Practice Test 1 Human Physiology

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  1. A protein is found in blood that is secreted by the pituitary gland and acts on the testes, the protein is classified as a/an?
    A. Neurotransmitter
    B. Paracrine agent
    C. Hormone
    D. Autocrine agent
    C. Hormone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. An enzyme that catalyzes phosphorylation of a protein is called a? An enzyme that catalyzes dephosphorylation of a protein is called a?
    A. Cofactor: Coenzyme
    B. Kinase: Phosphatase
    C. Coenzyme: Cofactor
    c. Phosphatase: kinase
    d. ligand: active site
    B. Kinase: Phosphatase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which is Not true regarding prostaglandins?
    A. Aspirins inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins
    B. They are paracrine agents
    C. They are derived from membrane phospholipids
    D. They are eicosanoids
    E. NSAIDs stimulate the synthesis of prostaglandins.
    E. NSAIDs stimulate the synthesis of prostaglandins.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. In response to falling blood pressure, the nervous system will stimulate the heart to pump harder and increase blood pressure. This is an example of?
    A. Extrinsic regulation to accomplish negative feedback
    B. Intrinsic regulation to accomplish negative feedback
    C. Extrinsic regulation to accomplish positive feedback
    D. Intrinsic regulation to accomplish positive feedback
    e. None of the above
    A. Extrinsic regulation to accomplish negative feedback
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. A chemical messenger is released by a cell within the thyroid gland and binds to receptors on other thyroid cells and to receptors on itself. This chemical messenger would be considered?
    A. Paracrine factor
    B. Neurotransmitter
    C. C & D are correct
    D. Autocrine factor
    E. Hormone
    C.  both C & D are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following statements applies to paracrine regulation?
    a. Paracrine chemicals are always released directly into the bloodstream.
    b.Prostaglandins are paracrine chemicals
    c. Paracrine chemicals are released by cells in a tissue and act on cells in the same vicinity

    d. A & B

    e. B & C
    e.  both B & C
  7. The hormone insulin causes the transport of glucose into body cells. Its secretion is controlled by a negative feedback system. Which of the following is most likely to be correct?

    A. A decrease in blood glucose concentration will stimulate insulin secretion, which will in turn increase the blood glucose concentration
    B. A decrease in blood glucose concentration will stimulate insulin secretion, which will, in turn, lower the blood glucose concentration further
    C. An increase in blood glucose concentration will stimulate insulin secretion which will, in turn, lower the blood glucose concentration
    D. an increase in blood glucose concentration will stimulate insulin secretion. Which will in turn increase blood glucose concetration further.
    e. none of the above



    BGC
    Increase BGC further
    C. An increase in blood glucose concentration will stimulate insulin secretion which will, in turn, lower the blood glucose concentration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Homeostasis
    A. B & C
    B. A & C
    C. Depends primarily upon positive feedback
    D.Depends upon the interaction of receptors, integrating centers and effectors
    E. Depends primarily upon negative feedback
    A. Both  B & C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. When a person cuts herself, she has clotting factors in her blood that will be released continuously in an increasing cascade until her blood clots and stops the bleeding, what mechanism caused her blood to clot?
    A. Negative feedback
    B. Positive feedback
    C. Reabsorption
    D. Secretion
    E. Feedforward mechanism
    B. Positive feedback
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which of the following can be catabolized to produce ATP by cellular respiration?
    a. Carbs
    b. Lipids
    c. Proteins
    d. All of the above
    e. A & B only
    A&Bonly
    d. All of the above
  11. Which of these cell membrane transport mechanisms is subject to saturation limits?

    A. Simple diffusion
    B. Facilitated Diffusion
    C. Osmosis
    D. Diffusion through a protein channel
    B. Facilitated Diffusion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which of the following would not increase the rate of simple diffusion across the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane?
    A. Higher concentration gradient
    B. Greater number of protein carriers
    C. Greater available surface area of the cell membrane
    D. Smaller size
    E. Higher lipid solubility
    B. Greater number of protein carriers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Which substance could cross the plasma membrane directly through the lipid portion?
    a. O2 (Oxygen)
    b. Glucose

    C. Na+
    d. The protein insulin
    e. An Amino Acid
    a. O2 (Oxygen)
  14. What is the electrochemical gradient for Na+?
    A. Favors its diffusion into a cell
    B. Is maintained by the Na+/K+ pump
    C. Both B & C
    D. Favors diffusion out of the cell
    E. Both A & C
    E. Both A & C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which of the following types of transport is involved in the transepithelial transport of Na+ from the lumen of the intestine into the bloodstream?

    a. Active Transport of Na+
    b. Diffusion of Na+ through a carrier
    c. Diffusion of Na+ through a channel
    d. All of the Above
    e. A & C
    • e. Both A & C ( Active Transport of Na+
    •  Diffusion of Na+ through a channel)
  16. Predict the effect of placing an RBC in Pure H20
    A. Crenation
    B. No visible impact on the cell
    C. Swelling and potential lysis
    C. Swelling and potential lysis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which of the following would decrease the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction?
    a. Increase the concentration of an enzyme
    b. Increase the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate
    c. Increase the concentration of substrate
    d. Increase the concentration of product
    e. Increase the available energy
    d. Increase the concentration of product
  18. Consider the following reaction: C02 + H20<>H2C03 <> H2C03<>H+ + HC03- When a tissue becomes more active, C02 increases due to the C02 production in?
    A. Mitochondria; increases
    B. Mitochondria; decreases
    C. The cytoplasm; increases
    D. Both the cytoplasm and mitochondria decreases
    E. The cytoplasm; decreases
    B. Mitochondria; decreases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which of the following would increase the saturation rate for an enzyme-catalyzed chemical reaction?
    A. Increase substrate concentration
    B. Increase Enzyme Concentration
    C. Increase product concentration
    d. All of the above
    All of the above
    B. Increase Enzyme Concentration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of the following examples of transport does not require a carrier protein

    A. Diffusion of K+ down its concentration gradient
    B. Requires a carrier protein
    C. Neither B or D requires a carrier protein
    D. The Na+/K+ pump
    E. Facilitated Diffusion
    C. Neither B or D requires a carrier protein
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Place the number of the components of a reflex arc in the correct order
    (1) Effector
    (2) Receptor
    (3) Afferent pathway
    (4) Stimulus
    (5) Integration center
    (6) Efferent pathway

    (A) 2, 4, 1,3,6,5
    (B) 4, 3,2,6,5,1
    (C) 4, 2, 3,5,1,6
    (D) 4,2,3,5,6,1
    (D) 4,2,3,5,6,1
    1. Stimulus
    2. Receptor
    3. Afferent Pathway
    4. IntegrationCenter
    5. Efferent Pathway
    6. Effector
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The process of producing glucose from amino acids is termed
    A. glycogenesis
    B. gluconeogenesis
    C. glycogenolysis
    D. lipogenesis
    B. gluconeogenesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Of the gradients listed below, which is the most accurate description of the force that determines the movement of ions across the membrane at resting membrane potential
    a. chemical gradient
    b. potential gradient
    c. Electrochemical gradient
    d. concentration gradient
    e. electrical gradient
    c. Electrochemical gradient
  24. In facilitated diffusion, a molecule is moved
    A. against its concentration gradient with the assistance of a protein carrier molecule and requires ATP
    B. down its concentration gradient with the assistance of a protein carrier molecule, and no ATP is required
    C. against its concentration gradient while Na is moved with it's concentration gradient
    D. against its concentration gradient with the assistance of a protein carrier molecule, but no ATP required
    E. with its concentration gradient while Na is moved against its concentration gradient
    B. down its concentration gradient with the assistance of a protein carrier molecule, and no ATP is required
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Which of these terms describes the variable binding of multiple substrates to an enzyme's active site?
    A. feedback inhibition
    B. Enzyme-substrate affinity
    C. Substrate specificity
    D. Saturation
    C. Substrate specificity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Ammonia is:
    A. a waste product of protein metabolism
    B. a waste product of carbohydrate metabolism
    C. a waste product of lipid metabolism
    D. processed by the liver to a less toxic compound
    E. Both B and C
    E. Both B and C

    processed by the liver to a less toxic compound.
    a waste product of protein metabolism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Glycogenesis refers to the synthesis of__ and occurs in__?
    A. Glucose; all organs
    B. Triglycerides; Adipose tissue
    C. Glucose; the liver
    D. Glycogen; the liver
    E. Fatty acids; Adipose tissue
    D. Glycogen; the liver
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Long-term exposure to high levels of chemical messenger will__ the receptors for that chemical messenger on the target cell?
    A. up regulated
    B. down regulate
    C. change the conformation of
    D. not affect
    E. increase the affinity of
    B. down regulate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which of the following statements regarding the active transport of substances across cell membrane is correct?
    a. Both primary and secondary active transport will eventually use ATP energy
    b. active transport requires a carrier protein
    c. active transport moves molecules from their low concentration to their high concentration
    d. all the above
    e. Both A and B only
    d. all the above
  30. When an enzyme's shape, and therefore its activity is controlled by a ligand loosely and reversibly binding at a regulatory site, it is called?
    A. covalent regulation
    B. allosteric regulation
    C. positive feedback
    D. homeostatic regulation
    B. allosteric regulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which of the following statements about the transepithelial transport of glucose with sodium(as it is absorbed from the lumen of the intestine to the bloodstream) is true?

    a. glucose moves out of the apical surface of the cell while sodium moves into the apical surface of a cell
    b. sodium moves out of the apical surface of the cell but the movement of glucose will vary based on the type of cell
    c. glucose and sodium both move out of the apical surface of the cell
    d. glucose and sodium both move into the apical surface of the cell
    e. glucose moves into the cell while sodium moves out of the apical surface of the cell
    d. glucose and sodium both move into the apical surface of the cell
  32. 32.which of the following statements about the Na/K pump is false?
    a. it transports Na out of the cells and K into the cells
    b. it uses ATP
    c. it is constantly active in all cells
    d. it transports Na and K in a 3:1 ratio
    e. it requires a carrier protein
    d. it transports Na and K in a 3:1 ratio
  33. Which of the following examples of transport requires a carrier protein?
    A. diffusion of K down its concentration gradient
    B. both A and C require carrier protein
    C. facilitated diffusion of glucose down its concentration gradient
    D. the movement of water into a cell 
    E. the Na/K pump
    B. both A and C require carrier protein
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. for an action potential to occur:
    a. The stimulus must reach or exceed threshold
    b. sodium movement into the cell must exceed potassium movement out of the cell
    c. the membrane must be out of the absolute refractory period
    d. all of the above are correct
    e. A and B are correct

    be able to identify action potential diagram
    d. all of the above are correct
  35. Identify the type of channels involved in Phase (1)?
    A. open chemical-gated sodium (Na+) channels
    B. close voltage-gated potassium(K+) channels
    C. open voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channels
    D. close voltage-gated sodium(Na+) channels
    C. open voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channels
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Identify the type of channels primarily involved in phase (2)?
    A. open voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels
    B. open chemical-gated sodium(Na+) channels
    C. open voltage-gated sodium(Na+) channels
    D. open chemical-gated potassium (K+) channels
    A. open voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. In a neuron, an action potential originates at the____ and travels along the axon until it reaches the____
    A. axon hillock, dendrite
    B. axon terminal, axon hillock
    C. axon hillock, axon terminal
    D. dendrite, axon hillock
    E. dendrite, axon terminal
    C. axon hillock, axon terminal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Hypokalemia will result in
    a. depolarization at rest
    b. hyperpolarization at rest
    c. difficulty achieving threshold
    d. Both B and C
    e. none of the above
    • d. Both B and C
    • (hyperpolarization at rest. difficulty achieving threshold)
  39. Choose the most likely voltage to CLOSE the voltage-gated Na channels in the axon of the neuron.
    A. 30mV
    B. not enough information to answer the question
    C. -55mV
    D. -70mV
    A. 30mV
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. How can action potentials relay information about the intensity of a stimulus, such as distinguishing between a loud and soft sound?  a. due to the frequency of action potential
    b. due to the magnitude of each action potential
    c. due to the summation of several action potentials
    d. due to electronic conduction
    e. due to the increasing intensity of graded potentials
    a. due to the frequency of action potential
  41. In myelinated axons, voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels would be concentrated in what area?
    A. axon hillock
    B. nucleus
    C. dendrites
    D. nodes
    E. axon terminal
    D. nodes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Which of the following is responsible for restoring the resting electrical gradient (polarized nature) of the plasma membrane after the depolarization phase of an action potential?
    A. loss of ATP
    B. The Na+/K+ pump
    C. Ca++ channels opening
    D. The opening of voltage-gated  Na channels
    E. the opening of voltage-gated K+ channels
    E. the opening of voltage-gated K+ channels
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. The absolute refractory period of a neuron has primarily to do with __

    A. the status of the chemical-gated sodium (Na+) channels
    B. The intensity of the original stimulus
    C.  the status of the voltage-gated sodium(Na+) channels
    d. all of the above
    e. none of the above
    C.  the status of the voltage-gated sodium(Na+) channels
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Opening gated Na+ channels in a cell membrane would result in

    a. hyperpolarization
    b. repolarization
    c. depolarization
    d. the inside and the outside of the cell membrane becoming more similar in charge
    e. Both C and D are true
    e. Both C and D are true
  45. What type of ion channels are responsible for establishing the resting membrane potential of a cell?

    A. voltage-gated sodium channels
    B. chemical or ligand-gated channels
    C. leak channels
    D. voltage gated potassium channels
    C. leak channels
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. If the graded potential is at or above threshold once it reaches the of the neuron, an action potential will be generated.

    a. cell body
    b. dendrite
    c. axon
    d. axon hillock
    d. nucleus
    d. axon hillock
  47. Which disorder will cause swelling of brain cells, leading to erratic behavior?

    A.hyperkalemia
    B. hypocalcemia
    C. hyponatremia
    D.hypokalemia
    C. hyponatremia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Which of these is most likely to be responsible for a hyperpolarizing graded potential in a cell?
    A. ligand-gated Na+ channels
    B. Ligand-gated potassium(K+) channels
    C. Potassium(K+) leak channels
    D. Voltage-gated channels
    B. Ligand-gated potassium(K+) channels
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. The cell would be in the relative refractory period when?
    A. the voltage =gated potassium (K+) gates are open
    B. the voltage-gated sodium (Na+) gates are open
    C. the cell is slightly hyperpolarized
    d. all of the above
    e. Both B and / or C are correct
    B. the voltage-gated sodium (Na+) gates are open
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. A subthreshold stimulus will not generate an action potential, but a supra-threshold stimulus does generate an action potential. This is an example of?

    A. negative feedback
    B. positive feedback
    C. the all or none principle
    d. a refractory period
    e. electro-tonic conduction
    C. the all or none principle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Movement of what ion is responsible for ever " D" in this figure above?
    a. sodium (Na+)
    b. potassium (K+)
    c. chloride(Cl-)
    d. calcium (Ca)
    e. Phosphate (P04-)
  52. Action Potentials can be either depolarizing or hyperpolarizing?

    a. true 
    b. false
    b. false
  53. When a tissue encounters low oxygen levels, cell within the tissue release chemicals that cause local arteriole dilation. This is an example of intrinsic regulation to accomplish negative feedback?

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  54. The primary source of negative charges in the intracellular fluid is presence of chloride ions?

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  55. Increasing the concentration of substrate for an enzyme catalyzed reaction will increase the saturation rate?

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  56. In the absence of the Na+/K+ pump, the resting membrane potential of a cell would eventually stabilize at (0) mV?

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  57. substrate specificity implies multiple possible substrates?

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  58. Intracellular and extracellular fluid the have the same ion concentration?

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  59. Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell?

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  60. Hypokalemia will stop the heart due to the inability of cardiac muscle to repolarize after an action potential

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false

Card Set Information

Author:
dahotstuff30
ID:
334379
Filename:
Practice Test 1 Human Physiology
Updated:
2017-09-21 23:41:15
Tags:
desmosomes negative feedback pituitary hypothalamus
Folders:
physiology
Description:
Chater 1 to chapter 7
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