C6: Fluid and hemodynamic disorders

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  1. ascites
    fluid in digestive area
  2. causes/pathogenesis of edema (4)
    • increased venous pressure (RAAS)
    • increased permeability of vessel wall
    • decreased oncotic pressure of plasma due to low albumin concentration
    • obstruction of lymphatics
  3. hydrostatic pressure
    pressure brought by arterial pressure pushing against vessels
  4. plasma colloid oncotic pressure
    pressure from interstitial fluids pushing against veins
  5. lymphatics end point
    subclavian vein of thoracic duct
  6. exudate
    proteins in transudate and inflammation cells
  7. transudate
    ultrafiltrate of plasma
  8. form of edema
    • inflammatory
    • hydrostatic
    • oncotic¬†
    • lymphedema
    • hypervolemic
  9. hydrostatic edema caused by
    • hypertension
    • venous stagnation
    • congestive heart failure
  10. lymphedema
    • obstruction of lymphatics resulting in decreased drainage of interstitial fluids
    • can be caused by worms
    • massive swelling of legs - elephantiasis
  11. oncotic edema caused by
    • reduction in colloid osmotic pressure of plasma
    • nephrotic syndrome
    • cirrhosis
    • hypoalbuminemia
  12. hypervolemic edema caused by
    • caused by retention of Na in kidney
    • Renin increase
    • aldosterone increase
  13. Edema of lower extreminities indiates
    right sided heart failure.
  14. cardiac edema indicates
    left ventricular failure
  15. pulmonary edema
    • accumulation of exudate in lungs
    • usually left sided heart failure
    • shortness of breathe - edema
  16. Active hyperemia
    • dilation of arterioles¬†
    • caused by blushing, exercise, inflammation
  17. passive hyperemia (congestion)
    • result from heart failure
    • typically chronic
    • cyanosis - bluish coloration of tissue
    • associated with hydrostatic edema
  18. what happens to the lungs during chronic passive congestion
    • edema
    • presence of hemosiderin (degraded RBC) - heart failure cells - macrophages that contain hemosiderin
  19. types of hemorrhage
    • cardiac
    • aortic
    • arterial
    • capillary
    • venous
  20. hemoptysis
    respiratory tract bleeding
  21. hematemesis
    vomiting of blood
  22. hematochezia
    anorectal bleeding
  23. melena
    passage of black discolored blood in stool. usually represents upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding
  24. metrorrhagia
    uterovaginal bleeding
  25. what happens when 1000 mL blood loss
  26. what happens when 1500 mL blood loss
  27. chronic hemorrhage
    iron deficiency
  28. intracerebral hemorrhage
    stroke, death
  29. hematoma
    blood filled swelling or tumor, causes compression of tissues
  30. formation of thrombus (3)
    • damage to endothelial layer
    • fibrin forms meshwork, collecting RBCs with it
    • fully formed thrombus consists of fibrin and RBC
    • forms only in living organisms
  31. Three factors of intravascular coagulation
    • coagulation factors
    • platelets
    • endothelial cells
  32. how are coagulation proteins involved with thrombus formation
    coagulation proteins act on a cascade. thrombin catalyzes fibrin formation providing meshwork for clot
  33. how are endothelial cells involved with thrombus formation
    • damaged endothelial cells can't secrete anticoagulants thus thrombus can form.
    • IL-1 and TNF initiates thrombus formation making endothelial cells lose its negative charge
  34. how are platelets involved with thrombus formation
    • able to neutralize heparin and other anticoagulant factors
    • secretes thromboxane
  35. what happens to small thrombi
    usually washed away
  36. how can the rate of blood flow affect thrombus formation
    • disturbances in normal blood flow: platelets become exposed to vessel wall and discharge their neutralizing coagulants
    • slow blood flow: promotes sedimentation of RBC
  37. hypercoagulabilty
    burn patients typically have hypercoagulative blood because of fluid loss and hemoconcentration
  38. what are the common sites of thrombus formation
    • coronary arteries
    • varicose veins
    • myocardial infarcts
    • carotid and cerebral arteries
  39. fate of thrombi
    • occlusion of lumen: leading to infarct or ischemia
    • narrow lumen of vessel:hypoxia
    • organization of thrombus
    • recanalization: reestablishing blood flow through a broken thrombus
    • embolization: broken pieces of thrombu are carried out
  40. characteristics and symptoms of venous emboli
    • eventually end affecting the lungs
    • saddle embolus
    • lung infarct
    • shortness of breath
    • sudden death
  41. symptoms of arterial embolism
    • brain infarct
    • ventricular thrombus
    • splenic infarct
    • kidney infarct
    • intestinal infarct
    • infarct of extremities
  42. infarct
    insufficient blood supply leading to ischemic necrosis
  43. what are the causes of shock
    • hypovolemia- hemorrhage, fluid loss
    • heart failure
    • vasodilation - anaphylaxis
Card Set:
C6: Fluid and hemodynamic disorders
2017-09-28 17:34:12
cls308 cls 308 pathophysiology
powerpoint and textbook
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