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3 Levels of Detection for Bio Agent
- (Confirmatory is highest lvl s/f can do)
Methods of Detection
- DFU W/HHA
- BRK W/HHA
Chem Agent Characteristics
- Higher concentrations required
- Immediate effects
- Less pervasive
- difficult to detect/easy to produce
- highly weather dependent
Chem Agent Downwind Hazard Area
Bio vs Chem Weapons
- Bio: smaller payload required
- bio: greater area coverage (150 nm)
- bio: little/no detection ability
Types of Nerve Agents
- G Series: Non-persistent/persistent
- V Series: Persistent
Nerve Agents physical properties
- Percutaneous & inhalational hazard
- Slow hydrolysis
1st aid for nerve agent exposure
- Pre-treatment: PB Pills
- Post Exposure: 2PAM Chloride, Atropine injectors, CANA/Valium
PB Pills treatment
- Take every 8 hours
- 3x per day
- Most lethal of all nerve agents
- Least volatile of all nerve agents
4 types of incapacitating agents
dispersion of chemical agents
aerosols & ammunitions
Chemical Weapon Detection & ID Categories
- Purpose: provides advanced warning
- Source of standoff detection: Intel
- Conserves critical manpower resources
Identifies physical arrival of chemical agent
Establish presence or absence of chem agent
- Detects presence of liquid/nerve/blister agents
- Response time <10 seconds
- Detect blister and nerve liquid agents
- Response Time ~20 seconds
Survey & Monitoring Team (Chemical)
- 1 Team Leader
- 2 Samplers
- 1 Messenger/Marker
_ Types of signs in CBRD marking kit
_ number of each sign
- 4 types
- 10 of each
- 40 signs
- Periodic (Point Detection)
- On-station Monitoring
- Rapid Internal Survey
- Rapid External Survey
- Supplemental Surveys
Detection Methods (Chemical)
- Draeger Tubes (choking agents)
Responsibilities detailed in
Shipboard Decon keys to restoring operations
- –Personnel and Patient “Immediate”
- –Limited Operational “Operational”
- –Operationally Complete “Thorough”
- –Chemically Complete Clearance”
Decon Station Manning Requirements
- 1 TL
- 1-2 cutters
- 1 medical representative
- 1 monitor
casualty decon station manning
- 1 triage officer
- 2 corpsman
- 3 decon personnel
- 8 cutters
- 2 senior corpsman
- 1 non medical assistant (like an MA)
decon DCA responsibilities
- personnel required
- special procedures
decon station purpose
- predetermined entrance to uncontaminated interior
- provide means for personnel decon
- prevents spread of contamination
examples of decon station equipment
- scissors w/ wash pan
- RSDL kit
Requirements for HTH listed in
CMWD Effectiveness against chem/bio agents
95% if used before/during/15 mins after
–Primary shipboard decontaminating agent
Shipboard Decon Team Organization
- 1 each - Team Leader
- 2-4 each - Hoseman
- –Depends on number of hose teams
- –1 or 2 hose teams
- 4-6 each - Scrubbers
- –Can also serve on hose teams
- Can be augmented with personnel from the chemical survey and monitoring team
Shipboard Chem/Bio Reference
Purpose of CPS
- 1. Provides Toxic-Free Environment
- 2. Total protection vs liquid/solid/gas CBR agents
- 3. Personnel safe w/o protective clothing or masks
CPS Protection levels of coverage
- Level I (Shelter Envelope)
- Level II (Min Operational)
- Level III (Max Operational)
types of CPS filters
- HEPA filter
- Gas Filter
CPS maintenance requirements
- 4 year replacement of all filters
- monthly pressure test
How long are CPS filters rated to last?
Chem Agent downwind hazard area
Bio Agent downwind hazard area
Best possible solution for chem/bio ops
best shipboard method of DECON
- Total Protection
- Limited Protection
Total Protection Zone
- Berthing/Habitable zones
- Covers solid/liquid/gas
Limited Protection Zone
- Main Spaces
- covers solid/liquid
- Inspecting/sizing/fit/issue IPE
- CBR gear stored in CBR storeroom
- Suspected Threat
- IPE available and medical supply items issued
- Equipment inventoried
- Conduct optest of CPS
- Set COND III/Yoke
- Possible Threat
- Protective mask is in carrier and worn
- Pre-position detection/monitoring equipment (M8/M9)
- Set Mod Z
- CPS zones pressurized
- Active/monitor detection & sampling equipment (IPDS-LR)
- Probably Threat
- Filters installed on mask
- Put on trousers/coat/overboots
- Stow personnel decon kit in mask carrier (RSDL)
- Initiate PB pill regimen
- CMWD intermittently (15 min intervals)
- Imminent threat
- Don mask, hood, gloves (full suit)
- Set GQ
- Set Circle William
- Active CMWD continuously
- verification with detection equipment (M8/M9)
- Decon/Air Purge (6x air purges)
- If all clear, CO can authorize lower MOPP level
Non-CPS Mask-Only posture
- CO authorizes only if:
- no liquid contaminant present
- no blister vapor present
4 levels of shipboard DECON
- limited operational
- operationally complete
- chemically complete
Phases of Treatment
5 Building blocks of CBR environment
- Early Warning
HTH Mixing instructions found in
Groups of Infectious Agents
Methods of pathogen transmission
̶Vectors, irect contact, aerosol spray, food & water
Provide some general characteristics of pathogens. Would this make them suitable for use in a “tactical” environment?:
–Unstable in most environments
–Cheap to make
–Fairly difficult to weaponize effectively
–Can be carried up to 150 nm downwind
–Highly weather dependent
–High temperature (>170° F) will kill
–UV rays will destroy
______ Responsible for maintaining CBRD Bill
- under direction of CHENG
Sample CBRD Bill located in
NTTP 3-20.31, Surface Ship Survivability, Appendix B
9 Parts of CBRD Bill
- 1.Purpose Statement
- 3.Preparatory Measures
- 4.Active Measures
- 5.CBR Responsibilities
- 6.Nuclear Phase
- 7.Chemical Phase
- 8.Biological Phase
- 14 mm gloves
- (vice 25 mm gloves)
Examples of CBRD Bill Enclosures
- 1.COUNTERMEASURE WASHDOWN SYSTEM
- 2.CIRCLE WILLIAM FITTINGS
- 3.DECONTAMINATION PRIORITY LIST
- 4.CONTAMINATION CONTROL AREA
- 5.CASUALTY COLLECTION STATION
- 6.MISSION ORIENTED PROTECTIVE POSTURE (MOPP) LEVELS
- 7.ISSUING OF SUPPLIES
- 8.GUIDANCE FOR POROUS/FLAMMABLE ABSORBENT / MATERIALS
- 9.AIRCRAFT DECON
- 10.EXTERNAL DECON PROCEDURES
- 12.COLLECTIVE PROTECTION SYSTEM (CPS)
Sources of Bio Toxins
–Bacterial Toxin (endotoxin/exotoxin)
–Algal Toxin (algal bloom)
–Animal Toxin (rattlesnakes, dart frogs, etc.)
–Plant Toxin (curare, poison ivy)
Effects of Biotoxins
–Neurotoxin (Systemic Central Nervous System Effects, Botulinum Toxin)
- –Cytotoxin (Cell Destruction, Ricin Toxin)
- Necrotoxin (skin cells)
- Hemotoxin (blood cells)
–Enterotoxin (food poisoning)
–Dermatoxin (skin damage)
General characteristics of toxins
−Stable in most conditions
−Easily extracted from nature or produced in labs
−Relatively easy to disseminate/weaponize
−Carry up to 150nm downwind
−Limited medical treatment
Toxin methods of dissemination
- Line Source: Aerosol Spray
- Point Source: Missile/Munition, artillery
- Multiple Point Source: Missile/Munition, bomblets
- SAME AS CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS
What is available for biological detection?:
−Joint Biological Point Detection System (JBPDS)
−DFU (Dry Filter Unit) w/ HHAs (Hand Held Assays)
−BRK (Biological Response Kit) w/ HHAs
−Joint Biological Agent Identification & Diagnostic System (JBAIDS)
Briefly describe the categories of biological detection & Identification. Tie in sample package/shipment procedure:
- Presumptive (DFU w/HHA, BRK w/HHA, JBPDS)
- Confirmatory (JBAIDS)
- Definitive (CDC/Army)
What are treatment methods available for personnel afflicted by a biological agent?
Treat for symptoms (palliative care)
What are the four categories of Casualty Causing Chemical Agents (provide an example of each)?
- 1.Nerve (skin and inhalation hazard)
- –G-series (Sarin, Soman, Tabun)
- –V-series (VX and others)
- 2.Blister (skin and inhalation hazard)
- –H-series (Mustards)
- –L- series (Arsenicals)
- –CX (Urticants)
- 3.Blood (inhalation hazard)
- ̶Hydrogen Cyanide (AC)
- ̶Cyanogen Chloride (CK)
- 4.Choking (inhalation hazard)
- ̶Phosgene (CG)
- ̶Chlorine (CL)
Know slide 12!!!
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Stand off detection for chem agent
Point detection for chem agent
Monitoring for chem agent
Which mask(s) utilize a C2A1 and M61 filter canisters?
–MCU-2/P & M40A1 (C2A1)
–M50 JSGPM (M61)
What is the C2A1 rated for? M61?
−C2A1 protects 60 days in uncontaminated environment, 30 days in contaminated environment
−M61 provides 24 hours of constant protection in a CW/BW environment
What degrades the C2A1 & M61 filter canisters?
–Degraded when exposed to blood agent and water
Provide shelf life and wear limitations of the JSLIST (Joint Service Light Weight Integrated Suit Technology):
–Shelf life in vacuum sealed package: 5 years
–Protects for 45 of wear/120 days after opening in uncontaminated environment, 24 hours in contaminated environment
Chemical Agents: General Immediate Actions
- Protect yourself
- –Stop breathing, don mask
- –Remove liquid contaminants with RSDL Skin Decon Kit
- Protect others
- –Mask victims
- –Sound alarm
- –Move victims/casualties to CCA/Decon Station
- –Alert Medical personnel to location of casualties
- –Continue with mission
Who is on a Chemical Survey & Monitoring team?:
–Team Leader, 2 Surveyors, Messenger/Marker
–Locate, Mark and Isolate areas of contamination
–Colored signs with grease pencil info on back
–Hang to prevent access to contaminated area
Who is on a Biological Sampling team?:
–Sampler, Assistant Sampler, Boundaryman/Packager
What is the typical makeup of a Topside Decon Team?
- –4-6 Scrubbers
- Can be augmented with surveyors & monitors after monitoring is complete
Describe the Levels of Shipboard Decontamination:
- –Personnel and Patient (Immediate)
- Self/Buddy Aid
- –Limited Operational (Operational)
- Mission essential areas; prevents the spread
- –Operationally Complete (Thorough)
- Highest level ship can obtain; reduces MOPP level
- –Complete (Clearance)
- All contamination removed; industrial facility
Methods of DECON
- –PHYSICAL REMOVAL: CMWDS/Scrubbing
- –NATURAL DECAY: Weather
- –CHEMICAL NEUTRALIZATION: HTH
Shipboard Decon Agents
–HTH (#1), bleach, with GP cleaner
–Soap & water (#1 for people, sensitive electronics equipment)
Who is on a Personnel Decon Station (Conventional or CPS) Team?
- –Team Leader
- –1-2 Decon Station Assistants (Cutters) (inside station)
- –Station Monitor (Operator)
- –Medical representative
How do we prioritize contaminated casualties at a Casualty Decon Station?
–Triage (prioritize need for care and decon), Decon and Treat
Where is the CBRD Bill located in the RPM?
–CHAPTER 7 SEC 2
Ability of pathogen to cause disease
- Rapid internal
- rapid external
What causes dry land drowning?
Mission Essential Areas
Chemical Weapons Convention Prohibits
- Development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention or transfer of chemical weapons
- Use of chemical weapons
- Engagement in Military preparations to use weapons.
Chemical Weapons Convention Allows
- Research & development for industrial, agricultural, medical or pharmaceutical activity
- Defensive research related to the protection against chemical weapons
- Agents used for riot control purposes (Riot Control Agents – RCA)
microorganisms that can harm humans.
Classes of biological agents
poisonous substances produced by plants, animals, or microorganisms, but they can also be made in laboratories.
The ability of infectious agents to transfer from one organism to another either, directly (person to person) or indirectly (insect vectors).
A chemical or biological agent that can harm the skin or enter the body through unbroken skin.
The ability of infectious agents to live and remain a hazard in the environment
- The ability of infectious agents to permeate and remain present throughout an area or a population due to their small size.
- The capacity to penetrate to interior shipboard spaces and surfaces.
The relative ability of infectious agents to produce disease.
- The capability of being vaporized.
- Measure of how readily an agent evaporates
Viability is the ability of a pathogen to live in storage and then to reproduce itself after dissemination
Characteristics of Infectious Agents
- Low Agent Requirement: It does not require a large amount of a given agent to produce an effect.
- Delayed Effects.
- Pervasiveness: Infectious agents are light and wind blown
- Difficult to Detect: Intel only
- Easy to Produce.
- Non‑Destructive: Infectious agents do not destroy structures
- Weather Dependent.
Methods of Pathogen Transmission
- As an AEROSOL, by coughing, sneezing or simply breathing.
- DIRECT CONTACT with an infected host.
- Contamination of FOOD & WATER supplies by food service personnel who have become infected or contaminated.
- Transmission by VECTORS.
Aerosolized infectious agents have a maximum downwind range of
Infectious Pathogen Methods of Defense
- Active: Requires good INTEL and advance warning
- Passive: Split into methods BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER attack
Infectious Pathogen Passive Defense: BEFORE Attack
- Personal Hygiene.
- Good Ship-wide Sanitation.
- Current Immunizations
Infectious Pathogen Passive Defense: DURING Attack
- Protective Mask.
- Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology (JSLIST).
- Use Countermeasure Washdown System
- Set Circle William
- Ensure Collective Protection System is operating at required pressure (If installed).
Infectious Pathogen Passive Defense: AFTER Attack
- Shipboard Decon. (9% solution HTH)
- Personnel Decon.(Soap and Water)
- Food Decon.
- Water Decon.
- Personnel Quarantine.
An organically produced substance which inhibits or prevents the functions of living cells, or directly causes destruction of the cellular structures.
An organically derived substance which selectively alters the sodium ion permeability of neuronal membranes, resulting in a pathological dysfunction of the neural path.
A minimum number of organisms (pathogens) required to produce infection in a human host.
Biotoxins Types (based on physiological effects)
- Cytotoxin (hemo/necro)
Biotoxins (Based on source)
- Biological Toxin (Entero/Endo)
- Algal Toxin
- Animal Toxin
- Plant Toxin
Toxin Dissemination Methods
Aerosolized Point/Line methods
Enemy Advantages of the Employment of Toxins over Chemical Agents
- 1. Lethality with smaller payloads
- 2. Downwind hazard extends to 150 nm
- 3. Extremely limited field detection capability
- 4. Little medical protection available (stockpile anti-toxins)
Examples of Toxins
Shipboard decontamination for toxins
- HTH Solution
- Personnel: Shower with soap and warm water
Treatment for toxin poisoning
- Primarily supportive/palliative
- Antitoxin therapy requires precise identification of the toxin
DFU Operation in a nutshell
At least every 12 hours, the filter inside the DFU should be changed and tested if a threat is deemed to exist.
- Biological Response Kit
- A bag of stuff with an HHA
- Joint Bio Point Detection System
- Detects and identifies bio-agents
- Ability to detect and ID up to ten agents
- consists of BBSU, ECS, and an UPS
- Dry Detection
- Joint Bio Agent ID System
- confirmatory testing of biological pathogens and is fielded to CVN and large amphibious assault ships.
Defense against Toxins
- Collective Protection System (CPS)
- Countermeasure Washdown System (CMWDS)
- Closing of Circle William fittings
The amounts of chemical agent present in a unit volume of air, or unit of surface area, at a given time
measure of how readily an agent evaporates.
Casualty-inducing chemical agents
Incapacitating Chemical Agents
Chem Agent in a solid characteristics
- Persistent (greater than 24 hrs)
- Little downwind hazard
Chem agent in a liquid characteristics
- Semi-persistent (15 mins to 24 hrs)
- Definite downwind hazard
Chem agent in a gas characteristics
- Non-persistent (less than 15 mins)
- No downwind hazard
Classifications of Chem Agents
- Chemical compounds (i.e. tear gas)
Nerve Agent Types
- V-Series (Persistent)
- G-Series (Semi-Persistent)
Chemical agents grouped by physiological effects
- Nerve Agents
- Blister Agents
- Blood Agents
- Choking Agents
- Tear Agents
- Vomiting Agents
- Soman (GD)
- Semi-Persistant Nerve Agent
Amber-colored odorless motor oil
Immediate Reaction to exposure to nerve agent
- Stop Breathing & Mask Yourself.
- Sound the Alarm
- Don JSLIST suit (if not already on), if in area ofliquid contact.
- ID & treat mild symptoms in yourself. (Self-aid- see Section 6.5)
- The CO may start shipboard pretreatment up to one week prior to entry into an area of operations that has a high probability of nerve agent exposure.
- Tablets are taken orally, one tablet every eight hours.
Nerve Agent personnel reactive measures
- PB Tabs
- 2PAM Cl
- Atropine Injectors
How to self-administer/dealing with nerve agents
- Don PPE
- Self-Administer 1x Atropine, 1x 2PAM Cl
- Wait 15 mins
How to treat a buddy / nerve agent
Use all of his/her 6x injectors
The only way to contract a blood agent
Almond or peach aroma
- Hydrogen Cyanide
- Blood Agent
Types of Blood Agents
- Hydrogen Cyanide
- Cyanogen Chloride
How to respond to blood agent
- Don PPE
- Get to casualty collection area
Sweet odor: Newly mown grass, green onions, corn
"Dry Land Drowning".
- Pulmonary Edema
- Caused by choking agents
Incapactiating Agent Types
- Physio chemical
- Psychochemical (LSD)
Chemical Compound Types
- Tear Gas
- Vomiting Agent
- Training Agent
Chemical Weapon Detection Types
Point Detection system examples (CHEM)
Detects chemical agents but does not differentiate them
Detects G/V Nerve Agents, Blister Agents
Chem Survey + Monitorying Team Purpose
In general, the purpose of chemical agent surveys is to locate, mark, and isolate chemical agents in either liquid or vapor form.
Types of Surveys
- Periodic Monitoring (detect arrival of liquid chem agents)
- On-Station Monitoring (during attack, determine if vapor hazard inside ship)
- Rapid Internal Survey (after suspected attack, determine if hazard in selected vital space)
- Rapid External Survey (after attack with liquid agent, determine if contamination at vital topside station)
- M-9 Chemical Agent Detection Paper: 2 rolls per Repair Locker.
- M-256A1 Chemical Agent Detection/Identification Kit: 10 Kits per Repair Locker.
Chem Survey + Monitoring Team Composition
- Team Leader
- Two Samplers
Blister, Nerve, Blood Agents in VAPOR form
- Blister, Nerve Agents in VAPOR/LIQUID form
- Blood Agents in VAPOR form
- Blister + Nerve Agents in Vapor/Liquid/Solid form
- Blood Agents in Vapor form
The authorized allowance for the MCU-2/P mask is 105% of the manning per the Ship's Manning Document (SMD)--this includes 5% for sizing and training.
When stored in the original factory sealed packaging, the shelf life for the JSLIST is 5 years.
From the day the JSLIST is first removed from the factory packaging, the JSLIST remains servicable for 45 days of cumulative wear time within 120 total days
The JSLIST remains effective for 24 hours of wear in a contaminated environment. After exposure to a contaminated environment, the JSLIST cannot be repacked nor laundered.
Protects against liquid, solid, and gaseous CBR agents.
provides filtered air protecting against liquid and solid CBR agents but not agents in vapor form.
Type I Airlock
connects directly between pressurized area and open atmosphere (weather decks).
Type II Airlock
connects between pressurized area and non-pressurized interior of ship including access between TP and LP zones.
Type III Airlock
interconnects between two pressurized areas (TP zone to TP zone)
Purpose of Decon Stations
Provides a predetermined entrance into the uncontaminated interior of the ship.
- Prevents spread of contamination throughout the ship.
- Provides a means for decontamination of personnel.
6 Decon Areas
- 1-3. Outer Clothing Undressing Area (OCUA)
- 4. Inner Clothing Undress Area (ICUA)
- 5. Shower Area
- 6. Contamination Purge Lock (CPL)
Limited Operational Decon
The objective is to destroy, neutralize, or remove chemical contamination from mission essential areas
Operationally Complete Decon
The objective is to allow the ship's force to perform their assigned tasks without wearing masks or protective clothing.
Levels of Decon
- Limited Operational
- Operationally Complete
- Chemically Complete
- 9% on tough surfaces
- 3-5% for general use
Chemical Hazard Assessment Guide (C-HAG)
NSTM 470, Appendix F
Provides information concerning optimum CMWDS use/duration, use of weathering for operational decontamination, and determination of manpower intensive decontamination requirements.