Body Tissues Exam 1 Residual

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  1. the integumentary system consists of (2)
    • skin
    • skin appendages (includes hair, nails, sweat, glands and sebaceous glands)
  2. Functions of the integument (5)
    • Protection
    • Temperature regulation
    • Sensory
    • Excretion
    • Synthesis and storage of nutrients
  3. The protection function includes (4):
    • Protection against abrasion
    • Barrier to pathogens
    • Impermeable to water: prevents fluid loss
    • Melanin protects against UV damage
  4. The temperature function includes (3)
    • Sweating
    • Vasodilation (losing heat but feel warm)
    • Vasoconstrict
  5. The sensory function includes
    Nerve endings in the skin respond to temperature, touch, pressure and pain stimuli
  6. The excretion function includes:
    glands excreting salts, water, and organic wastes

    *sweat glands do both temperature regulation and excretion
  7. Synthesis and storage of nutrients in the integument includes
    Epidermis synthesizing vitamin D3
  8. Layers of the skin integument
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
  9. True/False: the hypodermis is a layer of the skin and a part of the integument

    it is a layer of the skin but NOT a part of the integument
  10. Surface stratified squamous epithelium
  11. immediately beneath the epidermis and contains the papillary layer and reticular layer
  12. layer of the skin that is also known as subcutaneous tissue
  13. What are the cell layers (strata) of the epidermis from bottom to top
    • Stratum basale
    • Stratum spinosum
    • stratum granulosum
    • stratum lucidum
    • stratum corneum
  14. germinative layer of the epidermis that produces intermediate keratin filaments
    Stratum basale
  15. keratin produced and arranged into bundles of tonofilament and the desmosomes are apparent
    Stratum spinosum
  16. Dense keratohyaline granules (Filaggrin and tonofilaments)
    Lamellar granules form a lipid barrier
    Stratum granulosum
  17. Degenerated nuclei and organelles
    Stratum lucidum
  18. surface keratin layer
    Stratum Corneum
  19. What is a network of pretense that serve as attachments and anchors and is  located between epidermis and dermis
    Basement membrane
  20. What type of the skin is most of the integument made of?
    Thin skin
  21. What are contained in thin skin?
    Sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and hair
  22. What type of keratin is in thin skin
    Basket-weave keratin
  23. Where is thick skin located?
    Palms and soles
  24. What is contained in the thick skin
    numerous eccrine sweat glands, but has not hair or sebaceous glands
  25. What type of keratin is in thick skin?
    thick, compacted keratin
  26. what is a friction ridge?
    a friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the palmar (an imprint of a friction ridge is a finger print)
  27. What are the other cell types in the epidermis (3)
    • Melanocytes
    • Langerhans cells
    • Merkel cells
  28. Originate form the neural crest
    Responsible for melanin production
  29. What epidermis cells are located in the basal cell layer or right above and dendritic (branch other)
  30. antigen presenting cells that are produced in the bone marrow

    reside primarily in the stratum spinosum
    Langerhans cells
  31. Condition where you see floating teeth and red rash looking thing on the head
    langerhans cell histiocytosis
  32. cells that are closely associated with the sensory nerves and function as mechanoreceptors (light touch)

    Located int eh stratum basale and interact with nerves at the base of the membrane
    Merkel cells
  33. Connective tissue beneath the epithelium

    Contains the adnexa, blood vessels, nerves and sensory receptors
  34. what separates the epidermis and dermis?
    Basement membrane
  35. What are the two layers of the dermis?
    • Superficial papillary layer
    • Deeper reticular layer
  36. immediately subjacent to the epidermis 
    Dermal papillae interdigitate with the rete ridges of the epidermis
    Papillary layer
  37. What is the papillary layer composed of?
    • Loose CT
    • Blood vessels
    • Meissner Corpuscles
  38. these things are located in the superficial papillary dermis 
    They are sensory receptors for light touch
    most prominent in thick skin
    Meissner corpuscles
  39. deeper layer of dermis that is thicker than the upper layer
    Reticular layer
  40. what the reticular layer composed of?
    Dense, irregular connective tissue (elastic and type 1 collagen fibers)
  41. What can withstand mechanical stress and can support pilosebaceous apparatus and sweat glands?
    Reticular layer
  42. contains arteriovenous anatomosis (when two blood supplies merge) 
    important for temperature regular
  43. Glomus (reticular layer) in located where?
    fingertips and external ear
  44. Found in the reticular layer and in the hypodermic 

    Large sensory receptors
    Pressure, vibration, and touch
    Pacinian corpuscles
  45. also called the subcutaneous later and is deep to the dermis but no clear transition is present

    Stabilizes the skin to underlying tissues and is a target for many injections
  46. What is the hypodermic made of?
    loose (areolar) CT with abundant adipose tissue
  47. The skin adnexa include (4):
    • Sweat glands (eccrine and apocrine)
    • hair and hair follicles
    • Sebaceous glands
    • Nails
  48. also called sudoriferous glands and composed of simple coiled tubular structure
    Sweat glands
  49. Where are sweat glands found?
    Deep dermis (or hypodermis)
  50. What is another name for sweat glands?
    Sudoirferous glands
  51. What are the two types of sweat glands?
    • Eccrine (mesocrine)
    • Apocrine (mesocrine)
  52. What does mesocrine mean?
    the product of secretion leaves the cells via exocytosis into an epithelial wall duct/ducts
  53. simple coiled tubular glands that are widely distributed that contains 2 types of secretory cells
    Eccrine sweat glands
  54. What are the two types of secretory cells in the eccrine sweat glands
    • Dark, granular mucous-producing cells
    • Clear cells that produce a salty watery secretion
  55. the secretory portion of the eccrine gland is surrounded by
    Myoepithelial cells
  56. Eccrine glands are most abundant where?
    on skin of palms and soles
  57. Made of coiled tubular glands but has a larger lumina than the other gland type
    Aprocrine sweat glands
  58. Where are apocrine sweat glands located?
    axillae (armpit), anogenital area (genitals), and around the nipples
  59. When do the apocrine sweat glands become active?
  60. Why does sweat smell?
    The sweat is food source for skin bacteria and this increases the odor
  61. Where to the apocrine sweat glands empty their secretions?
    Hair follicle canal
  62. Hair is found throughout the body except
    • soles and palms
    • lips (vermillion)
    • portions of the external genitalia
  63. What does the pilosebaceous unit consist of (3)
    • Hair follicle
    • sebaceous glands
    • arrector pilli muscle (goosebumps)
  64. the hair bulb at the very base

    has internal and external epithelial root sheaths 

    outer connective tissue sheath

    Hair (root and shaft)
    Hair follicle
  65. located at the base of pilosebaceous unit of the hair follicle
    hair bulb
  66. Two portions of the hair bulb
    • hair matrix
    • dermal papilla of the hair bulb (contains the capillary network and supplies the region with blood)
  67. what is the dark staining cellular area of the hair bulb?
    Germinative layer of cells
  68. What does the germinative layer of cells in the hair matrix do?
    They produce keratin and become compacted into the hair root as they migrate upward
  69. True/False: melanin pigment may be present in the hair matrix
  70. composed of 2 separate layers and located right next to the hair
    Internal root sheath
  71. What are the two separate layers of the internal root sheath?
    • inner granular cells
    • outer pale cells
  72. composed of several layers of larger pale cells
    external root sheath
  73. Simple branched alveolar gland 
    Exhibits a holocrine mode of secretion
    Sebaceous glands
  74. Where are sebaceous glands located?
    Skin of face, back, chest, nipples and external genitalia
  75. What are the 2 main functions of the sebaceous glands in hair?
    • Secrete oily sebum into the hair follicle (with the help of the arrestor pili muscle)
    • Helps protect and prevent drying
  76. True/False: the sebaceous glands are sensitive to hormonal changes such as puberty and menstrual cycles
  77. Image Uploadwhat is this?
    Basal cell carcinoma
  78. Image Uploadwhat type of sweat gland is this?
  79. Image Uploadwhat strata of the epidermis are present here?
    • Basale 
    • Spinosum
  80. Image Uploadwhat sweat gland is this depict?
    Eccrine sweat gland
  81. Image UploadWhat is this depict?
    what is the dark staining region?
    What is the circle?
    Hair bulb

    Hair matrix

    Dermal papilla
  82. Image Uploadidentify the components of the pilosebaceous unit
    • see hair follicle
    • see sebaceous gland
    • see the arrestor pili muscle
  83. Image Uploadwhat is this?
    Sebaceous gland 

    **note the distinctive vascuolated appearance of the  cells
  84. Image Uploadwhat is this?
    Meissner corpuscle
  85. Image Uploadwhat is this depicting?
  86. Image Uploadwhat is this?
    Pacinin corpuscle
  87. Image Upload
    Solar elastosis

    the sun causes destruction of elastic fibers in the skin
  88. Image Uploadwhat type of skin is this?
  89. Image Uploadwhat type of skin is this?
    Thin skin
  90. Image UploadWhat disease is depicted here?

    **note the keratin formed toward the top
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Body Tissues Exam 1 Residual
2017-09-20 03:29:13

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