Body Tissues Quiz 1

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  1. What are the 5 steps of tissue preparation for a slide?
    • 1. fixation
    • 2. processing
    • 3. embedding
    • 4. cutting
    • 5. staining
  2. Why do we prepare tissue?
    because if you don’t you know be able to see anything/much and it highlights the cells so its easier to determine what you are looking at
  3. Why are staining techniques differ?
    Sometimes you just need to see if something is there (such as detection of a microbe) and sometimes you need to actually visualize a structure
  4. What stage of tissue preparation works to preserve the structure and integrity of cells and tissues and facilitates sectioning by making tissue more firm for this?
  5. Common fixative (used for a standard biopsy)
    10% neutral-buffered formaldehyde (formalin)
  6. True/False: the fixative you use can have a big impact on your results such as it can give you false positive or negative
  7. 3 steps of tissue processing
    • Specimen is dehydrated in an alcohol bath of increasing strength (70%-->100%)
    • Specimen is bathed in xylene (clearing agent--washes the tissue after it has been dehydrated)
    • Tissue is now ready for embedding in paraffin wax
  8. What is used to cut the tissue and what is the standard thickness?
    • Microtome 
    • 4 micrometers
  9. After the tissue is cut how is it placed on the slide?
    It floats in a warm water bath and is picked up on a glass slide and is dried in the oven
  10. What is the standard stain?
    H&E stain (hematoxylin and eosin)
  11. 7 steps of staining and mounting
    • parafin wax is dissolved from the slide (xylene)
    • Tissue is rehydrated in alcohol baths of decreasing concentration (100-->70%)
    • Stained (now automated except for frozen sections)
    • Xylene
    • Mounting medium (provides a better viewing for under the microscope
    • Glass cover slip
  12. This stain is a basic stain and so it stains acidic (basophillic) things
  13. What color are acidic things stained when using hematoxylin, such as a nucleus?
    purple or dark blue
  14. This stain is an acidic stain and so it stains basic (acidophilic) things
  15. What color are basic things stained when using eosin, such as esosinophils
    pink or red
  16. With Masson Trichome Stain what is stained:
    • Muscle
    • collagen
    • nuclei
  17. What stain stains glycogen deep magenta?
    Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS)
  18. What are some things PAS is used for?
    • ›Goblet cells
    • ›Basement membranes (to check for damage) and brush border
    • ›Some fungal organisms
    • Used commonly in oral pathology and dermatopathology
  19. What stains elastic tissue black?
    Elastic Tissue stains (Verhoeff)
  20. What is used to stain peripheral blood and bone marrow smears?
    Wright Giesma Stain
  21. Staining method that uses a specific antibody to bind to a specific antigen, such as a specific protein or an infectious agent

    Positive "antigens" stain brown
    Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
  22. Study of cells
  23. Used in head and neck: lymph node, thyroid, salivary gland pathology
    Aspiration cytology [fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA)]
  24. ›Used in oral cavity: candidiasis (most common way to rule out), white sponge nevus, oral hairy leukoplakia (infectious lesions that can affect size of tongue in immunocompromised patients), other

    Classic example: pap smear
    Exfoliative cytology (scraping of cells)
  25. When you poke a tissue with a syringe and draw back some cells and use them

    Not commonly used by pathologist because it is very tricky
    Fine needle aspiration biopsy
  26. Automated exfoliative cytology machine— should be able to determine if the cells are normal are not
    Oral CDX

    **dont use this for malignant of premalignant cells because it is not as accurate
  27. type of microscopy that allows person to look at cells at ultrastructrual level—looks more of like a standard slide
    Transmission electron microscopy
  28. type of microscopy that gives you a 3D image of little tiny thing just along the surface
    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
  29. When should you use SEM
    when examining dental materials, look at surface of tooth, enamel
  30. When should you use TEM
    trying to see what is in the cell and structures
  31. True/False: the way the specimen is cut, its orientation and where it is cut impacts how you see it in the microscope?

    Examples in NOTES
  32. what will you see if you cut a tube on the:


    Transverse: cross section—will see rounded structure

    Longitudinal: down the tube—will see two parallel lines of cells and maybe lumen

    Example pictures in notes!!!
  33. Type of intermediate filaments (6)
    • Keratin
    • Vimentin
    • Desmin
    • Neurofilament
    • Glial
    • Nuclear Lamins
  34. What are microfilaments made of?
  35. What are microtubules made of?
    Tublin protein (alpha and beta)
  36. What is the arrangement of the centrioles?
    9 clusters of 3 microtubules
  37. what are the microtubule arrangements in cilia?
    9 clusters of 2 microtubules (doublets)
  38. in a micrograph what differentiates the cilia from microvilli?
    Basal body—structure at the bottom of the cilia
  39. function of cilia
    sweep debris, mucus, particulate matter, fluid, or cells across cell surface
  40. True/False: microvilli do not move
  41. function of microvilli
    Increase surface area for absorption
  42. transmembrane proteins involved in tight junctions that fuse together
  43. What allows the adhering junction to stay together?
    The transmembrane adherin proteins protrude from each cell and interdigitate

    proteins are attached to actin filaments of the cytoskeleton
  44. Consist of small channels called connexons and allow for the passage of fluid, small molecules, elections and ions between adjacent cells
    gap junctions
  45. What has Transmembrane adhesion proteins (cadherins) that are Bound to intermediate filaments (e.g. keratin)
  46. True/False: pemphigus vulgarism affects the cadherin proteins and therefore affects the desmosomes and the hemidesmosomes
  47. True/False: all cells are actively dividing

    Permanent (nerve and muscle cells)

    Stable (liver cells)—stable until someone takes a chunk out, only sometimes dividing 

    Renewing (constantly dividing--skin, gastrointestinal, blood cells)
  48. phase where there is Normal cell functions; duplication of organelles and increased cytosol
  49. resting phase of interphase
  50. Phase of interphase where DNA is replicated and histones are synthesized
  51. phase of interphase where other centrioles are being replicated
  52. Each replicated chromosome in the S phase=
    2 sister chromatids attached by a centromere in the center
  53. What is the difference between parietal and visceral pleura
    The visceral pleura is the delicate serous membrane that covers the surface of each lung (the lung parenchyma) and dips into the fissures between the lobes. The parietal pleura is the outer membrane which is attached to the inner surface of the thoracic cavity. It also separates the pleural cavity from the mediastinum.
  54. True/False: the visceral and parietal layers are continuous and one layer
  55. Where do you find simple squamous?
    • Endothelium
    • Mesothelium
    • Alveolar spaces
  56. Where do you find simple cuboidal?
    • small glandular excretory ducts
    • Renal tubules
  57. Where do you find simple columnar?
    • Digestive tract from stomach to anus
    • Uterus
  58. Where do you find pseudostratisfied columnar?
    • Respiratory passages
    • Reproductive (epididymus)
  59. Where do you find stratified squamous?
    Keratinized: skin, gingiva/alveolar ridge, palate

    Non-keratinized: Oral (buccal mucosa, floor of mouth, ventral tongue, soft palate), esophagus, vaginal mucosa, anal mucosa (distal to anorectal junction)
  60. Where do you find stratified cuboidal?
    larger excretory ducts of salivary glands, pancreas, and sweat glands
  61. Where do you find stratified columnar?
    • conjunctiva of eye
    • large excretory ducts
  62. Where do you find transitional?
    Bladder and urinary excretory ducts

    **NOT kidney proper but once it leaves
  63. Image UploadWhat is this image illustrating and what stain is used?
    A blood vessel with simple squamous cells

    PAS? (periodic acid schiff)
  64. Primary functions of simple cuboidal?
    transport, absorption, secretion, excretion
  65. Functions of simple columnar

    ›Mucous secretion
  66. Image UploadWhat is this a picture of?
    Simple columnar stomach cells
  67. What are the main functions of pseudostratitfied
    Function(s): Mucus secretion (Goblet cells), transport (ciliated columnar cells—like to move things around: debris, secretion)
  68. Image UploadWhat is in this picture?
    Pseudo stratified cells in the nasal cavity
  69. Image Upload`
    Simple columnar in the small intestine
  70. Image Upload
    simple columnar in the gallbladder
  71. True/False: only stratified squamous cells can be keratinized or non keratinized

    ›Other types of epithelium do NOT form keratin!
  72. What is a metaplasia?
    Transformation from one type of epithelial tissue to another
  73. Form of keratin that has flattened nuclei in the keratinized cells and is more common in the oral cavity than skin
  74. Form of keratin with no nuclei, keratohyaline granules present (stratum granulosum), basket-weave keratin (thin skin), and more commonly found in the skin than oral cavity
  75. Image Upload
    Parakeratinized cells in gingiva
  76. Function of transitional cells
    Protection, allows for stretch
  77. Image Upload
    Stratified cuboidal sweat gland
  78. Image Upload
    Stratified columnar in the conjunctiva
  79. Image Upload
    Relaxed transitional
  80. Image Upload
    Stretched transitional
  81. No excretory ducts. Secretions (hormones) are delivered to the bloodstream
  82. Secretions delivered to a surface via excretory ducts 

    Example: mucous being produced in mouth or in respiratory tract
  83. Only the secretory product is released from the cell (most common type)

    What are examples?

    Salivary, pancreas and sweat glands
  84. The apical portion of the cell is released along with the secretory product

    What are examples?

    mammary glands
  85. The entire cell is shed as the secretory product

    What are examples

    sebaceous (oil) glands
  86. What are the characteristics of serous secretions (4)
    ›Watery secretion often rich in enzymes

    ›Dark-staining zymogen granules

    ›Trapezoid-shaped cells with round, basally-located nuclei

    ›Small lumen
  87. What are the characteristics of mucous secretions (4)
    Thick viscous secretion

    ›Pale/white staining with frothy cytoplasm

    ›Trapezoid-shaped cells with flat, basally-located nuclei

    ›Lumen more patent
  88. What is this a picture of and where?Image Upload
    • Left: Serous in the pancreas
    • Right: Pancreas in the sublingual gland
  89. What are the two types of exocrine cells?
    • Unicellular (gobet cells)
    • Multicellular (simple or compound and can have a duct and seculatory portion)
  90. Three shapes of multicellular cells
    • Tubular (test-tube like)
    • Acinar/alveolar (flask like)
    • Tubuloacinar (both)
  91. What type of exocrine gland is the salivary gland?
    Compound Tubuloacinar
  92. One long tube that is coiled is very characteristic of ...
    the sweat gland
  93. Is coiled tubular compound or simple?
    Simple because there is no compound coil
  94. Image Upload
    Pleomorphic adenoma in the parotid gland

    Normal side is on the left because the architecture on the left is more normal and cell shape is more normal (white is fat)

    The adenoma has some normal structure but also all those different cells in the background—most common salivary gland tumor (is benign but can undergo transformation)
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Body Tissues Quiz 1
2017-09-11 15:18:03

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