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What are the functions of the skeletal system?
- 1. Support
- 2. Movement
- 3. Protection
- 4. Blood cell production
- 5. Storage (calcium)
What are the two parts of the skeleton?
Shapes of bones and examples?
The three categories of joints and examples?
- Fixed....cranium, pelvis.
- Semi-moveable... Between vertebrae and between pubic bone.
- Synovial...Ball & Socket,Hinge,Gliding,Pivot,Saddle
The Synovial Joints and examples?
- Ball & Socket....Hip, Shoulder
Pivot....Atlas & Axis(neck),Ulna & Radius(forearm)
Structure of Bone?
- 1= Medullary Cavity.
- 3=Compact Bone
- 4=Cancellous￼ Bone
- 5=Yellow Bone Marrow
- 6=Hyaline Cartilage
Functions of Calcium in the body?
- Strengthening of bones and teeth.
- Functioning of muscles & nerves.
- Regulation of blood acid balance
- Kidney function.
- Brain function.
Pelvic Girdle Bones?
- 1= Ilium
- 2= Ischium
- 3=Pubis(pubic bone)
Vertebral Column Sections?
- Cervical - C1-7
- Thoracic - T1-12(contain ribs)
- Lumbar - L1-5
- Sacrum - 5(fused, connected to pelvis)
- Coccyx - 4(fused,tail bone)
Functions of the Muscular System?
- Generate movement.
- Stabilise joints.
- Maintain Posture.
- Help Regulate Temperature Control
Components of the Muscular System?
Types of Muscle and examples?
What is Smooth Muscle?
- Found in walls of internal vessels..eg. arteries, intestines.
- Responsible for moving/stopping fluids & other materials.
What is Cardiac Muscle?
- Produces the pump action of the heart.
What is Skeletal Muscle?
- Enables movement.
- Also striated.
What can a muscle do(action)?
- A muscle can only do one thing - CONTRACT so at any given time it it's either contracting or not contracting (relaxing). Contract = Shorten.
- A muscle can only pull a bone!
Types of Muscle contraction?
- Isometric...muscles trying to work but staying the same length - no movement.
- Isotonic...muscle contracts - movement occurs.
Types of Isotonic contractions?
- Concentric(positive phase)...muscle gets shorter,weight moves up(against gravity)Eccentric(negative phase)...muscle gets longer,weight moves down(with gravity)Controlled descent.
What is a Tendon?
Connective tissue that joins muscle to bone.
What is a ligament?
Connective tissue that joins bone to bone.
Types of Muscle groups(teams)?
- Agonist...prime mover/s.
- Antagonist...opposing muscle/s
- Synergists... assisting muscles.
What are the functions of the Circulatory System?
- 1=Supply oxygenated blood to all cells.
- 2=Transport nutrients to all cells.
- 3=Remove waste materials.
- 4=Fight infection.
- 5=Help temperature regulation.
What are the components of the Circulatory System?
- 3=Blood vessels.
How many litres of blood in an average adult body?
What are the main functions of blood?
Same functions as the Circulatory System but with the additional function of clotting.
What is blood composed of?
A liquid called plasma and blood cells themselves.
What makes up the plasma in blood?
- Mainly water (carries mineral salts, nutrients & waste.
- Also contains hormones, enzymes,gases, antibodies.
What are the 3 types of blood cells?
Red,White & Platelets.