Card Set Information
Groups of specialized cells and cell products performing a limited number of functions.
Name the four primary tissue types?
What is the purpose of the Epithelia tissue?
Cover exposed surfaces (provide physical protection)
Line internal passageways and chambers
Produce glandular secretions
What is the purpose of Connective tissue?
Fill internal spaces
Provide structural support
What is the purpose of Muscle tissue?
Contracts and provides active movement
What is the purpose of Neural tissue?
Conducts electrical impulses
Secretory structures derived from epithelia
Name three specializations of Epithelial cells?
Describe 6 characteristics of Epithelial Tissue?
Cells are bound tightly together by cell junctions
Always has a free (apical) surface
Bound to basement membrance (Basal Lamina)
Arranged into sheets and layers (one or more)
Regeneration (division of geminative (stem) cells)
What maintains the integrity of the epithelium?
Attachment to basal lamina. (lamina lucida (clear layer), lamina densa (reticular layer)
Maintenance and renewal is self perpetuated by germinative cells (stem cells)
Name and describe the two layers of epithelia
Simple-only one layer
Stratified-more then one layer
Name the different shapes of the epithelia
Describe the characteristics, and functions of simple squamous ep.?
Secretes serous fluid (protects by reducing friction)
Lines internal cavities; blood vessels
Describe the characteristics of stratified squamous epithelial?
Series of flat layers
Protects against stress
Located where there is wear and tear
(skin, mouth, esophagus, rectum, vagina)
Describe the characteristics of simple cubodial epithelial? What it is used for?
Forms tubes and ducts
Secretion and absorption
Where can Transitional epithelium be found, what is it's function?
Only in the urinary tract
Allows for stretching of the bladder as it fills
Describe the characteristics of simple columnar epithelium? What is it's function?
Lines the digestive tract
Absorption and secretion
What are the two modifications to the simple columnar epithelium that aid in absorption and secretion?
Where is simple columnar epithelium found?
Lining of the stomach, intestines, gallbladder, uterine tubes, and collecting ducts of the kidneys
Where can psuedostratifed columnar epithelium be found?
Lining of the nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi; portions of the male reproductive tract
Describe exocrine glands? What are some of it's secretions?
•Secretes into a duct or onto their apical surface (e.g.
•Secretion e.g. mucus, sweat,
oil, saliva, liver bile, digestive/pancreatic enzymes, milk, perspiration
Describe endocrine glands?
Name some characteristics of connective tissue?
Found throughout the body – never exposed to outside
Great diversity of function &
appearance - bone, fat, blood
Connective tissue mostly matrix
All connective tissues have what three main components?
2.Extracellular protein fibers
Define Matrix as it relates to connective tissue?
Term for the extracellular component of any
connective tissue that is made up of the protein fibers and the ground substance.
Name six functions of connective tissue?
1.Establishing the structural framework of the body.
2.Transporting fluid and dissolved materials.
4.Supporting, surrounding, and connecting other tissues.
6.Defending the body from microorganisms.
Name the fixed cells?
Name the wandering cells?
Name the fibers of connective tissue proper?
Describe the look, characteristic and function of collagen fibers?
long, straight, unbranched
Strongest; most common fibers
Cylindrical fibers made up of three subunits coiled around one another.
What do recticular fibers look like? What's their characteristic?
A single unit of collagen proteins
Thin; branched framework
Tough but flexible
What is the characteristic and look of Elastic fibers?
Contain the protein elastin
Branching & wavy
Stretch & recoil
What type of tissue is Areolar? Where is it found?
Loose connective tissue
Within and deep to the dermis of skin,
and covered by epithelial lining of the digestive, respiratory tract
and urinary tract; between muscle; between muscles;
around blood vessels, nerves, and around joints
Where is the location and what is the function of Adipose tissue?
Deep to the skin, especially at the sides,
Buttock, breast; padding around eyes and kidneys
Provides cushion and padding, shocks,
Insulates (reduces heat loss) stores energy
What is the location and function of reticular tissue?
Liver, kidney,spleen, lymph nodes
And bone marrow
Provides supporting framework
What is the characteristic of dense regular connective tissue? What is made of dense connective tissue?
Tendons (collagen fiber, connects bone-muscle)
Elastic tissue (vertibrae-vertibrae)
Ligaments (collagen fiber, bone-bone)
Describe dense connective tissue? What is made of dense irregular tissue?
Coming from all directions
Covers bones and cartilage
Capsules of organs
Describe the function of dense regular connective tissue?
Provides firm attachment; conducts
pull of muscles; reduces friction
between muscles; stabilizes relative
positions of bones
Where is the location of dense irregular connective tissue?
Capsules of visceral organs;
Periostea and perichondria;
Nerve and muscle sheaths; dermis
What is the function of dense irregular connective tissue?
Provides strength to resist forces
Applied from many directions; helps
Prevent overexpansion of organs such
As the urinary bladder
Name the two fluid connective tissues?
: has a matrix called plasma
Various types of formed elements
: forms as interstitial fluid (around the cell)
99% of cells are lymphocytes
Name the characteristics specific to supporting connective tissues? What are those tissues?
Contain few cells, high amounts of fiber, and
A ground substance that may contain insoluble calcium salts
: Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrous
What is the location of hyaline cartilage?
Between tips of ribs and bones of
Sternum; covering bone surfaces;
At synovial joints; supporting larynx
Trachea, and bronchi; forming part of the septum
What is the function of hyaline cartliage?
Provides stiff but somewhat
Flexible support; reduces
Friction between bony surfaces
Where are the locations of elastic cartilage?
Auricle of external ear
Epiglottis; auditory canal
Cuneiform cartilages of larynx
What is the function of elastic cartilage?
Provides support, but tolerates
Distortion without damage
And returns to original shape
Where are the locations of fibrous cartilage?
Pads within knee joint;
Between pubic bones of pelvis
What is the function of fibrous cartilage?
Resists compression; prevents
Bone to bone contact; limits relative
Where are mucous membranes located?
What are the characteristics of mucous membranes? What is it used in?
Surface epithelium moist, forms barrier
Underlying loose connective tissue (lamina propria)
Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior
Often adapted for absorption or secretion
Most secret mucus
What are the serous membranes?
Describe the characteristics of the serous memebranes?
Thin, transparent-simple squamous epithelium
Attached to body wall and organs they cover
What is the function of the serous memebranes?
Lines open body cavities that are closed
To the exterior or the body
Serous layers seperated by serous fluid
Where is the cutaneous membrane? Describe it's characteristic? What is the function?
Outermost protective boundary
Keratinized (water resistent)
Where is the synovial membranes located? What is the function?
Line joint cavity
Lubricates cartilages, cushions shocks, distributes
Oxygen and nutrients
Describe the from outermost to innermost the levels of mucous membranes?
Surface of skin, mucous secretion
Lamina propria (areolar tissue)
Describe from outermost to innermost the levels within serous membranes?
Describe the layers of cutaneous membranes?
Dense irregular connective tissue
Name the three types of muscle cells?
Name the two types of neural tissues?
What are the characteristics of muscle tissue?
Cells are long, cylindrical
Straited, and multinucleate
What is the characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue?
Cells are short, branched, and straited
Usually with a single nucleus; cells
Are interconnected by intercalated discs
What are the characteristics of smooth muscle tissue?
Cells are short, spindle-shaped, and
Nonstraited, with a single, central nucleus