a&p 1 chemistry

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a&p 1 chemistry
2010-09-08 10:18:27

a&p 1 chemistry
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  1. Chemistry Comes Alive
  2. Matter
    Anything that has mass and occupies space
  3. States of matter:
    • Solid—definite shape and volume
    • Liquid—definite volume, changeable shape
    • Gas—changeable shape and volume
  4. Energy
    • Capacity to do work or put matter into motion
    • Types of energy:
    • Kinetic—energy in action
    • Potential—stored (inactive) energy
  5. Forms of Energy
    • Chemical energy—stored in bonds of chemical substances
    • Electrical energy—results from movement of charged particles
    • Mechanical energy—directly involved in moving matter
    • Radiant or electromagnetic energy—exhibits wavelike properties (i.e., visible light, ultraviolet light, and X-rays)
  6. Energy Form Conversions
    • Energy may be converted from one form to another
    • Conversion is inefficient because some energy is “lost” as heat
  7. Composition of Matter
    • Elements
    • Cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means
    • Each has unique properties:
    • Physical properties
    • Are detectable with our senses, or are measurable
    • Chemical properties
    • How atoms interact (bond) with one another
  8. Composition of Matter
    • Atoms
    • Unique building blocks for each element
    • Atomic symbol: one- or two-letter chemical shorthand for each element
  9. Major Elements of the Human Body
    • Oxygen (O)
    • Carbon (C)
    • Hydrogen (H)
    • Nitrogen (N)
  10. Lesser Elements of the Human Body
    • About 3.9% of body mass:
    • Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I), and iron (Fe)
  11. Trace Elements of the Human Body
    • < 0.01% of body mass:
    • Part of enzymes, e.g., chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn)

    • Atomic Structure
    • Determined by numbers of subatomic particles
    • Nucleus consists of neutrons and protons
  12. Atomic Structure
    • Neutrons
    • No charge
    • Mass = 1 atomic mass unit (amu)
    • Protons
    • Positive charge
    • Mass = 1 amu
  13. Atomic Structure
    • Electrons
    • Orbit nucleus
    • Equal in number to protons in atom
    • Negative charge
    • 1/2000 the mass of a proton (0 amu)
  14. Models of the Atom
    • Orbital model: current model used by chemists
    • Depicts probable regions of greatest electron density (an electron cloud)
    • Useful for predicting chemical behavior of atoms
  15. Models of the Atom
    • Planetary model—oversimplified, outdated model
    • Incorrectly depicts fixed circular electron paths
    • Useful for illustrations (as in the text)
  16. Atomic Structure
    • Determined by numbers of subatomic particles
    • Nucleus consists of neutrons and protons