Chapter 18 Review

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  1. Know the functions of hormones.  Do they produce electrolytes?
    Regulated metabolism, regulating chemical composition, glandular secretion, growth and secretion, no they don’t produce electrolytes
  2. What happens when a hormone acts the opposite of another hormone?  What effect is that___________________?
    Antagonistic effect
  3. What’s the difference between pancreatic islet cells and the acinar cells?
    Exocrine secrete into ducts, non-hormone secretion, endocrine secrete into glands or fluids, hormones, acinar cells are exocrine, pancreatic islet cells are endocrine
  4. What is down regulation and up regulation?
    When the hormone is not present in sufficient amount they increase amount of cell receptors that is up regulation, excess hormones and the target cell receptor diminish in number
  5. Does mechanical stretching of a an endocrine cell cause it to secrete an hormone?
  6. What organ controls the anterior pituitary?
  7. Is somatotropin the same as growth hormone?  What does it do?
    Yes, stimulates general body growth
  8. What’s the role of prolactin in pregnancy?
    Mammary gland development as is acinar development, milk production
  9. Which hormone acts on the testes to produce testosterone?
  10. What does ACTH do?  It acts on what organ and causes release of ________________.
    Stimulate adrenal cortex to produce cortisol
  11. Which hormone has the opposite effect of PTH?
  12. Where are oxytocin and ADH stored for release?
    Posterior pituitary
  13. Which ion does PTH control?
  14. What are the effects of glucocorticoids in the body?
    Reduce inflammation, reduce immunity
  15. What does insulin do to blood sugar levels and where is it secreted?  Which cells?
    Lowers blood sugar levels, secreted by pancreas beta cells of islet langerhans
  16. What does thyroid hormone do to the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
    Increase metabolic rate
  17. When is glucagon secreted?
    When blood glucose is low
  18. Epinephrine has an acute pattern of secretion.  What does that mean?
    Not secreted chronically all the time, only secreted when needed
  19. Most hormones are controlled by what feedback system?
    Negative feedback system
  20. What does up-regulation entail?  Increase in _______________ and increased _________________  to the hormone
    Receptors, and Sensitivity
  21. The posterior pituitary is an extension of ________________.
  22. What are some effects of TSH?  Does it indirectly increase T3 and T4?  What does it do to metabolism?
    Increase T3 T4 and metabolism
  23. What kind of receptors does Testosterone bind to? Since it’s lipid soluble, does it enter the cell through the plasma membrane?
    Nuclear, yes
  24. When calcium levels are low, what happens to PTH production?
  25. Know the zones of the adrenal cortex and what they produce? Zona glomerulosa cells (mineralcorticoids mainly aldosterone)
    Increase levels of Na and water
  26. Know the zones of the adrenal cortex and what they produce? Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol) from zona fasciculata cells
    Increase protein breakdown
  27. Know the zones of the adrenal cortex and what they produce? Androgens (mainly dehydroepiandrosterone, or DHEA)
    Assist in early growth of axillary and pubic hair in both sexes
  28. What’s the relationship between aldosterone and hypertension?  How about sodium levels?
    Aldosterone increases absorption of sodium and water and so BP goes up, sodium levels go up
  29. What is Cushing Syndrome?  Is it associated with high or low Cortisol levels?
    Excessive production of glucocorticoids, igh levels
  30. What are some effects of insulin besides lowering blood sugar?
    Fat promoting, protein building, increase amino acid intake, glycogenesis
  31. What does the Pineal gland produce?  What rhythm is that involved in?
    Melatonin, circadian rhythm
  32. What change causes secretion of ADH?
    High electrolyte levels or high osmolality
  33. Is Prolactin secreted by the ovaries?
  34. What does oxytocin do?
    Milk ejection, stimulates myometrium to contract
  35. Know which cells make insulin, glucagon, Calcitonin and Somatostatin
    Beta make insulin, Alpha make glucagon,  F Cells make calcitonin, Delta Cells make somatostatin
  36. What is goiter due to?
    Either lack of iodine or thyroid gland porduces too much thyroid hormone
  37. What’s myxedema?  What disease is it a complication of?
    Increase edema in interstitial fluid occurs in hyperthyroidism, low iodine
  38. What is leptin? How does it work and what kind of tissue produces it?
    Produced by adipose tissue and suppresses appetite, regulates energy balance
  39. Since ectoderm gives rise to the nervous system, what germ layer is the adrenal medulla from?
  40. Posterior Pituitary Hormones
    Oxytocin and ADH
  41. Anterior Pituitary Hormones
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Chapter 18 Review
2017-10-17 22:47:50

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