Body Tissues Endocrine System

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  1. cells, tissues, and organs that synthesize and secrete hormones
    Endocrine system
  2. True/False: the endocrine system has excretory ducts
  3. Where does the endocrine system release its contents?
    Into the interstitial CT (blood and lymph--mostly blood)
  4. True/False: endocrine cells may be mixed with non-endocrine cells

    Pancreas, kidneys, GI tract
  5. What are the 6 endocrine organs?
    • hypothalamus
    • pituitary gland
    • pineal gland
    • thyroid gland
    • parathyroid gland
    • adrenal gland
  6. part of the brain important for endocrine function
    links the nervous system to the endocrine system
  7. What processes are the hypothalamus involved in? (4)
    • thermoregulation
    • satiety
    • sleep-wake cycles
    • reproduction
  8. What is a characteristic feature of the hypothalamus?
    feedback loops

  9. The hypothalamus is _____ tissue, it is NOT a ____

    Acts in both a chemical and electrical fashion

  10. secretes releasing and inhibiting hormones and directs the activity of the anterior pituitary
  11. produces oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
  12. True/False: the hypothalamus stores and secretes antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin

    posterior pituitary does
  13. master endocrine gland that produces and secretes many hormones 
    has a broad impact on other tissues
    Pituitary gland
  14. What is the pituitary gland controlled by?
    the hypothalamus
  15. another name for the pituitary gland
  16. where is the pituitary gland attached?
    ›Attached via neural stalk (infundibulum) which contains unmyelinated axons
  17. what are the two distinct regions of the pituitary gland and their scientific names
    anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)--glandular 

    posterier pituitary (neurohypophysis)--neural
  18. epithelial derived and glandular
    rich vascular network
    responsible for production and secretion of numerous hormones that regulate other endocrine glands
    anterior pituitary
  19. Three subdivisions of the anterior pituitary
    pars distallis

    pars tuberalis

    pars intermedia
  20. subdivision of the anterior pituitary that consists of mosts of it and has prominent sinusoids
    pars distallis
  21. part of the sub division of the anterior pituitary between the anterior and posterior regions
    contains colloid vesicles (remnants of Rathke's pouch)

    produces melanocytes stimulating hormone
    pars intermedia
  22. what are the two types of cells of the pars distalis
    • chromophobes
    • chromophils
  23. light-staining cells of the pars distills with homogenous cytoplasm--neither stain blue nor pink
    no one really knows the function--probably degranulated cells
  24. cells of the pars distills that include the acidophils (alpha cells) and basophils (beta cells)
  25. How do the following show up on a histogram and what hormones are produced there

    • Acidophil--pink--GH, prolactin
    • Basophil--blue--ATCH. TSH, FSH, LH
    • Chromophobe--white--degranulated chemophil
  26. what are the 6 hormones of the anterior pituitary
    • thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH)
    • Gonadotropic hormones: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • Prolactin (PRL)
    • Growth Hormone (GH)
    • Melanocyte-stimulating hormones (pars intermedia)
  27. neural derived 
    consists of pituicytes which are glial (support) cells 
    consists of 3 subdivisions
    Posterior pituitary (neurohypohysis)
  28. which of the subdivisions is the bulk of the posterior pituitary
    Pars nervosa
  29. What are the hormones of the posterior pituitary
    NONE--no hormones produces here but only stored here
  30. which two hormones are stored in the posterior pituitary
    • oxytocin
    • antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)
  31. where are oxytocin and ADH stored in the posterior pituitary
    stored in terminal ends of unmyelinated neurons from the hypothalamus
  32. accumulation of the secretory material in the nerve terminals called
    herring bodies
  33. where are herring bodies released
    fenestrated capillaries
  34. Image Uploadwhich side is the anterior pituitary and which side is the posterior pituitary
    anterior is on the RIGHT

    posterior is on the LEFT
  35. what is caused by a lack of growth hormone that is being produced?
    pituitary dwarfism
  36. what is caused from disparate impact of under- and oversecretion of growth hormone during childhood growth and development
    pituitary dwarfism (under) and gigantism (over)
  37. gigantism can be caused by what? (2)
    over secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland OR due to tumor in the pituitary gland called a functional tumor meaning the tumor is producing GH
  38. what is another name for the pineal gland
  39. what does the pinealocytes of the pineal gland secrete?
    serotnin and melatonin
  40. what is a characteristic part of the pineal gland
    characteristic calcified material known as brain sand
  41. Image Uploadwhat is depicted here?
    The brain sand in the pineal gland (the really dark staining layers)
  42. what gland is arranged into follicles?
    the thyroid gland
  43. the single layer of follicular cells in the thyroid consists of what type of cells
    Flat, cuboidal or elongated depending on activity
  44. the follicular cells secrete what and where?
    thyroglobulin (inactive TH) into the follicular space
  45. what is the thyrogloblin stored as?
    stored as colloid—substance in the middle of the follical
  46. pale-staining cells within or outside the follicle in the thyroid gland
    parafollicular cells
  47. what do parafollicular cells do?
    produce and secrete calcitonin into capillaries (which reduces blood calcium levels)
  48. what is caused by the secretion of too much thyroid hormone?
    Graves disease
  49. what is this depictingImage Upload?
    thyroglossal duct cyst
  50. two pairs of small glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland
    parathyroid glands
  51. parathyroid glands secrete ____ in response to low blood ____ levels
    parathyroid hormones

  52. What two cells does the parathyroid gland contain?
    principal (chief) cells

    oxyphil cells (look pinkish)
  53. cells in the parathyroid gland that produce PTH and are smaller but predominate
    Principal (chief) cells
  54. cells in the parathyroid gland where the function is unknown but they possibly could be old chief cells and are acidophilic
    oxyphil cells
  55. how does PTH increase blood calcium levels?
    Breaking down bone

    Increasing the amount of active Vitamin D which helps increase Ca absorption in the gut
  56. Image Uploadwhat is this?
    parathyroid gland
  57. sit right on top of each kidney
    Adrenal (suprarenal) gland
  58. two regions of the kidney?
    outer glandular cortex

    inner neural medulla
  59. part of the adrenal gland that is subdivided into 3 parts and each part secretes its own product
    outer glandular cortex
  60. part of the adrenal gland that is different origin and function than cortex
    inner neural medulla
  61. in the adrenal cortex

    thin zone below the capsule that is arranged in ovoid clusters and secretes mineralocorticoids
    zona glomerulosa (outermost)
  62. what does the mineralcorticoids such as aldosterone do?
    help regulate Na in the blood--which helps regulate blood pressure along with renin and ADH
  63. in the adrenal cortex

    thickest zone that is arranged in vertical columns of pale cells and secreted glucocorticoids
    zona fasciculata (middle)
  64. what do the glucocorticoids such as cortisol do?
    regulate glucose
  65. in the adrenal cortex

    adjacent to medulla and arranged in anastomosing cords and secretes the sex hormones (example: testosterone)
    zona reticularis (innermost)
  66. Acute stress—handled by the ____ and secrete norepi and epi
    adrenal medulla
  67. Chronic stress—handled by the ___ ____

    this is not good bc oversecretion of corticosteroid hormones
    adrenal cortex
  68. found in the center of the adrenal glands 
    neural origin [cells here are modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons (aka chromaffin cells)]
    Adrenal medulla
  69. secretes catecholamines such as epi and norepi
    adrenal medulla
  70. how does the zona glomerulosa appear on a stain?
    • it looks rounded kinda
    • at the very top next to cortex and pale region in middle
  71. how does the zona fasciculata appear on a stain?
    it looks very pale (compared to the other layers) and larger with vertical striations
  72. how does the zona reticularis appear on a stain
    darker staining under the whiter staining and kinda all over the place
  73. how does the adrenal medulla appear on a stain?
    at the very bottom, pink staining and circular cells and globular looking
  74. what is caused by too many corticosteriods being released?
    cushing syndrome

    can manifest as moon face
  75. what occurs when someone doesn't produce enough corticosteriods
    Addison's disease

    Hyperpigmentation of the skin—can also be seen intraorally (light skinned person with darker pigment in the skin)
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Body Tissues Endocrine System
2017-10-10 22:04:41

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