C4: Neoplasia/Cancer

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  1. General cancer cells are... (3)
    • autonomous
    • uninterrupted growth
    • disorganized
  2. characteristics of benign tumor
    • limited growth (localized)
    • homogenous surface
    • enclosed in a capsule
    • regularly shaped nuclei
    • never metastasize
  3. characteristics of malignant tumor
    • uncontrollable
    • metastasize through blood or lymphatic vessels
    • non-homogenous growth
    • high N/C ratio (large nucleus)
    • hemorrhage
  4. metastasis
    process in which cells move from one part of body to another either via blood of lymphatic vessels
  5. classifying mesenchymal tumor
    • benign -oma
    • malignant -sarcoma
  6. classifying epithelial tumor
    • benign -oma
    • malignant -carcinoma
  7. TMN system stands for
    • T= tumor size
    • N= lymph node involvement
    • M= metastases
  8. biochemistry of cancer cells
    mention metabolism and growth
    • simple metabolism requiring less than normal cells
    • requires no support
    • cancer cells aggregates on top of each other
    • some carry fetal features
  9. fetal feature of cancer cells (commonly found in liver cancer cells)
    • alpha fetoprotein (AFP): a secretory product of liver cancer cells that is not synthesized by normal adult cells
    • carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA): a glycoprotein produced by intestinal carcinoma cells that are normally found in embryonic intestinal cells
  10. causes of cancer
    • carcinogens
    • oncogenes: genes that normally encode for cellular proteins but if mutated may cause cancer
  11. action of chemical carcinogens
    • locally (skin or mouth)
    • at the site of digestion in the intestines
    • at the site of metabolic activation in liver (aflatoxin)
    • site of excretion in urine
  12. describe the site of metabolic activation in the liver
    liver is the primary organ involved in degradation/alteration of carcinogens such as aflatoxin
  13. site of excretion in urine
    aromatic amines (procarcinogen)
  14. what is procarcinogen
    inactive form of carcinogen
  15. describe the carcinogen action
    • initiation: induction of irreversible genetic changes to exposed cells
    • promotion: initiated cells proliferate stimulated by exposure to carcinogen or other substance
    • progression: new genetic features and proliferation of cancer cells without need for carcinogen stimulus
    • clonal expansion: rapid proliferation of identical daughter cells
  16. physical carcinogens
    • UV light: creates DNA damage
    • Xrays
    • radioactive isotopes
    • atomic bomb
  17. xeroderma pigmentosum
    a genetic disorder where people lack DNA repair enzymes to repair DNA damaged by UV rays. Are more sensitive to sunlight
  18. aflatoxin
    a natural biologic carcinogen that acts on the liver, derived from fungus
  19. schistosoma haematobium
    • natural biologic carcinogen 
    • parasite that acts on urinary bladder carcinogen
  20. opisthorchis sinenssis
    a Chinese liver fluke that acts as a carcinogen for bile duct or liver
  21. viral carcinogens
    • integration of DNA virus (acute transforming RNA virus or oncogenic RNA virus) inserting into genome
    • transduction: acute transforming RNA viruses forming cellular oncogenes
    • transforms normal cell into malignant cell
    • insertion: of slow transforming oncogenic RNA viruses
  22. Human papilomarivirus (HPV)
    • lesions in cervix 
    • human DNA virus
  23. Epstein barr-virus
    • herpes
    • 90% of US population has antibodies against it, infection may go unnoticed or can produce infections
    • leads to Burkitt's Lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  24. burkitt's lymphoma
    • B-cell neoplasia prevalent in sub Saharan African children
    • IG gene juxtaposed to myc oncogene from chromosome 8 to chromosome 14
  25. Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
    • transmitted by blood
    • double stranded DNA virus
    • prevalent in Japan, China, Southeast Asia
  26. Human T-cell Leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV -1)
    • related to HIV
    • infects human T -lymphocytes in vitro, transforming them into malignant cells
  27. transformation of proto oncogenes into oncogenes
    • point mutation
    • gene amplification
    • chromosomal rearrangement
    • insertion of viral genome
  28. gene amplification
    • numerous copies of proto oncogene proliferate
    • the more oncogene a cell has the more malignant it is
  29. chromosomal rearrangement
    rearrangement of chromosome fragments may stimulate activation of proto-oncogenes
  30. tumor suppressor genes
    normal cells have tumor suppressor genes that protect cells from oncogenes by suppressing them
  31. name the important tumor suppressor genes that you need to know (4)
    • p53: brain tumor
    • RB1: retinoblastoma gene
    • BRCA 1: breast ovarian carcinomas
    • NF1: neurofibrosarcoma
  32. neurofibromatosis type 1
    • most common autosomal dominant disease in humans with loss of function of NF1 tumor suppressor gene
    • characterized by skin lesions called café au lait spots
  33. what are familial adenomatous polyposis coli
    large intestines containing polyps that appear in childhood then reach malignancy in adulthood
  34. what is wilms tumor
    renal malignant tumor of infancy and childhood
  35. what is the immune response to tumors
    malignant tumors may alter so much that they are perceived as foreign by the body and induce antibody production, which limits the growth of the tumor
  36. what are paraneoplastic tumors
    tumors that release specific hormones that may resemble certain disorders that can cause misdiagnosis
  37. cushings syndrome
    small cell carcinoma of the lung
  38. hypercalcemia
    squamous cell carcinoma of the lung
  39. polycythemia
    renal cell carcinoma
  40. examples of paraneoplastic syndromes
    • cusshings syndrome
    • hypercalcemia
    • polycythemia
    • venous thrombosis
    • myasthenia gravis
  41. blastoma
    typically common in children where tumors originate from embryonic cells
Card Set:
C4: Neoplasia/Cancer
2017-10-02 02:00:43
from textbook and ppt
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