Vocab Ch. 1 and 2

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Vocab Ch. 1 and 2
2010-09-08 17:57:42

Pathology Vocab
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  1. Abscess:
    encapsulated collection of pus:
  2. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome:
    impairment of cellular immunity:
  3. Active Immunity:
    a person forms antibodies to counterat an antigen in the form of a vaccine or toxoid:
  4. Anaphylactic:
    reactions characterized by hypotension and vascular collapse with urticaria, bronchiolar spasm, and laryngeal edema:
  5. Anaplastic:
    without form:
  6. Anasarca:
    pronounced swelling of subcutaneous tissue throughout the body:
  7. Antibodies:
    body’s counteraction to control antigens:
  8. Antigens:
    body’s ability to recognize foreign substances:
  9. Atrophy:
    diminished size as a result of wasting away:
  10. Autosomes:
    all chromosomes except gender:
  11. Bacteremia:
    bacteria spread through the circulatory system:
  12. Benign:
    tumors that closely resemble their cells of origin in structure and function and remain localized:
  13. Cancers:
    collectively, malignant tumors:
  14. Carcinoma:
    malignant neoplasm of epithelial cell origins:
  15. Community Acquired:
    contracted outside the healthcare facility:
  16. Dominant:
    genes that always produce an effect:
  17. Dysplasia:
    disordered growth or faulty development of various tissues or body parts:
  18. Edema:
    accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces or body cavities:
  19. Elephantitis:
    localized edema:
  20. Grading:
    assesment of a tumor to determine the degree of aggressiveness or malignancy:
  21. Granulation tissue:
    combination of young developing capillaries and actively proliferating fibroblasts producing connective tissue fibers:
  22. Hematogenous Spread:
    spread by means of the bloodstream:
  23. Hematoma:
    hemorrhage trapped in body tissue:
  24. Hemorrhage:
    bleeding or abnormal blood flow from a vessel into tissue:
  25. Hepatitis:
    inflammatory disease of the liver:
  26. Hereditary Disease:
    transmitted to offspring through genes:
  27. Hyperplasia:
    abnormal increase in the number of cells composing a tissue or organ:
  28. Iatrogenic:
    caused by physicians and their treatment:
  29. Idiopathic:
    underlying cause unknown:
  30. Immune:
    reaction of the body provides a powerful defense against invading organisms:
  31. Infarct:
    death of tissue because interruption of the normal blood supply:
  32. Inflammation:
    initial response of body tissue to local injury:
  33. Ischemia:
    lack of blood supply in an organ or tissue:
  34. Lymphatic Spread:
    malignant cells carried through lymphatic system:
  35. Malignant:
  36. Metastasize:
    spread of disease to another organ or tissue in the body:
  37. Mutations:
    alterations in the DNA structure that may become permanent hereditary changes:
  38. Neoplasia:
    any new and abnormal growth, especially when growth is uncontrollable and aggressive:
  39. Nosocromial:
    infections developed at the acute care facility:
  40. Oncology:
    study of neoplasms:
  41. Permeable:
    membrane allowing fluids to pass through:
  42. Pyogenic:
    bacteria that lead to the production of pus:
  43. Recessive:
    genes that manifest themselves only when the person is homozygous foe the trait:
  44. Sarcomas:
    highly malignant tumors arising from connective tissue:
  45. Signs:
    represent the measurable or objective manifestations of the disease process:
  46. Staging:
    determination of the amount of spread of a neoplasm; necessary to select appropriate therapy and predict future course of disease:
  47. Sypmtoms:
    subjective manifestations; the patient feels:
  48. Toxoid:
    chemically altered toxin:
  49. Undifferentiated:
    without form:
  50. Vaccine:
    low dose of dead or deactivated bacteria or virus:
  51. Anechoic:
    not producing internal echoes; on ultrasound:
  52. Annihilation:
    interaction produces two high-energy photons (gamma rays) in opposite directions separated by 180 degrees:
  53. Collimator:
    containing multiple parallel channels to allow the rays to pass:
  54. Computed Tomography:
    produces cross-sectional tomographic images by first scanning a slice of tissue from multiple angles with a narrow x-ray beam:
  55. CT number:
    attenuation of specific tissue relative to that of water:
  56. Diffusion Imaging:
    relies on the movement of molecules and random thermal motion:
  57. Direct Fusion:
    equipment designed to image two modalities simultaneously and integrate the images:
  58. Echogenic:
    producing a relatively strong reflection in ultrasound:
  59. Fat-Suppressed Images:
    requires saturation or full magnetization on the T1 sequence to ensure a large contrast difference between fat and water:
  60. Functional MR (fMR):
    allows the localization of specific regions of the brain that correspond to various functions:
  61. Gamma Camera:
    a sodium iodide crystal detects the ionizing radiation emitted from the patient:
  62. Helical:
    spiral continuous motion:
  63. Integrated Imaging:
    requires software to fuse two imaging modalities:
  64. Isoechoic:
    structures that have same echogenicity:
  65. Magnetic Resonance Imaging:
    a strong magnet producing radiofrequencies at specified intervals and receiving a return signal to produce an image:
  66. Nuclear Medicine:
    using radiopharmaceuticals to produce ionizing radiation, which is detected by a gamma camera to produce an image:
  67. Positron emission tomography:
    imaging technique using a radiopharmaceutical that emits a positron and is detected by a moving gamma camera:
  68. Radiofrequency Pulse:
    refers to that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic waves can be generated by alternating current and their effect upon a body is potential heating of tissues in MRI:
  69. Radiopharmaceutical:
    a drug that is tagged to emit ionizing radiation:
  70. Spin-Echo:
    most common pulse sequence used in MRI using 90 degree radiofrequency pulses to excite the magnetization and one or more 180 degree pulses to refocus the s pins to generate signal echoes:
  71. Ultrasound:
    images produced by high-frequency sound waves emitted from the transducer that are echoed back to produce an image:
  72. Volume-Rendered Imaging:
    technique that takes all the raw CT data density information and uses them to simulate three dimensional images: