Volume 3 Chapter 13
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Branch of medicine dealing with health maintenance and disease of women, primarily repoductive organs
Branch of medicine dealing with care of women throughout pregnancy
External Genitalia (Vulva)
- Perineum: Muscular tissue/skin that seperates vagina and anus.
- -Episiotomy-surgical tearing to facilitate birth.
- Mons Pubis: Fatty layer of tissue over the pubic symphysis.
- Labia: Structures that protect the vagina and the urethra.
- -Labia Majora: Located laterally
- -Labia Minora: Located medially
- Clitoris: Highly innervated and vasular erectile tissue. For sexual stimulation.
- Urethra: Drains urinary bladder.
- Vagina: Passage of smooth muscle connecting external genitalia to uterus.
- Uterus: Hollor musclar organ used to house fetus during pregnancy.
- -Endometrium: Inner layer of the uterine wall where fertilized egg implants
- -Myometrium: Thick middle layer of uterine wall made up of smooth muscle fibers.
- -Perimetrium: The serosal peritoneal membrane that forms the outermost layer of uterine wall.
- Fallopian Tubes: Conduct egg from ovaries to uterus.
- Ovaries: Female sex glands. Secrete hormones estrogen and progesterone in respones to Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Lutenizing Hormone (LH). Development and release of eggs.
Onset of menses. Usually between 10-14 years of age.
Release of an egg from the ovary
28 days long. Prepares uterus to receive egg.
Proliferative Phase: First 2 weeks. Uterine lining becomes engorged with blood. After 14 days release of an egg takes place in reponse to LH
Secretory Phase: Stage immediately surrounding ovulation.
Ischemic Phase: If fertilization does not occur estrogen and progesterone levels fall. Vascular changes cause endometrium to become pale and small blood vessels rupture.
Menstrual Phase: Sloughing of inner lining of uterus occurs. Usual blood loss of 50 mL.
Sloughing of endometrium if fertilized egg is not implanted. Controlled by hormones.
Cessation of menses and ovarian function due to decreased secretion of estrogen.
Most Common Emergency GYN Complaints
- Abdominal Pain
- Vaginal Bleeding
Painful Sexual Intercourse
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
An acute infection of the reproductive organs.
Infection of the urinary bladder.
Painful urination often associated with cystitis
Abdominal pain associated with ovulation
Infection of the endometrium
Endometrial tissue grows outside uterus.
Implantation of a developing fetus outside the uterus
Treatment for Abdominal Pain
Excessive menstrual flow
Treatment for Vaginal Bleeding
- Absorb blood flow
- Oxygen and IV access
- Antepartum: Time prior to fetus delivery
- Postpartum: Time after fetus delivery
- Prenatal: Prior to birth
- Natal: Relating to birth
- Gravidity: Number of times a woman has been pregnant
- Parity: Number of pregnancies carried to full term
- Primigravida: Women pregnant for first time
- Primipara: Woman given birth to first child
- Multigravida: Been pregnant more than once
- Nulligravida: Never been pregnant
- Multipara: Delivered more than one baby
- Nullipara: Never delivered a baby
- Grand Multiparity: More than 7 babies delivered
- Gestation: Period of time for intrauterine fetal development
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