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List six drug side effects that increase a person’s risk for accidents and injuries.
- Loss of balance
- Lack of coordination
- Reduced awareness
List four common causes of burns.
- Spilled hot liquids
List five causes of suffocation.
- Inhaling gas or smoke
- Electrical shock
Why are older persons at risk for choking?
Older people have a harder time swallowing their food.
_________ are used to relieve severe airway obstruction.
____________ are used to relieve severe airwayObstruction in very obese persons and in pregnant women
__________ are used to relieve foreign-body airway obstruction (FBAO) in infants.
Back slaps and chest trusts
A hazardous substance is _______________.
something that is a health hazard or a physical hazard
Hazardous substance containers need warning labels. What should you do if a warning label is removed or damaged?
Do not use the substance. Show the container to the nurse and explain the problem.
List six safety precautions that are practiced where oxygen is used and stored.
- No smoking signs are placed on the door and near the bed.
- Smoking materials, matches, and lighters are removed from the bed.
- Safety measures to prevent equipment accidents.
- The person wear a cotton gown or pajamas.
- Lit candles, incense and other open flames are not allowed.
- Wool blankets and synthetic fabrics are removed from person’s room.
If evacuation is necessary during a fire, which patients or residents are taken out first?
Patient and residents closest to the fire.
_________ is violent acts directed toward persons at work or while on duty.
Where does workplace violence occur?
In the health care setting.
Risk management involves
Identifying and controlling risks and safety hazard, affecting the agency.
You must report errors in care, which include
Giving wrong care, giving care to the wrong person, and not giving care.
Explain why falls are more likely during shift changes.
Staff are busy going off and coming on duty. Confusion can occur about who gives care and answers call light. Then the patient may not be able to wait any longer and try to reach or do things themselves.
Where can you find safety measures for the person’s specific risk factors?
______ and _____ tells you when to raise bed rails.
Nurse and the care plan
Bed rails cannot be used unless
it’s in the person’s best interest
You are making an occupied bed for a resident. The resident does not use bed rails.How will you provide for the person’s safety?
Ask a co-worker to help. Have them stand on the far side of the bed.
Explain the purpose of hand rails.
They give support to persons who are weak or unsteady when walking.
You must make sure bed wheels are locked when:
- Giving bedside care.
- Transferring a person to and from bed.
To use a transfer/gait belt safely, always follow
nurse and the care plan.
The gait belt is applied around the person’s
You are assisting a resident to walk. The person starts to fall. Why should you ease the person to the floor?
You could injure yourself and the person while twisting and straining to prevent the fall.
A physical restraint is
any manual method or physical or mechanical device, material or equipment attached to or near the person’s body that he or she cannot move easily.
________ is any action that punishes or penalizes a person.
The most serious risk from restraint use is
Unnecessary restraint is
Explain why you must always follow the manufacturer’s instructions when applying a restraint.
The restraints must be snug and firm but not tight. Tight restraints affect circulation and breathing. You could be negligent if you do not apply or secure a restraint properly.
List ten risks of restraint use:
- Cuts and bruises
- Decline in physical function
- Head trauma
A patient you are caring for has a belt restraint when in the wheelchair. What do you need to record about the restraint?
- The type of restraint applied
- The body part or parts restrained
- The reason for the application
- Safety measure taken
- The time you applied the restraint
- The time you removed or released the restraint
- The person’s vital signs
- The care given when the restraint was removed and for how long
- Charges in the person’s behavior
What do you need to report about the restraint?
- Difficulty breathing
- Pain, numbness, or tingling in the restrained part
- A tight restraint
Back cushions are not used when a person is restrained in a chair because
Strangulation could result if the person slides forward or down from the extra slack.
The person in restraints is visually observed how often?
Every 15 minutes or as often as directed.
the processes, procedures, and chemical treatments that kill microbes or prevent them from causing infection.
A microbe that is harmful and can cause an infection is a
a drug that kills certain microbes that cause infection
What are two causes of multidrug-resistant organisms?
- Prescribing antibiotics when not needed.
- Not taking antibiotics for the length of time prescribed.
Two common types of multidrug-resistant organisms are:
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus.
- Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci.
The chain of infection is a process of involving a:
- Portal of exit
- Method of transmission
- Portal of entry
- Susceptible host
The human body can protect itself from infection. The ability to resist infection relates to
_______ is the process of destroying all microbes
______ is the easiest and most important way to prevent the spread of infection
Standard Precautions are used for
all persons whenever care is given
The personal protective equipment (PPE) needed depends on
tasks, procedure, care measures, and the type of transmission based precautions used
_____________ are worn when caring for persons with tuberculosis (TB)
Masks and respiratory protection
Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette involves:
- Cover the nose and mouth to cough or sneeze.
- Uses tissues to contain respiratory secretions.
- Dispose of tissues in the nearest waste container.
- Perform hand hygiene after contact with respiratory secretion.
- Provide visitors with masks according to agency policy.
_______ protect your eyes, mouth, and nose from splashing or spraying of blood, body fluids, secretions, and excretions
Personal protective equipment
The Bloodborne Pathogen Standard is a regulation of
exposure to HIV and HBV
The AIDS virus and the hepatitis B virus exit the body through
Contaminated needles and sharp instruments are discarded in containers that are
closable, punctures-resistant, leak-proof and are color coded red
is any eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin or parenteral contact with blood or OPIM.
piercing the mucous membrane or the skin.
the person whose blood or body fluids are the source of an exposure incident.
When is surgical asepsis required?
Any time the skin or sterile tissues are entered
A sterile field is
an area free of any microbes
You are assisting with a sterile procedure. You know that any item below your waist is considered
The goals of first aid are to:
- Prevent death.
- Prevent injuries from becoming worse.
You must activate the emergency medical services (EMS) system. What information should you give the operator?
- Your location-street address and city, cross streets or roads and landmarks.
- Phone number you are calling from.
- What seems to have happened.
- How many people need help.
- Conditions of victims, obvious injuries, and life threatening situations.
- What and is being given.
The American Heart Association’s “Chain of Survival” actions for adults are:
- Surveillance and prevention.
- Recognizing cardiac arrest and activating the EMS systems.
- Immediate high-quality CPR.
- Rapid defibrillation.
- Advance life support and post-arrest care.
The three major signs of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) are:
- No response.
- No breathing or no normal breathing.
- No pulse.
_______ is when breathing stops but heart action continues for several minutes. If breathing is not restored, cardiac arrest occurs.
List the four basic parts of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
- Chest compressions
The ______ opens the airway.
head tilt-chin lift method
A poison is
any substance harmful to the body when ingested, inhaled, injected or absorbed through the skin
Before starting chest compressions, use the ______ on the side near you to check for circulation.
The purpose of chest compressions is to
force blood through the circulatory systems
_________ as soon as possible after the onset of ventricular fibrillation increases the person’s chance of survival.
CPR is done if the person
is in cardiac arrest
What is the purpose of the recovery position?
It helps keep the airway open and prevents aspiration
Do not use the recovery position if the person might have
neck trauma or other trauma
Where does internal bleeding occur?
It occurs inside body tissues and body cavities.
Bleeding from ______ occurs in spurts
Shock results when
tissues and organs do not get enough blood
is a life-threatening sensitivity to an antigen.
With a _____ seizure, the person does not lose consciousness
This type of seizure has two phases
Generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure
Some burns are minor. Others are severe. Severity depends on:
- Burn size and depth.
- The body part involved.
Emergency care for fainting includes:
- Have the person sit or lie down before fainting occurs.
- If sitting, the person bends forward and places the head between the knees.
- If the person is lying down, raise the legs.
- Loosen tight clothing.
- Keep the person lying down if fainting has occurred.
- Do not let the person getup quickly.
- Help the person to a sitting position after recovering.
- Provide BLS if there is no response or breathing.
Signs of stroke depend on
Size and location of brain injury
During an emergency, you need to protect the person from onlookers because
of the right to privacy. They can threaten privacy and confidentiality
5 types of bacteria