DCASE Mod 6b

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  1. Alpha Particles
    • Cannot penetrate clothing or unbroken skin
    • Shielding: Paper/skin/clothing
    • Must be ingested or inhaled
  2. Beta Radiation
    • Particles with electrical charge, skin hazard
    • Shielding: Plastic, glass, light metals
  3. Gamma Waves
    • Produced from initial radiation, can penetrate ship's hull
    • Shielding: concrete, water, oil, polyethylene
  4. Neutron Radiation
    • Particles/Initial Radiation
    • Can penetrate ship's hull
    • Shielding: Lead/Concrete/Earth
  5. IPE for radiological environment
    • Flash Hood
    • Gloves
    • Mask
  6. WHAT ARE THE 4 SEQUENCE OF EVENTS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF ENERGY FOR A NUCLEAR DETONATION?
    -EMP: 1%

    -INITIAL RADIATION: 4%

    -THERMAL RADIATION: 35%

    -BLAST/SHOCKWAVE: 50%

    -RESIDUAL RADIATION: 10%
  7. WHAT ARE THE 4 TYPES OF NUCLEAR RADIATION AND NAME ONE TYPE OF SHIELDING FOR EACH?
    -ALPHA- SKIN

    -BETA- CLOTHING

    -GAMMA- CONCRETE

    -NEUTRON- LEAD
  8. WHAT ARE THE 4 TYPES OF NUCLEAR BURST?
    -HIGH ALTITUDE

    -AIR BURST

    -SURFACE BURST

    -UNDERGROUND/UNDERWATER BURST
  9. NSTM Reference for Nuclear Defense
    NSTM 070
  10. IM-265/PDQ RADIAC METER common issues
    • Missing
    • Out of Calibration
    • Corroded
  11. Conventional Bomb vs Dirty Bomb
    • Almost no difference except:
    • Significant fallout on dirty bomb
    • Effects range on dirty bomb = depends
  12. Conventional Bomb Characteristics
    • Localized Effects Range
    • No Fallout/Radiation
    • Significant Blast/Shock
    • Very little light
    • Temperature in the 1000's of degrees
  13. Nuclear Bomb Characteristics
    • Temperature in the millions of degrees
    • Significant light
    • Far reaching effects
    • Fallout is 10% of energy
    • Initial Radiation is 5% of energy
    • Blast/Shock is many times more powerful
  14. The main concern when a dirty bomb is set off is:
    Prolonged Exposure from Fallout
  15. What are some potential dirty bomb effects on the human body?
    • Break DNA chain
    • Cell death
    • Irreparable damage
    • Cell mutations
    • Cell reproduction ceases
    • Cancer
  16. DIRTY BOMB USE RESULTS IN:
    • PANIC
    • MASS CASUALTIES w/ DIFFICULT INJURIES
    • MEDICAL FACILITIES OVERLOADED
    • CONTAMINATION ISSUES
    • GRIDLOCK
    • PUBLIC SERVICES DISRUPTED
  17. Impact of RDD depends on
    The impact of an RDD explosion depends upon type of explosive , amount and type of radioactive material,  and weather conditions.
  18. What is an RDD?
    Radiological Dispersal Device

    Conventional explosive that is coupled with radioactive material.
  19. MOPP 4: threat IMMINENT
    • DON Protective Mask
    • Circle William
    • Send as many individuals as possible to Deep Shelter
    • Initiate continuous monitoring & operation of Detection Equipment
    • Activate CMWDS Continuously
    • Secure non-essential equipment & sea suctions if appropriate
  20. MOPP 3: threat PROBABLE
    • GQ, set Z
    • Strike below nonessential porous, absorbent, & flammable MAT’L
    • All non-essential personnel proceed to Deep shelter
    • Fill pre-positioned canteens w/ Potable Water
    • Activate PRI- DECON STA & CCA’s & assure operability
    • Post & monitor detection equipment & MAT’Ls designated by CBR Bill
    • Activate CMWDS Intermittently
  21. MOPP 2: threat POSSIBLE
    • Protective Mask is in carrier & worn on person.
    • Issue Dosimeters
    • Pre-Position DECON Supplies in DECON STA & RPL’s IAW CBR Bill
    • OPTEST CMWDS & CHEM ALARM
    • Set Material Condition MOD Z
  22. MOPP 1: SUSPECTED threat
    • Conduct Operational INSP of all RAD Detection & Monitoring SYS
    • Equip all personnel w/ Protective Masks in carriers
    • INV stowed RAD DEF EQUIP & DECON Supplies & Draw Replacement items FM Supply Dept as req.
    • Check CAL & OPTEST RADIAC’s
    • Review CBR Defense Bill, verify personnel assignments

    Set Readiness Condition III & Material Condition YOKE
  23. MOPP 0 Key Actions
    Sizing and issue of CBRN Individual Protective Equipment (IPE)

    –With exception of masks, maintained in storerooms, workspaces, etc
  24. Who is on the topside decon team?
    1  Team  Leader

    2-4  Hosemen

    4-6  Scrubbers
  25. What is the order of topside decon?
    • Top To Bottom
    • Forward To Aft
    • Windward To Leeward
  26. What are the four methods of EXPOSURE REDUCTION?
    • Shielding
    • Time
    • Distance
    • Transfer
  27. DECONTAMINATION SHOULD NOT COMMENCE UNTIL…
    …FALLOUT CEASES.
  28. What are two things we need to consider when conducting radiological decon?
    DECON Doesn’t Destroy Radioactivity

     GOAL is to restore the object to use
  29. Hot Spot Characteristics
    –Monitors are required to mark during detailed or supplementary surveys

    –Classified as having intensity Two or More Times That of Surrounding Area

    –Caused by the nature of the material in a given location
  30. Materials most likely to collect contamination and produce hot spots are:
    • Cordage
    • Rust
    • Scale
    • Pools of Water
  31. Describe the purpose of and what happens during a detailed survey :
    • Performed:
    • 1.At the request of the Commanding Officer
    • 2.If the tactical situation permits
    • Intended to:
    • 1.Cover shipwide or specific areas
    • 2.Cover any area in which measured dosages exceed predicted levels by more than 25 percent
    • 3.Prior to entering repair facility if industrial decon ordered
    • Accuracy is more important than speed
    • Utilize the grid map method
    • Divide ship into one square yard grid squares
  32. Supplementary Survey
    • Performed upon:
    • 1.Completion of decon air purge
    • 2.Dosimeter measurements not matching predicted dose
    • 3.Watch section rotation
    • Intended to:
    • 1.Confirm/revise stay times
    • 2.Localize hot spots for decon
    • I.Messing/Berthing/Fan rooms (leave dosimeters)
    • II.Assess Contamination of: Food, water, & interior air
  33. Rapid External Survey
    • Performed directly following Rapid Internal Survey:
    • 1.Also known as “gross external survey”
    • 2.Intended to obtain more precise radiation levels topside at vital stations
    • 3.Monitoring teams don’t stop to locate, mark and isolate hot spots. Only gathering accurate measurements at action and vital stations
  34. Rapid Internal Survey
    • Performed immediately after cessation of fallout
    • Provides indication of the location & severity of hazards at specific internal areas
    • External stations monitored from inside the ship
    • Survey locations predetermined, marked, and listed in the CBRD Bill

      -  vent ducts      -  weatherdeck doors/hatches      -  sea chests
  35. On-Station Monitoring
    • Conducted Prior to cessation of Fallout
    • Monitor and report Gamma intensities at time intervals determined by DCA
    • Beta checks to check for ship infiltration
    • DCA determine locations: Repair Lockers, CIC
    • Used to determine TC
  36. Types of Surveys (in order of occurrence)
    1.On Station Monitoring


    2.Rapid Internal Survey


    3.Rapid External Survey


    4.Supplementary Survey


    5.Detailed Survey
  37. CBR Monitoring Kit Signs
    • 8 x 11.5"
    • 4 signs, 10 each = 40 signs
  38. Yellow Sign
    Chemical Hazard
  39. Blue Sign
    Bio Hazard
  40. White Sign
    Radiological Hazard
  41. Red Sign
    UXO
  42. What is the makeup of a radiological survey & monitoring team?
    • Team Leader
    • Recorder
    • Messenger
  43. What does the radiological survey & monitoring team carry with them?
    • RADIAC Meter & Probe
    • Dosimeters
    • Protective Clothing
    • Survey Forms
    • CBRD Marking Kit
  44. Purpose of Radiological Surveys
    • Detection of contamination inside and outside the ship
    • Determine radiation levels and deposition after fallout contamination
    • Used to calculate safe stay times
    • Identifies topside locations that require decon and hotspots post exposure.
  45. Describe the IM-270/PD Dosimeter in terms of radiation detected, range of measure, & calibration interval. What are some issues that could arise during an inspection of Dosimeters?
    • Detects X-RAY & GAMMA
    • Ranges from 10 to 1000 RADS
    • Calibrated every 8 years
    • Regular hits:
    • Missing
    • Dead
  46. Describe the DT-680/PDQ Probe in terms of radiation detected, range of measure, & calibration interval. What are some issues that could arise during an inspection with RADIACS?
    • Detects
    • −SLIDE OPEN: BETA & GAMMA
    • −SLIDE CLOSED: GAMMA
    • Ranges from 0 mR/hr to 1000 R/hr
    • Calibrated every 36 months
    • Regular hits:
    • Missing Cord
    • Cannon Plug damaged
    • Out of Cal
  47. Describe the IM-265/PDQ RADIAC in terms of radiation detected, range of measure, & calibration interval. What are some issues that could arise during an inspection with RADIACS?
    • Detects GAMMA radiation only
    • Ranges from 0 mR/hr to 1000 R/hr
    • Calibrated every 36 months
    • Regular hits:
    • Dead Batteries
    • Inventory incomplete
    • Missing Components
    • Out of Cal
  48. Nomogram Types
    • FALLOUT DECAY - THREE Columns
    • TOTAL DOSE - FIVE Columns
  49. R1
    Standard Intensity
  50. n
    Decay Rate
  51. D
    Total Dose
  52. INTENSITY AT TIME OTHER THAN H+1
    RT
  53. Transmission Factor Calculation
    Inside divided by outside
  54. Time of Cessation (TC)
    1st plotted reading of THREE readings in a steady decay that form a straight downward diagonal line.
  55. Time of Peak (TP)
    –Highest Plotted Intensity After TA
  56. Instant of weapon detonation
    H-Hour
  57. What is the purpose of a logarithmic radiological plot?
    IT IS A GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF FALLOUT FROM A NUCLEAR DETONATION
  58. MPE
    • MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE
    • The Basis of personnel rotation
    • Total Radiological Exposure that (CO) Commanding Officer Will Allow for individual personnel to accumulate.
    • Set at 150 RADS. Can be adjusted to exceed requirements.
    • Exceptions can be made only with CO approval.
    • Based on GAMMA Exposure Only
  59. Acute Dose
    dose received in a period less than 24 HRS
  60. Chronic Dose
    dose received in a period greater than 24 HRS
  61. Whole Body Dose
    dose received from NECK to HIPS; hits all of the VITAL ORGANS including eyes.
  62. Give a few examples of how the ship can mitigate the effects of a nuclear blast and radiation:
    • SEVERE WEATHER BILL
    • SHIP MANEUVERING
    • DEEP SHELTER
    • CMWDS (COUNTERMEASURE WASHDOWN)
    • MATERIAL CONDITION ZEBRA
    • INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (IPE)
    • AVOID TOPSIDE PERSONNEL DURING BLAST
    • ISSUE DOSIMETERS (MOPP II)
    • CREW ROTATION
    • CIRCLE WILLIAM
  63. What things (based on a ship’s DISTANCE from a blast) will impact a ship’s VULNERABILITY to a Nuclear Effects?
    –YIELD (STRENGTH IN TONS OF DYNAMITE)

    –TYPE OF BURST (TYPE OF RADIATION)

    –HEIGHT/DEPTH OF BURST

    –SHIP’S HARDNESS (RESISTANCE TO RADIATION)
  64. Underground Burst Characteristics
    • BASE SURGE
    • SHOCK
  65. Underwater Burst Characteristics
    • RADIOACTIVE POOL
    • SHOCK
    • BLUEOUT
    • CAVITATION
  66. Surface Burst Characteristics
    • AT OR SLIGHTLY ABOVE SURFACE
    • INITIAL RADIATION
    • BLACKOUT
    • EMP/TREE
    • THERMAL RADIATION
    • BLAST/SHOCK WAVE
    • **FALLOUT**
    • RADIOACTIVE POOL
  67. Air Burst Characteristics
    • BELOW 100,000 FT
    • FIREBALL DOESN’T TOUCH SURFACE
    • EMP/TREE DAMAGE
    • BLACKOUT
    • INITIAL RADIATION
    • THERMAL RADIATION
    • FLASH BLINDNESS
    • BLAST/SHOCK WAVE
  68. High Altitude Burst Characteristics
    • 100,000 FT & ABOVE
    • **EMP DAMAGE**
    • SATELLITE BLACKOUT
    • FLASH BLINDNESS
  69. How are nuclear explosions characterized?
    NUCLEAR WEAPON EXPLOSIONS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY THE LOCATION OF THE FIREBALL WITH RESPECT TO THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH
  70. Blast Sequence of Events
    1.INITIAL RADIATION



    2.THERMAL RADIATION



    3.BLAST/SHOCK WAVE



    4.RESIDUAL RADIATION
  71. DISTRIBUTION OF ENERGY FISSION REACTION
    • Initial Radiation: 4 %
    • Residual Radiation: 10 %
    • Thermal Radiation: 3 %
    • EMP: 1 %
    • Blast: 50 %

Card Set Information

Author:
esmenikmati
ID:
334476
Filename:
DCASE Mod 6b
Updated:
2017-09-26 21:02:01
Tags:
DCASE Module 6b
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Description:
nukes n stuff
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