Blanc)
Can a CDR be 100% Viognier?
No. It would be declassified to an IGP or a Vin de France
How many villages can produce CDRV?
95, all located in the Southern Rhone
How does CDRV differ from CDR?
- Superior terrain and meso-climates resulting in consistently more complex, higher quality wine
- More stringent production standards
- Expected to exhibit more distinct and concentrated flavors and aromas
- Expected to age longer
Name 2010 statistics for CDRV
- Production: hl (cases)
- Red/Rose/White: 98%/%/% (some villages only produce red wine)
- Vineyards: 10,342 acres (4187 ha) dedicated to CDRV
- Max yield: 2.64 tons/acre (44 hl/ha)
- Ave yield: 1.98 tons/acre (33 hl/ha)
- Min ABV%: 12%
Can CDRV wines be made from a single variety?
- No, unlike CDR which can be 100% Syrah (if North of Montelimar) or 100% Grenache (if South of Montelimar)
- By law Syrah and/or Mourvedre must be added to Grenache (and often many others)
Describe CDRV wines
- Red: medium to full-bodies, layered and structured; remarkable value
- Rose: ripe berry fruit, good acidity, no residual sugar
- White: good acidity and minerality
Describe the cepages for red CDRV wines
- min 50%: Grenache
- min 20%: Syrah and/or Morvedre
- max 20%: any mix of other red varieties allowed in CDR
Describe the cepages for rose CDRV wines:
- min 50%: Grenache
- min 20%: Syrah and/or Morvedre
- max 20%: any mix of other red varieties allowed in CDR (Carignan, Cinsault, Counoise, Muscardin, Camerese, Vaccarese, Picpoul Noir, Terret Noir, Grenace Gris, Clairette Rose)
- max 20%: any mix of white varieties allowed in CDR
Describe the cepages for white CDRV wines:
- min 80%: any mix of Grenache Blanc, Clairette, Marsanne, Roussanne, Bourboulenc Blanc, Viogner
- max 20%: any mix of other whites (Ugni Blanc, Picpoul Blanc)
What names are CDRV-Named Villages also known as?
- Cotes du Rhone Villages with Geographical Names
- Cotes du Rhone Villages with Commplementary Geographical Denominations (DGC)
How many villages can produce CDRV-Named Villages?
- 17 as of 2010 but 3 added in 2016 (highlighted in bold in next question).
- 20 (included within the 95 CDRV) as of 2016
Name the 20 CDRV-Named Villages, N-S by department, and state which make red wine only (R)
- Gard (4): Saint-Gervais, Chusclan, Laudun, Signargues(R)
- Drome (5): Rousset-les-Vignes, Saint-Pantaleon-les-Vignes, Saint-Maurice, Suze la Rousse(R), Rouchegude
- Vaucluse (11): Valreas, Visan, Vaison-la-Romaine(R), Puymeras(R), Roaix, Sainte-Cecile(R), Seguret, Sablet, Massif d'Uchaux(R), Plan de Dieu(R), Gadagne(R)
Name the northernmost village of the CDR named villages
Rousset-les-Vignes: 44°25'08" N
Name the southernmost village of the CDR named villages
- Signargues: 44°16'48" N (this is what the book says)
- Gadagne: 43°55'56" N (this looks correct)
How does CDRV-Named Villages differ from CDRV?
- Villages (zones of production) awarded their own AOC can appear on the label after CDRV
- Reds have higher min ABV (12.5%)
Are the red/rose/white blends the same for CDRV and CDRV-Named Village wines?
Name 2010 statistics for CDRV-Named Village
- Production: hl (cases)
- Red/Rose/White: 98%/%/% (some villages only produce red wine)
- Vineyards: 13,500 acres (5463 ha) dedicated to CDRV
- Max yield: 2.46 tons/acre (41 hl/ha)
- Ave yield: 1.98 tons/acre (33 hl/ha)
- Min ABV%: 12.5% (red), 12% (rose, white)
Will "Cotes du Rhone" appear on the label of a Cru?
How many Crus are in the Northern and Southern Rhone?
- North (septentrionaux): 8
- South (meridionaux): 9
When did the 17 Crus reach AOC status?
- Chateau-Grillet: 1936
- Saint-Peray: 1936
- Chateauneuf-du-Pape: 1936 *OLDEST*
- Tavel: 1936
- Crozes-Hermitage: 1937
- Hermitage: 1937
- Cornas: 1938
- Cote-Rotie: 1940
- Condrieu: 1940
- Rasteau: VDN: 1944, dry red: 2010 (2009 vintage)
- Lirac: 1947
- Saint-Joseph: 1956
- Gigondas: 1971
- Vacqueyras: 1990
- Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise: VDN: 1943; MdBdV and BdV red became Crus in 2005
- Vinsobres: 2006
- Cairanne: 2009, Cru: 2016 (rose not AOC) *NEWEST*
- Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Appellation_d%27Origine_Contr%C3%B4l%C3%A9e_wines
When did the non-Crus reach AOC status?
- Cotes du Rhone: 1937
- CDR Villages: 1966
- Chatillon-en-Diois: 1975
- Clairette de Die: 1993
- Cremant de Die: 1993
- Coteaux de Die: 1993
- Grignan-Les Adhemar (Coteaux du Tricastin): 1973
- Cotes du Ventoux
- Cotes du Luberon: 1988
- Costieres de Nimes: 1986
- Cotes du Vivarais: 1999
T or F? Chateauneuf-du-Pape was the first AOC in FRANCE
True: in 1936
Name 2010 statistics for the Rhone Crus
- Red/Rose/White: 82%/9%/9%
- Vineyards: 33,500 acres (13,557 ha) dedicated to Crus, <25% Northern, >75% Southern
- Min ABV% Southern: 12.5% red, 12-12.5% white/rose
Describe the cepages for red Cru wines
- Grenache, Syrah, Cinsault, Mourvedre
- Can be supplemented by any of the other 10 red varieties grown in the Southern Rhone
- Can be supplemented by a vew white varieties depending on the AOCs
Describe the cepages for the white Cru wines
- Grenache Blanc, Clairette, Bourboulenc, Marsanne, Roussanne
- Can be supplemented by any of the other 6 white varieties grown in the Southern Rhone
- The varieties and percentages vary by AOC
Name the 9 Southern Crus N-S and their soils
- Vinsobres: sands and clays with pockets of scree and gravel with some limestone on the hills
- Rasteau: marl, clayl, sand, stones, gravel
- Cairanne: chalky white clay, red clay, silt
- Gigondas: limestone, clay, sand, silt
- Vacqueyras: sand and silt atop sandstone, limestone, and marl; also scree and stones
- Beaumes-de-Venise: Terres Blanches de Bel Air (white clay and limestone; most common), Terres Grises de Farisiens (gray marl), and Terres Jaunes de Trias (iron-rich pin/red limestone; rarest). Some sandstone, molasse, scree, shingle.
- Chateauneuf-du-Pape: alluvial terraces of limestone, sandstone, shingle/clay and galets.
- Lirac: red clay and gravel atop limestone, quartz pebbles and galets and red clay atop sand/sandstone, slopes have mixed soils
- Tavel: West: lauzes (thin "lunchen plates" of limestone), East: galets (large quartz stones), North/East: sandy mix with clay and pebbles
Name the 9 Southern Crus N-S and the type of wine they produce
- Vinsobres: 100% red
- Rasteau: red, VDN (Vin Doux Naturels)
- Cairanne: 94% redm 5% white, 1% rose (but rose is not AOC status)
- Gigondas: 99% red, 1% rose
- Vacqueyras: 90% red, 3% white, 1% rose
- Beaumes-de-Venise: red, VDN white
- Chateauneuf-du-Pape: 93% red, 7% white
- Lirac: 85% red, 7% rose, 8% white
- Tavel: 100% rose
Name the 9 Southern Crus N-S and their cepages
- Vinsobres: G, S, M
- Rasteau: min 50% G, 20% S/M, max 20% other
- Cairanne: min 50% G, 20% S/M, max 20% other
- Gigondas: Red: max 80% G, min 15% S/M, max 10% other (but not Carignan); Rose: max 80% G, max 25% other
- Vacqueyras: min 50% G, 20% S/M, max 10% other (but not Carignan); Rose: min 60% G, min 15% Mourvedre/Cinsault; White: mix of Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Bourboulenc, Roussanne, Marsanne, Vignoier (but max 80% any one).
- Beaumes-de-Venise: min 50% G, min 25% S, max 20% other red, max 5% white
- Chateauneuf-du-Pape: 13 varieties plus typically min 66% G plus S, M, Cinsault.
- Lirac: Red/Rose: Grenache, Cinsault, Syrah, Mourvedre; Whites: Clairette, Bourboulenc, Grenache Blanc
- Tavel: max 60% Grenache, min 15% Cinsault, max 10% Picpoul, Carignan, Bourboulenc, Clairette, Mourvedre, Syrah. Calitor is permitted but rare.
Name the 9 Southern Crus N-S and their climate
- Vinsobres: Mediterranean with Alpine influences (near the pre-Alps); significant diurnal swing (10°C-40°C)
- Rasteau: unique mesoclimate as vineyards face south which traps sun and blocks Mistral; altitude up to 350 m (1150 ft)
- Cairanne: warm and temperate (ave temp is 12.8°C (55°F), ave rain is 772 mm (30 in) - most in winter)
- Gigondas: hot, sunny clime with significant diurnal swigng due to cold air descending from Dentelles de Montmirail
- Vacqueyras: foot of Dentelles de Montmirail, grapes ripen earlier than in Gigondas
- Beaumes-de-Venise: hot, sheltered from Mistral
- Chateauneuf-du-Pape: dry (25", 650mm rain/year), sunny (2800 hours), exposed to Mistral
- Lirac: very hot and arid; exposed to Mistral
- Tavel: warm and temperate (ave temp is 13.3°C (56°F), ave rain is 737 mm (29 in) - most in winter)
Describe the 4 zones planted in Vinsobres above the L'Aigues (pronounced "leg") river
- La 1ere (first) Terrasse: 650-800' (198-244m)
- Le Coteau: slopes at 800-1150' (244-350m)
- Les Collines: upper hills
- Plateau: up to 1500' (457m)
Name the 8 Northern Crus from least to most vines planted (acres, ha) and state production (hl, cases)
- Chateau Grillet: 10 acres, 4 ha, 14 hl, 156 cases
- Saint-Peray: 180 acres, 73 ha, 1857 hl, 20633 cases
- Cornas: 324 acres, 131 ha, 3965 hl, 44055 cases
- Hermitage: 336 acres, 136 ha, 3640 hl, 40444 cases
- Condrieu: 415 acres, 168 ha, 4899 hl, 54433 cases
- Cote-Rotie: 682 acres, 276 ha, 8884 hl, 98711 cases
- Saint-Joseph: 2992 acres, 1211 ha, 40046 hl, 444956 cases
- Crozes-Hermitage: 3741 acres, 1514 ha, 59581 hl, 662011 cases
Name the 9 Southern Crus from least to most vines planted (acres, ha) and state production (hl, cases)
- Vinsobres: 1090 acres, 441 ha, 12393 hl, 137700 cases
- Beaumes-de-Venise: 1554 acres, 629 ha, 17290 hl, 192111 cases
- Lirac: 1932 acres, 782 ha, 20347 hl, 226077 cases
- Tavel: 2229 acres, 902 ha, 33731 hl, 374789 cases
- Rasteau: 2318 acres, 938 ha, 26824 hl, 298044 cases
- Cairanne: 2362 acres, 956 ha, 27333 hl, 303700 cases
- Gigondas: 3005 acres, 1216 ha, 29704 hl, 330044 cases
- Vacqueyras: 3474 acres, 1406 ha, 38212 hl, 424577 cases
- Chateauneuf-du-Pape: 7811 acres, 3161 ha, 81732 hl, 908133 cases
- Source: INTER-Rhone 2013 (www.vins-rhone.com)
Name the 9 Southern Crus from least to most average yield and state maximum yield
- Gigondas: Ave: 24 hl/ha, Max: 36 hl/ha, 2.1 tons/acre
- Chateauneuf-du-Pape: Ave: 26 hl/ha, Max: 35 hl/ha, 2.1 tons/acre
- Lirac: Ave: 26 hl/ha, Max: 42 hl/ha, 2.52 tons/acre
- Vacqueyras: Ave: 27 hl/ha, Max: 32 hl/ha, 1.9 tons/acre
- Beaumes-de-Venise: Ave: 27 hl/ha, Max: 37 hl/ha, 2.22 tons/acre (VDN Max: 30 hl/ha)
- Vinsobres: Ave: 28 hl/ha, Max: 38 hl/ha, 2.28 tons/acre
- Rasteau: Ave: 29 hl/ha, Max: 2.04 tons/acre, 34 hl/ha
- Cairanne: Ave: 35 hl/ha, Max: 37 hl/ha, 2.22 tons/acre
- Tavel: Ave 37 hl/ha, Max: 42 hl/ha, 2.5 tons/acre
Name the 8 Northern Crus from least to most max yield (tons/acre, hl/ha)
- Chateau Grillet: Ave: 4 hl/ha, Max: 37 hl/ha, 2.22 tons/acre
- Saint-Peray: Ave: 25 hl/ha, Max: 45 hl/ha, 2.7 tons/acre
- Hermitage: Ave: 27 hl/ha, Max: 40 hl/ha, 2.4 tons/acre
- Condrieu: Ave: 29 hl/ha, Max: 41 hl/ha, 3.04 tons/acre
- Cornas: Ave: 30 hl/ha, Max: 40 hl/ha, 2.4 tons/acre
- Cote-Rotie: Ave: 32 hl/ha, Max: 40 hl/ha, 2,4 tons/acre
- Saint-Joseph: Ave: 33 hl/ha, Max: 37 hl/ha, 2.22 tons/acre
- Crozes-Hermitage: Ave: 39 hl/ha, Max: 45 hl/ha, 2.7 tons/acre
Is sorting grapes at harvest mandatory in CDP?
Yes, the discarded grapes, known as "rape", may only be used to make Vin de France level wine and must fall within 2-20% of max yield
What is the derivation of the name Gigondas?
Jocunditas is Latin for Joy
What is the derivation of the name "Beaumes-de-Venise"?
- "balme" is a Provencal word meaning grotto (a small cave)
- "venise" is derived from Venaissin, the name of the district when it was under the jurisdiction of the Pope
What does the nickname "les afrontaires de Cairana" mean?
The Cheeky people of Cairanne
How many grapes does it take to make a bottle of wine?
- 1 ton of grapes makes about 170 gallons (644 l) of wine, or about 858 bottles (71.5 cases)
- If yield is 2.1 tons/acre, then 858*2.1 = 1802 bottles per acre * 2.471 acres/ha = 4453 bottles/ha (371 cs/ha)
Convert tons/acre to hl/ha
- muliply by 13.5
- assumes 0.183 tons/hl
Where is the Diois?
- 25 miles (40 km) southest of Cornas
- Southwest of Massif du Vercors (prealpine)
- A mountainous region; vineyards up to 2700 feet (823 m) above sea level
How much land is planted to vineyards in the Diois?
- 3700 acres (1497 ha)
- Flank 30 mi (50 km) Drome river valley
Describe the Diois soil
Sedimentary soils (Cretaceous limestone and Jurassic limestone and marl) raised to surface when Alps formed
Describe the climate in the Diois
Continental with alpine influences
What are the key grape varieties of the Diois?
- White: Clairette, Muscat blanc a petits grains, Aligote, Chardonnay
- Red: Gamay, Pinot Noir, Syrah
What types of wine are produced in the Diois?
White, Rose, Red
Name the 4 AOCs of the Diois and the type of wine each produces
- Clairette de Die: sparkling (ancestral method) from Muscat Blanc a Petit Grains and Clairette
- Cremant de Die: sparkling (traditional method) from Clairette with some Muscat and Aligote
- Coteaux de Die: still dry white from 100% Clairette
- Chatillon en Diois: dry white from Aligote and Chardonnay, rose/red from Gamay, Pinot Noir, and Syrah
T or F? Clairette de Die has been making sparkling wine longer than Champagne
True. References to this wine date from 77 AD.
Where is the Cotes du Vivarais?
- Northern section: between Ardeche and Rhone rivers
- Southern section: between Ardeche and La Ceze rivers
What department is the Cotes du Vivarais in?
Arcdeche and Gard
How much land is planted to vineyards in the Cotes du Vivarais?
740 acres (300 ha)
Describe the Cotes du Vivarais soil
- Shallow and minaly limestone with pockets of gravel
- Vineyards have a regulated water supply
Describe the climate in the Cotes du Vivaris
Cooler than the rest of the Southern Rhone and gets more rain
What are the key grape varieties of the Cotes du Vivarais?
- White: Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Marsanne
- Red: Grenache, Syrah, Cinsault, Carignan
Describe the cepages for Cotes du Vivarais
- Red/Rose: Grenache and Syrah with up to 10% Cinsault and Carignan combined (more Cinsault allowed in roses)
- White: Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Marsanne
What is the max yield for the Cotes du Vivarais?
Max yield: 3.1 tons/acre (52 hl/ha)
What types of wine are produced in the Cotes du Vivarais?
Red (53%), Rose (41%), White (6%)
Is production dominated by coops in the Cotes du Vivarais?
When did Duche d'Uzes achieve AOC status?
- Formerly sold as Vin du Pays and later IGP
Where is the Duche d'Uzes?
- Northwest of Nimes on the right bank of the Rhone
- West of Pont du Gard to foothills of Cevennes Mountains
What department is the Duche d'Uzes in?
T or F? Vines have been cultiveated in the Duche d'Uzes since 6thC BC
True, but viticulture flourished in the Middle Ages under stewardship of the Church
What proverb pokes fun at couples seen as "too perfect"?
- During the Middle Ages, the Bishop of Uzes promised a bottle of wine to young married couples that didn't argue
- "They are after some of Father Uzes' wine"
How much land is planted to vineyards in the Duche d'Uzes?
700 acres (280 ha)
When was the first mention of CDR as a region?
18th century records of the Azes Viguerie (a court) mention "Coste du Rhone"
What are the key grape varieties of the Duche d'Uzes?
- Red: Grenache, Syrah, Mourvedre, Cinsault, Carignan
- White: Clairette, Viognier, Marsanne,
Describe the cepages for Duche d'Uzes
What is the max yield for the Duche d'Uzes?
What types of wine are produced in the Duche d'Uzes?
Red (62%), Rose (19%), White (19%)
Where is the Costieres de Nimes?
- Westernmost AOC of the Southern Rhone on right bank of the Rhone
- Formerly part of the Languedoc
- Changed name in 1989 from Costieres du Gard
What department is the Costieres de Nimes in?
How much land is planted to vineyards in the Costieres de Nimes?
9880 acres (4000 ha)
Describe the Costieres de Nimes soil
Similar to other AOCs... limestone subsoils topped with large pebbles on gentle south-facing slopes
Describe the climate in the Costieres de Nimes
- Hot summers but cold air from the Petite Camargue cools nights
- Mistral chases clouds and humidity so 2700 hours sunchine/year
What are the key grape varieties of the Costieres de Nimes?
- Red: GSM, Carignan, Cinsault
- White: Grenache Blanc, Roussanne, Marsanne, Bourboulenc, Clairette, *Vermintino*, Viogner
Describe the cepages for Costieres de Nimes
Red: Min 25% Grenache plus Syrah and Mourvedre; Max 40% Cinsault but declining
What is the max yield for the Costieres de Nimes?
- 3.6 tons/acre (60 hl/ha) -- HIGHEST OF THE RHONE VALLEY
- Also important for IGP wines
What types of wine are produced in the Costieres de Nimes?
- Red 51%): blackberry but with aging black olive, spice, licorice, garrique, and violet
- Rose (41%): Production second only to CDR
- White (8%): citrus, flowers, exotic fruits and develops honey, peach and apricot in bottle
Where is the Clairette de Bellegarde?
Could be thought of as part of Costieres de Nimes dedicated to white wine
What department is the Clairette de Bellegarde in?
How much land is planted to vineyards in the Clairette de Bellegarde?
- 40 acres (16 ha)
- Produces 2000 cases so only slightly larger than Chateau-Grillet
Describe the Clairette de Bellegarde soil
"Gravel Desert", stones washed down from the Alps
Describe the climate in the Clairette de Bellegarde
- One of the driest in France
- Mistral blows
What are the key grape varieties of the Clairette de Bellegarde?
What types of wine are produced in the Clairette de Bellegarde?
- White, cosume young and fresh
- 1 coop is the major source; rarely seen outside the region
What is the max yield for the Clairette de Bellegarde?
3.6 tons/acre (60 hl/ha) but typical yield is 2.1 tons/acre (28 hl/ha)
Where is Grignan-les-Adhemar?
- Montelimar to Bollene (midway to Orange); shares landscape with garrigue, lavender, olive trees and truffle oaks
- Defines the northern limit of the Southern Rhone vineyards on the left bank of the Rhone (as Cotes du Vivarais does on the right bank)
What department is Grignan-les-Adhemar in?
How much land is planted to vineyards in Grignan-les-Adhemar?
3200 acres (1300 ha)
Describe the Grignan-les-Adhemar soil
- 3 East-West running valleys carved out of a limestone massif
- Subsoils are limestone or sandstone; top soils vary
- Center: highest, sand, sandstone
- SE: rocky/gravely top-soils
- West: terraces of limestone pebbles
Describe the climate in Grignan-les-Adhemar
Significant altitude: 1200 feet (360 m)
What are the key grape varieties of Grignan-les-Adhemar?
- Red: GSM, Cinsault, Carignan (Growers decided to favor Northern Rhone grape varieties)
- White: Grenache Blanc, Clairette, Picpoul, Bourboulenc, Ugni Blanc, Marsanne, Roussanne, Viognier
Describe the cepages for Grignan-les-Adhemar
- Red/Rose: GSM, Syrah, Cinsault, up to 20% Carignan plus small amount of Grenache Blanc, Clairette, Bourboulenc, Marsanne, Roussanne, Viognier, Picpoul, and Ugni Blanc
- White: Primarily Grenache Blanc, Clairette, Bourboulenc, Marsanne, Roussanne, and Viognier
What types of wine are produced in Grignan-les-Adhemar?
Red (66%), Rose (23%), White (11%)
What is the max yield for Grignan-les-Adhemar?
2.7 tons/acre (45 hl/ha)
Where is the Ventoux?
Southeastern section between Grignan-les-Adhemar and the Luberon.
What department is Ventoux in?
- Named after Mont Ventoux, a 6500 foot (1950 m) peak made famous by the Tour de France
How much land is planted to vineyards in Ventoux?
- 14580 acres (5900 ha)
- 2.9 M cases -- LARGEST PRODUCTION OF the 7 non-Cru Southern Rhone AOCs
- 900,000 cases rose (large)
- Coops produce 80%
Describe the Ventoux soil
Formed with the Alps; soils are largely young alluviums and colluvioums atop ancient sedimentary soils
Describe the 3 production areas of the Ventoux
- Malaucene: northern part; smallest, highest elevation; terraced vineyards from Mont Ventoux to Dentelles de Montmirail
- Carpentras: western part flanks Mont Ventoux; Vaucluse hills separate Carpentras from the southern part of AOC
- Mont Ventoux: UNESCO Biosphere has Mediterranean and Alpine climates: Poplar trees serve as wind breaks against Mistral
Vineyards experience significant diurnal temperature swings because of Mont Ventoux
Before 1956 freeze, produced table trapes and cherries
What are the key grape varieties of Ventoux?
- Red: Grenache, Syrah, Cinsault, Carignan
- White: Clairette, Crenache Blanc, Bouboulenc
Describe the cepages for Ventoux
- Red/Rose: mainly Grenache, Syrah, Cinsault, up to 30% Carignan
- White: mainly Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Bourboulenc
- Roses mostly use saignee method with 12-24 hours skin contact
What is the max yield for Ventoux?
3 tons/acre (50 hl/ha)
What types of wine are produced in Ventoux?
Red (60%), Rose (36%), White (4%)
When did Luberon become an AOC?
- Before 2008 was known as Cotes du Luberon
Where is Luberon?
Between Ventoux and Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence AOCs
What department is Luberon in?
How much land is planted to vineyards in Luberon?
8150 acres (3300 ha)
Describe the Luberon soil
Diverse -- sand and clay to limestone screes and conglomerates of the three
Describe the climate in Luberon
- Mediterranean with strong continental influences
- Impacted by Mistral and Tramontane winds
- Cool nights and cool winters (due to Luberon Massif) yet abundant sunshine
- Named UNESCO Biosphere for its flora and fauna
What are the key grape varieties of Luberon?
- Red: GSM, Cinsault, Carignan
- White: Grenache Blanc, Clairette, Bourboulenc, Marsanne, Roussanne, Viognier
Describe the cepages for Luberon
- Red/Rose: mainly GSM, Cinsault, up to 20% Carignan; roses can add up to 20% white varietals
- White: mainly Grenache Blanc, Clairette, Bourboulenc; may add Marsanne, Roussanne and up to 50% Ugni Blanc
What is the max yield for Luberon?
3.3 tons/acre (55 hl/ha)
What types of wine are produced in Luberon?
- Rose (53%), Red (26%), White (21%)
- Also many single-variety wines labeled with grape name as IGP Vaucluse
- Reds are med-full bodied with hint of black fruits, pepper, truffle, leather, and forest floor
- Whites express aromas of honeysuckle, peach, and apricot