DHE 107 Chapter 4 and 5

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  1. If the palatal shelves are unable to fuse properly during prenatal development there may be a formation of a what?
    Cleft Palate
  2. What embryonic layer is mesoderm derived from?

    A) Ectoderm
    B) Epiblast Layer
    C) Neuroectoderm
    D) Hypoblast layer
    B) Epiblast Layer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The copula is formed by the fusion of mesenchyme of mainly the third and parts of the fourth branchial arches. True or False
  4. The nasal cavity forms at the same time as the palate? True or False
  5. What is it that makes the palatal shelves change from growing vertically to horizontally?
    The tongue drops out of the way because the face grows down and forward.
  6. All three embryonic layers are involved in facial development? True or False
    • True
    • ectoderm
    • mesoderm
    • endoderm
  7. Where does the maxillary arch come from?
    The mandibular arch; the mandibular arch gives rise to the maxillary arch.
  8. What does the maxillary arch form?
    Gives rise to the midface: lateral sides of upper lip, cheeks, secondary palate, canines, premolars, molars, soft palate, uvula, zygomatic bone and part of the temporal bone.
  9. What makes the philtrum and the tubercle of the lip?
    The frontonasal process.
  10. What makes the nasal septum and the premaxilla?
    The frontonasal process.
  11. What is the lateral nasal processes?
    The outer parts of the nasal pits that create the nares/nostril area.
  12. What is the medial nasal processes?
    The areas between the nasal pits that fuse together to externally form the middle part of the nose from the root to the apex. Internally form the intermaxillary (premaxillary) segment.
  13. What is the front part of the palate?
    The primary or premaxillary segment.
  14. What is the vertical part that grows into the nasoseptal?
    The nasal septum.
  15. What does the intermaxillary segment form?
    Teeth 7-10, primary palate and nasal septum.
  16. What germ layer lines the nasal cavity?
    Endoderm layer
  17. What germ layer lines the oral cavity?
    Ectoderm layer
  18. The canines, the bicuspids, and the molars on the posterior two thirds of our palate come from where?
    The secondary palate.
  19. Where does the secondary palate come from?
    The maxillary arch.
  20. The stomodeum enlarges and disintegrates and gives rise to what?
    The oral cavity.
  21. What does the mandibular arch give rise to?
    The mandibular teeth, lower lip, muscles of mastication (masseter, temporalis, pterygoids), palatal muscles, suprahyoid muscles, and a portion of the tongue.
  22. The tongue develops from multiple swellings derived from what?
    The first four branchial arches.
  23. What does the sixth branchial arch help form?
    Laryngeal cartilages and pharynx.
  24. The philtrum of the upper lip is derived from what?
    The medial nasal process.
  25. following statements concerning prenatal development is correct.

    A) Initiation of embryonic layers occurs during the first week
    B) Most congenital mouth formations occur during the last prenatal week
    C) Maturation of existing structures occurs during the second to eighth week
    D) The fetus is the structure present during the embryonic period
    A) Initiation of embryonic layers occurs during the first week
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. When do most congenital mouth formations occur?
    Preimplantation period
  27. What is the process that makes our embryo more of a tubular embryo?
    Embryonic folding; the embryo folds in on itself and creates a tubular embryo and it’s this process that puts ectoderm on the outside of the embryo and endoderm on the inside.
  28. What is a teratogen?
    Alcohol, drugs, bacteria or other environmental factors that cause malformations.
  29. What are neural crest cells?
    Within the primitive streak we get a thickened area of cells called neuroectoderm which make up the neural plate. Cells from this neuroectoderm are called neural crest cells which migrate into the mesenchyme of the mandibular arch and are important in the formation of many face and neck structures such as the branchial arches.
  30. What causes Treacher Collins syndrome?
    Failure of migration of neural crest cells to the facial region.
  31. Where does Meckel cartilage form?
    Within each side of the mandibular arch but disappears as the mandible forms. Also participates in the formation of the middle ear bones.
  32. Where does reichert cartilage form?
    In the hyoid arch (second brachial arch); most of it develops during development but parts are responsible for the middle ear bone, a process of the temporal bone, and parts of the hyoid bone.
  33. Neural crest cells migrate from which embryonic structure?
    Neural folds
  34. At the end of the first week the blastocyst stops traveling and undergoes what?
    Implantation in the endometrium
  35. What structure partially separates the oral and nasal cavities in the fifth week of prenatal development?
    The primary palate.
  36. When is the final definitive palate complete?
    Around week 8.
  37. Of our primitive digestive system, what is the head (cephalic) end of the foregut?
    Oropharyngeal membrane, it is what seals off the stomodeum.
  38. What is the name of the membrane that seals off the hindgut?
    Cloacal membrane.
  39. On our tongue we have the anterior main body of the tongue and the root of the tongue which come together to form a v-shaped line. What is the v-shaped line called?
    Sulcus terminalis.
  40. What are the large circles around the sulcus terminalis called?
    Circumvallate Papillae
  41. What is on the exterior surface of the branchial arches?
    The branchial grooves which are lined with ectoderm.
  42. What is on the interior surface of the branchial arches?
    The pharyngeal pouches which are lined with endoderm
  43. What do the pharyngeal pouches give rise to?
    The palatine tonsils, parathyroid glands, and thymus.
  44. What does the first branchial groove give rise to?
    The external auditory meatus (EAM) and the tympanic membrane (eardrum).
  45. Which germ layer lines the oropharynx?
  46. Which germ layer lines the nasopharynx?
  47. On the mandibular arch, what is it called where it fuses in the middle?
    The symphysis.
  48. The intermaxillary segment gives rise to what palate?
    The primary palate.
  49. What does the hyoid arch form?
    The hyoid bone, muscles of facial expression, middle ear muscles, suprahyoid muscles, tongue, and styloid process of temporal bone.
  50. What is the trigeminal nerve?
    Cranial nerve 5; responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as mastication.
  51. What nerve is part of facial expression?
    Cranial nerve 7; controls the muscles of facial expression.
  52. What is induction?
    The action of one group of cells on another which leads to the developmental pathway of responding tissue.
  53. What is proliferation?
    Controlled cellular growth or tissue growth.
  54. What is differentiation?
    When cells become distinct from one another, structurally and functionally. Leads to the formation of different types of tissue.
  55. What is morphogenesis?
    The process of development of differing morphology which makes up specific structures.
  56. What is maturation?
    Attainment of adult function and size due to proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis.
  57. What is morphodifferentiation?
    Development of differing morphology.
  58. What is the first process involved during prenatal development?
  59. What is ankyloglossia?
    Tongue-tied; results from a short attachment of the lingual frenum that extends to the tongue apex.
  60. The mandibular process is also known as?
    1st branchial arch
  61. The hyiod arch is also known as the?
    second branchial arch
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Card Set:
DHE 107 Chapter 4 and 5
2017-09-26 19:19:07
DHE 107
DHE 107 Chapter 4 and 5
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