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  1. Hydrocholoric Acid
  2. Nitric Acid
  3. Acetic Acid
  4. Sulfuric Acid
  5. Phosphoric Acid
  6. Carbonic Acid
  7. Chloric Acid
  8. Oxidation of Copper
  9. Oxidation States of Iron
  10. Oxidation States of Mercury
  11. Oxidation states of Antimony
  12. Oxidation states of Chromium
  13. Oxidation states of Tin
    2+, 4+
  14. Chemistry
    The study of matter, its composition, and the changes it undergoes
  15. Major Divisons of Chemistry
    • 1.Biochemistry- study of biological chemicals
    • 2.Organic- carbon based compounds
    • 3.Inorganic- all other elements
    • 4.Physical- theory and concepts
    • 5.analytical- methods of analysis
    • 6.nuclear- radioactive materials
  16. Scientific Method
    • 1.Apply logical, organized reason to any observation made
    • 2.Form Hypothesis
    • 3.Reject or confirm (trial&error) hypothesis through experiment
  17. Matter
    anything that has mass and takes up space
  18. Mass
    measure of the amount of matter that object contains
  19. Weight
    the effect of gravity on matter
  20. Physical Properties
    can be seen without changing the composition of material
  21. Intense
    size doesn't matter

    ex.color, ordor, density, melting point, boiling point, taste, feel, compressibility, magnetism, duetility, solubility, conductivity
  22. extensive
    size does matter

    ex.mass, length, etc.
  23. Chemical Properites
    change in composition
  24. Physical changes in matter
    composition isnt altered

    • changes in state
    • dissolving
    • pulverizing
  25. chemical changes in matter
    composition is altered

    • rusting
    • combustion
    • fermentation
  26. Factors that aid chemical reactions
    • 1.heat energy
    • 2.light energy
    • 3.electric energy
    • 4.water
    • 5.catalyst
  27. exothermic
    energy is released (heat or light)
  28. endothermic
    energy is absorbed (temp. drops)
  29. atoms
    smallest unit of an element that has all the properties of the element
  30. molecule
    smallest unit of a pure substance that has all the properties of that substance

    may have one atom or more
  31. diatomic
    molecule that contains two atoms
  32. homoatomic
    two or more atoms of one element
  33. heteroatomic
    contains at least 2 atoms of two or more elements
  34. mixture
    a combination of two or more pure substances
  35. homogenous
    uniform composition
  36. heterogenous
    non-uniform composition
  37. element
    cannot be converted to simplier form by a chemical reaction

    ex.hydrogen, oxygen
  38. compound
    two or more elements in a definite, reproducible way

  39. data
    measurements and observations that you make
  40. results
    data obtained from experiments
  41. units
    defines the quantities being measured

    must have units
  42. mega-
  43. kilo-
  44. hecto
  45. deca-
  46. deci-
  47. 1 liter=_______quarts
  48. 1 kilogram=______lbs
  49. 1 meter=_______yards
  50. 1 inch=________cm
  51. accuracy
    how close to the true value
  52. procision
    how close to each other
  53. Significant Figures
    • leading zeros are not significant
    • captive zeros are significant
    • trailing zeros are significant
  54. Formula to find Fahrenheit
  55. Formula to find Celsius
  56. Formula for finding Kelvins
  57. Denisty formula
  58. Speific Gravity formula
    SG=density of substance/ density of reference
  59. Solid or liquid reference is equal to?
  60. gas reference is equal to?
  61. Percentage Error Formula
  62. Symbols
    used to represent each element
  63. formulas
    used to represent compounds
  64. compound formula
    consists of the symbol of the elements found on the compound
  65. nucleus
    the protons and neutrons are tightly bound together to form the central portion of an atom
  66. Protons
    • located in the nucleus
    • charge of 1+
    • mass of 1u
  67. Neutrons
    • located in the nucleus
    • no charge
    • mass of 1u
  68. Electrons
    • located outside the nucleus
    • charge of 1-
    • mass of 1/1836u
  69. Atomic Number of an atom
    equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom

    represented by the symbol of Z
  70. Mass number of an atom
    equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom

    represented by the symbol A
  71. Isotopes
    atoms that contain the same number of protons but a different numbe of neutrons

    • they have the same atomic # but different mass #
    • same #of electrons outside that nucleus
  72. relative masses
    extremely small size of atoms and molecules make it inconvenient to use their actual masses

    comparisons of actual masses
  73. atomic weight
    the relative mass of an average atom of the element expressed in atomic mass unit

    the number given at the bottom ofthe box containing the symbol of each element
  74. molecular weight
    relative mass of a molecule in the atomic mass unit

    obtained by adding together the atomic weigth of all the atoms in the molecule
  75. Formula for finding atomic weight of isotopes
    (isotope percentage)(isotope mass)/ 100
  76. Mole is equal to______
    the number of atoms in one mole is equal to Avogardro's Number
  77. Avogardro's Number
  78. Percentage Composition
    • Know the formula
    • 2.Know the formula weight
    • 3.divide the number of atoms by the formula weight

    • ex.H3PO4=98.00
    • H=3.03/98.00=3.09%
  79. All done =)
    GOOD JOB!!!
Card Set
Chemitry Chapters 1 and 2
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