Enzymes

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  1. enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions
    oxidoreductases
  2. enzymes that catalyze transfer of C-, N- or P- containing groups
    transferases
  3. enzymes that catalyze cleavage of bonds by addition of water
    Hydrolases
  4. enzymes that catalyze cleavage of C-C, C-S and certain C-N bonds
    lyases
  5. enzymes that catalyze racemization of optical or geometric isomers
    isomerases
  6. enzymes that catalyze formation of bonds between carbon and O, S, N coupled to hydrolysis of high-energy phosphates
    Ligases
  7. Michaelis Menton Equation
    chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=V_0%3D%5Cfrac%7BV_m_a_x%5Ctimes%20%5BS%5D%7D%7BK_m%20%2B%20%5BS%5D&chs=218x86
  8. True/False: alloesteric enzymes follow MM kinetics
    FALSE
  9. What does a low Km mean
    don’t need a lot of substrate to get half of maximum therefore there is a higher affinity of the enzyme for the substrate

    strong substrate binding
  10. What does a high Km mean
    need a lot of substrate to get half of maximum therefore there is a lower affinity of the enzyme for the substrate

    weak substrate binding
  11. 3 assumptions associated with MM
    • [S]>>>>[E]
    • [ES] is relatively constant
    • initial reaction velocities are measure
  12. 3 problems with using non-initial velocity
    1.Enzyme might undergo random hydrolysis or denaturation

    2.Product accumulation might exert negative feedback (product inhibition)—will turn off the enzyme

    3.As substrate is being depleted, enzyme spends more time diffusing through solution before it encounters substrate molecule
  13. Km= ?/?
    Kd (dissociation of ES)/ Ka (association of ES)
  14. at very low substrate connections the velocity of the reaction is
    First order

    proportional to [S]

    Very high: constant and independent of [S]– zero order
  15. at very hight substrate concentrations the velocity of the reaction is
    Zero order 

    Constant and independent of [S]
  16. What is the LWB plot equation
    chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=%5Cfrac%7B1%7D%7BV_0%7D%3D%20%5Cfrac%7B%5BK_m%5D%7D%7BV_m_a_x%20%5BS%5D%7D%20%2B%20%5Cfrac%7B1%7D%7BV_m_a_x%7D&chs=308x86
  17. what does the y-intercept on LWB represent
    1/vmax
  18. what does the x-intercept on LWB represent
    -1/Km
  19. what is the scientific name for aspirin?
    Acetylsalicylic acid
  20. enzyme involved in forming certain inflammatory molecules 

    (example: inhibited by aspirin--therefore aspirin is an anti inflammatory)
    cyclooxygenase

    --irreversible
  21. penicillin covalently (irreversibly) attaches to a serine reside in _______ enzyme which is responsible for the formation of cross-links int the cell wall of bacteria
    transpeptidase
  22. Competitive inhibitors ____ Km and ____ Vmax
    increase (lower the affinity of enzyme for substrate)

    do not effect
  23. Non-competitive inhibitors ____ Km and ____ Vmax
    do not effect 

    decrease
  24. True/False: increasing the levels of substrate has no effect on non-competitive inhibition
    TRUE
  25. The inhibitor allupurinol targets which enzyme and has what effect or application?
    xanthine oxidase

    drug for treatment of gout
  26. what is an inhibitor that targets thymidylate synthetase and its application is an anticancer drug (cause inhibiting nucleotide metabolism)
    5-Fluorouracil
  27. B-aminopropionitrile targets which enzyme?
    lysly oxidase 

    KNOW THIS ENZYME HAS AN INHIBITOR DON'T GET TOO HUNG UP ON NAME OF INHIBITOR
  28. methotrexate targets which enzyme and what is its application
    dihyrofolate reductase 

    it is a cancer chemotherapy
  29. Acyclovir is an ______ drug that targets _____ enzyme
    anti viral

    DNA polymerase
  30. which inhibitor targets phosphodiesterase type 5 and is used for erectile dysfunction
    sildenafil (viagra)
  31. which inhibitor is used as a muscle relaxant and targets acetylcholinesterase?
    succinylcholine
  32. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors target which enzyme and what is their application
    Reverse transcriptase

    treatment of retroviruses (HIV)
  33. enzyme that cleaves trypsinogen to form trypsin
    enteropeptidase
  34. which enzymes carry out phosphorylation

    which enzymes carry out dephosphorylation
    kinases

    phosphatases
  35. protein kinases use what to add P to the enzyme
    ATP
  36. phosphatases use what to remove the P from the enzyme
    water
  37. where would you find the enzyme acid phosphastase (2)
    prostate, RBC
  38. where would you find the enzyme alanine aminotransferase (3)
    liver, heart, skeletal muscle
  39. where would you find the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (2)
    liver, bone
  40. A number of B vitamins are precursors of coenzymes. These include the following B vitamins (7):
    • Thiamine
    • Niacin
    • Riboflavin
    • Pyridoxine
    • Folic acid
    • Pantothenic acid
    • Cyanocobalamin
  41. enzyme that converts ethanol to acetylaldehyde
    alcohol dehydrogenase
  42. enzyme that converts acetalaldehyde to acetic acid
    acetalaldehyde dehydrogenase
  43. acetalaldehyde dehydrogenase is inhibited by ____ which increases the hangover sensation and is good for alcoholics
    Disulfiram (antabuse)
  44. what are alcohol dehydrogenase and acetylaldehyde dehydrogenase also used for other than alcohol metabolism
    the breakdown of methanol (wood alcohol) to formic acid
  45. why can ethanol be a remedy for methanol poisoning and ethylene glycol (anti-freeze) poisoning
    it competitively inhibits the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme--binds better to the enzyme than methanol and ethlyene glycol
  46. the breakdown of ethylene glycol (antifreeze) is
    alcohol dehydrogenase

    this enzyme is not specific as it can break down this, ethanol and methanol
  47. what is an abzyme
    an antibody that functions catalytically
  48. True/False: Km does not vary with the amount of enzyme
    TRUE

    it is a measure of the stability of the ES complex generally measuring the affinity of the enzyme for the substrate
  49. what enzymes are therapeutically used for Pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction
    streptokinase

    tissue plasminogen activator
  50. what enzyme is therapeutically used for 

    Gaucher Disease (lysosomal disease)
    Glucocerebrosidase
  51. does lysyl oxidase have an inhibitor?
    YES 

    it is b-aminoproionitrile (don't really need to know this tho)

Card Set Information

Author:
arikell
ID:
335299
Filename:
Enzymes
Updated:
2017-10-24 15:46:21
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enzymes
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Description:
Biochem Exam 2 Enzymes Memorization
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