Major Blood Group (ABO) 8.4

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corbin19
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33401
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Major Blood Group (ABO) 8.4
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2010-09-14 10:46:58
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Blood Bank Major blood group ABO MLT NSHS
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Blood Bank Unit 8.4 Major Blood Group (ABO)
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  1. A substance that is capable of eliciting an immune response when introduced in-vivo.
    Antigen
  2. Protein substance secreted by plasma cells in response to, and interacting specifically with an antigen.
    Antibody
  3. Ability of anitgens to stimulate an immune resonse.
    Antigenicity
  4. Biological unit of heredity, located at a definite position on a particular chromosome.
    Gene
  5. The specific location of a gene on a given chromosome.
    locus/loci
  6. the listing of gense actually found on a pair of chromosome.
    genotype
  7. the listing of antigens expressed.
    phenotype
  8. alternate form of a series of genes that occupy a single locus on either of a pair of chromosomes.
    Allele
  9. gene loci located so close together they are inherited together as a single unit.
    linked gene
  10. what is an example of a linked gene?
    complement
  11. two identical genes in a pair.
    homozygous gene
  12. Two unlike genese (alleles) in a gene pair.
    heterozygous gene
  13. if only one gene in a heterozygous gene pair is expressed, the expressed gene is considered to be this.
    dominant
  14. if one gene in a heterozygous pair is not expressed it is considered to be this.
    recessive
  15. if both genes in any pair express themselves, they are considered to be this.
    codominant
  16. In blood bank, an amorphic gene does not express itself on a red cell.
    Amorphic gene
  17. antibodies produced without exposeure to an antigen. (ISO-Antibodies)
    naturally occurring
  18. The ABO blood group was discovered in 1900 by ____________.
    Karl Landsteiner
  19. what are the four RBC classifications?
    • A
    • B
    • AB
    • O
  20. what are most serious transfusion accidents caused by?
    ABO incompatibility
  21. A person who _____ A and/or B antigens, will have iso-antibodies in their serum against those antigens.
    Lacks
  22. ABO Iso-antibodies are capable of causing rapid and total __________ of incompatible blood intravascularly.
    destruction
  23. intravascular transfusion reactions generally reslut in ________.
    death
  24. compatibility of ABO groups between _________ and ___________ is the foundation on which all other pre-transfusion testing depends.
    • donor
    • recipient
  25. What are the three major antigens of the ABO system?
    • A
    • B
    • H (O)
  26. what are the four major antibodies of the ABO system?
    • Anti-A
    • Anti-B
    • Anti-A,B
    • Anti-H
  27. The backbone exists in _____ forms, two are predominantly seen.
    four
  28. what are the two predominant backbone forms?
    • Type I (Secretor, saliva)
    • Type II (RBC)
  29. A backbone molecule inserts into the RBC membrane and has what four terminal sugars?
    • D-galactose
    • N-acetylglucosamine
    • D-Galactose
    • Glucose
  30. What are the three genes that influence the human major blood groups?
    • H gene
    • A gene
    • B gene
  31. what are the two alleles in the H system?
    • H
    • h
  32. what antigen in the H system is the precursor on which group A and B are built.
    H
  33. the Hh locus is on which chromosome?
    19
  34. The H gene causes production of L-______-Transferase.
    fucosyl
  35. the enzyme L-fucosyl-transferase, in the H system, causes addition of __________ to the backbone.
    L-Fucose
  36. the h gene is a rare _______ which produces no enzyme.
    amorph
  37. what is the extremely rare genotype known as bombay?
    hh
  38. The ABO gene locus is on which chromosome?
    9
  39. what are the two codominant genes in the ABO system?
    • A
    • B
  40. what are the three alleles in the ABO system?
    • A
    • B
    • O
  41. this is a rare Amorph gene int eh ABO system where H antigen remains unchanged.
    O gene
  42. lack of the A or B gene produces what blood type?
    O
  43. what is the immunodominant sugar responsible for H specificity?
    fucose
  44. the A gene causes production of the enzyme N-_____________-transferase.
    acetylgalactosaminyl
  45. the ABO precursor combined with the sugar ______ is known as the A antigen, blood type A.
    GalNac
  46. the B gene causes production of the enzyme ________ transferase.
    Galactosyl
  47. in the B gene, Galactosyl-transferase bonds what to the ABO precursor?
    D-galactose (Gal)
  48. The ABO precursor combined with the sugar ____ is known as the B antigen, blood type B.
    Gal
  49. Each person inherits ___ ABO gene from each parent?
    one
  50. A and B genes dominate what gene?
    O
  51. pehnotypes may or may not indicate the ___________.
    genotype
  52. group AB person has what genotype?
    AB
  53. Group A person may have what genotypes?
    • AA
    • AO
  54. group B person may have what genotypes?
    • BB
    • BO
  55. the major A subgroups represent what precent of all the subgroups?
    99.9%
  56. what is the most common A subgroup?
    A1
  57. which A subgroup converts almost all H precursor?
    A1
  58. A1 will react with _______ lectin.
    Anti-A1
  59. These are RBCs that are intermediate between A1 and A2.
    Aint
  60. Which A subgroup gives a weaker reaction with Anti-A1 lectin but a stronger reaction with Anit-H?
    Aint
  61. what is the second most common A subgroup?
    A2
  62. what percent of A2 persons will form naturally occuring Anti-A1?
    1-8%
  63. 22-35% of A2B persons will from ________.
    Anti-A1
  64. what is the thrid most common A subgroup?
    A3
  65. this subgroup makes up approximately 1:1000 or less than 0.1% of group A and group AB people.
    A3
  66. this is a characteristic agglutination pattern of small agglutinates in sea of non-agglutinated free RBC.
    Mixed field
  67. which A subgroup shows mixed field during the phenotype of the antigen?
    A3
  68. All A subgroups are made from the type ___ backbone?
    II
  69. Subgroups differ in the amount of ___ antigen present on the RBC.
    A
  70. the A subgroups are confirmed using what reagents?
    • Anti-A1 lectin
    • Anti-H lectin
  71. Anti-A1 lectin is extracted from what seeds?
    Dolichos Biflorus
  72. Anti-H lectin is extracted from what plant?
    ulex europaeus
  73. what is the A2 RBC reagent?
    donor blood
  74. which A subgroup has the most amount of A antigen?
    A1
  75. which A subgroup has the least amount of A antigen?
    A3
  76. ABO iso-antibodies are most often ____ anitbody.
    IgM
  77. ISO antibodies are _______ agglutinins?
    saline
  78. Ison antibodies react well at room temperature but are best at what temp?
    Refrigerator
  79. this is the identification of the ABO antigen (RBC).
    forward typing
  80. This is the identification of the ABO antibody. (serum/Plasma)
    Reverse typing
  81. how many tubes are used when performing ABO forward and reverse typing?
    six
  82. what percent cell suspension should be used for ABO forward and reverse typing?
    2-5%
  83. what is the reagent to suspension ratio for forward typing?
    1:1
  84. what is the reagent to serum ratio for reverse typing?
    1:2
  85. forward and reverse typing should be read _________ for agglutination.
    macroscopically
  86. forward typing is the phenotype of the patient's __________.
    antigen
  87. Reverse typing is the phenotype of the patient's ________.
    antibody
  88. this is used in blood bank to increase the efficiency and productivity of donor and patient testing?
    automation
  89. Blood typing automation uses _______ phase technology.
    solid
  90. what are three examples of solid phase automations in the blood bank?
    • ABS2000
    • ROSYS plato
    • The Galileo
  91. this automated technique performs ABO/RH and AB screens/crossmatch using a gel card containing dextran acrylamide gel particles, and does not require washing.
    the gel system
  92. what are two examples of the gel system?
    • ortho provue (fully automated)
    • tecan megaflex (semi automated)
  93. Lukemia depressens _______ expression on the RBC.
    antigen
  94. what is an example of depressed antigen expression?
    acquired B phenomenon
  95. Carcinomas of the ______ or _______ can cause antigens to be undetectable.
    • stomach
    • pancreas
  96. what are three diseases that can cause acqured B phenomenon?
    • intestinal obstruction
    • Carcinoma of colon or rectum
    • Septicemia with E. coli or Proteus mirablis
  97. various lymphoma's, malignant non-hodgkin's, very youg or elderly patients, or immunosuppressant therapy can cause a ________ production of ABO ISO-antibodies.
    Decreased
  98. true or false
    discrepancies between forward and reverse grouping are generally technical in nature.
    true
  99. what are three causes of tecnical error in discrepancies between forward and reverse typing?
    • recheck ID of specimen
    • Clerical errors
    • Failure to add reagent.
  100. if not technical, ABO discrepancies fall into one of ______ major categories.
    four
  101. which group of ABO discrepancies involves antibodies.
    group I
  102. which group of ABO discrepancies involves antigen?
    Group II
  103. which group of ABO discrepancies involves protein?
    group III
  104. which group of ABO discrepancies involves miscellaneous?
    group IV
  105. what are three causes of group I discrepancies?
    • immunodeficiency
    • leukemia or lymphoma
    • chimerism
  106. this is a rare condtion in which there are two cell population in an individual.
    chimerism
  107. true or false
    chimerism is often artificial?
    chimerism
  108. normal ABO reactions are ___ or stronger?
    3+
  109. if reactions are 1+ or less: incubate for 15-30 minutes at _____ temp.
    room
  110. what are three causes of group II discrepancies?
    • minor subgroups of A or B
    • Hodgkin's disease
    • Acquired B phenomenon
  111. which group of discrepancies can be caused by group specific substances?
    group II
  112. in group III discrepancies, __________ formation can cause pseudo agglutination.
    rouleaux
  113. multiple myeloma and hodgkin's lymphomas can cause what group of discrepancies?
    group III
  114. _________ the patient's red cells several additional times with saline will remove most of the protein causing the rouleaux formation.
    washing
  115. the resolution of which group of descrpancies involves saline replacement techniques?
    group III
  116. what are five causes of group IV discrepancies?
    • polyagglutination (T antigen)
    • Cold reactive antibodies
    • warm autoantibodies
    • unexpected ABO iso-antibodies
    • Antibodies against the antisera
  117. for group IV discrepancies patients cells should be tested with what?
    lectin
  118. the resolution of what group of discrepancies may involve warming the blood to 37oC?
    Group IV
  119. this is the removing of antibody from surface of RBC.
    elution
  120. the resolution of which group of discrepancies may involve elution?
    group IV
  121. True or false
    all ABO discrepancies must be resolved before blood is released to patient for transfusion.
    true
  122. all reagents for ABO typing should be stored at what temperature when not in use?
    1-6oC

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