Carbs

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  1. what goes Gs stimulate
    stimulates adenlyl cyclase
  2. what does Gq stimulates
    stimulates inositol triphosphate and diaclyglycerol
  3. what does Gi inhibits
    adenlyl cycclase
  4. what is Gt associated with?
    associated with transducin (generates a signal in the retinal rods upon exposure to light)
  5. ____ toxin actives adenylyl cyclase in intestinal mucosa, resulting in a loss of salts from the intestinal epithelium
    cholera

    • (this is an exotoxin)
    • It eventually causes osmotic diarrhea
  6. ____ toxin inhibits the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (so activates it)
    pertusis (whooping cough)
  7. pertussis does what?
    inhibits the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase
  8. cholera does what?
    activates adenylyl cyclase
  9. cyclic AMP gets broken down to 5'-AMP by what enzyme?
    cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase
  10. what is the pharmacological protein in inhibition of different PDEs (2)
    methlyxanthine derivatives (theophylline and caffeine)

    sildenafil (viagra)--inhibits a PDE and increases blood flow to the penis
  11. True/False: every human live cell in the body glycolysis occurs
    true



    All cells have anaerobic—occurs in cytoplasm

    Many cells will continue in the mitochondria with aerobic process that is way more efficient
  12. GLUTs involvement in basal glucose uptake from blood and other extracellular fluids (found in most tissues) (3)
    • GLUT 1
    • GLUT 3
    • GLUT 4
  13. which GLUT is found in liver and kidney cells
    GLUT 2
  14. what does affinity in a GLUT mean?
    strength of binding
  15. what does capacity of a GLUT mean?
    how many receptor molecules are there to interact with glucose
  16. What is the affinity and capacity of GLUT 2 (liver and kidney cells)
    high capacity

    low affinity
  17. why do the GLUT 2 in the liver and kidney have high capacity but low affinity?
    If the liver had high affinity—it would store all of it as glycogen and no be able to give it to the rest of the body so it must have LOW affinity

    High capacity—liver is big and at some point you might need to store it after a big meal and can take in a lot of glucose
  18. Affinity for the GLUTs in average cell are very _____

    Most of the GLUTS with basal glucose metabolism is ____ affinity
    high—want the glucose to get into the cell to feed itself


    low
  19. GLUT 2 also functions as a glucose sensor in _____ ____ ____
    pancreatic beta cells

    lets the pancreas know that there is a glucose present so the beta cells can make insulin
  20. GLUT 5 does what?
    transports fructose
  21. insulin sensitive GLUT is _____ which is found in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle tissue
    GLUT 4
  22. How does insulin work on GLUTS
    Insulin recruits inactive glucose transporters (GLUTs) in the Golgi and translocates them to the plasma membrane

    Once insulin has been released from the pancreas it really activates the actions of GLUT 4
  23. Glut 4 works better in the presence or absence of insulin
    presence
  24. what is oral rehydration therapy
    in order to treat dehydration (due to disease or diarrhea), water with added amounts of Na and glucose are administered ORALLY to patients

    **doesnt address underlying issue but helps with dehydration

    2.5 million kids die from diarrheal dehydration!!!!!
  25. What are added amounts of Na and glucose added to water in oral rehydration therapy?
    Na and glucose will go through SGLT and will get into the blood and will help keep the water inside
  26. what is a 5 carbon sugar called and what is an example
    Pentose

    Ribose
  27. what is a 6 carbon sugar called and what is an example
    hexose

    glucose
  28. what is a 9 carbon sugar called and what is an example
    nonose 

    neuraminic acid
  29. True/False: glucose is primarily in the L form like amino acids
    FALSE IT IS THE D FORM
  30. in glucose which carbon is 1 and which is 4?
    the carbon below the O that is in the ring is 1 

    the carbon that is below the carbon with another one attached (hanging off the ring) is the 4
  31. Glucose and fructose have the same chemical formula but the only difference is
    glucose is an aldose and fructose is a ketose
  32. glucose is a reducing sugar. Tests for reducing sugars include:
    • Benedict's reagent
    • Fehling's soution
    • Tollen's reagent

    Clinitest tables are based on the same principles as benedict's reagent
  33. the presence of reducing sugars in the urine might be indicative of metabolic disorders of ____ or _____ metabolism as well as _____
    • fructose
    • galatose
    • diabetes
  34. what are fructose and galactose reducing sugars
    Monosaccharaides are reducing my definition because they are not linked to anything—the reducing end is free
  35. glucose at concentration ____ is the major reducing chemical in blood
    5 mM
  36. A commonly utilized enzymatic assay for blood glucose today uses glucose oxidase and peroxidase.

    The hydrogen peroxide produced will oxidize a (colorless) ______ to a (color-bearing) ______
    chromogen 

    chromophore
  37. what hydrolyzes sucrose (glucose+ fructose--in that ORDER)
    sucrase
  38. what hydrolyses lactose
    lactase
  39. is lactose a reducing disaccharide?
    YES!!!!!
  40. maltose is a product of the hydrolysis of _____ 

    maltose is hydrolyzed by _____
    starch

    isomaltase
  41. is maltose a reducing disaccaride?
    YES
  42. what is the difference between maltose and isomaltose
    Maltose (glucose+ glucose)

    Isomaltose (glucose + glucose in alpha 1,6 linkage)
  43. Isomaltose is a product of ___ and ____ partial hydrolysis
    starch

    glycogen
  44. is isomaltose a reducing disaccaride
    YESSSSS
  45. true /false starch can be broken down by both isomaltoses and maltose
    TRUE
  46. starch is composed of what two things (in what %) and what is the difference
    Amylose (25%)-- a straight chain polysaccharide composed of D-glucose monomers

    Amylopectin (75%)--a branched chain polysaccharide composed of D-glucose monomers joined by both alpha 1,4 bonds and also alpha 1,6 bonds (branch points)
  47. True/False:  Cellulose is the most abundant of all carbohydrates on this planet, serving as a structural component in plants
    TRUE
  48. what is the molecule formed from glucose and glucose linked by a beta 1,4 glycosidic bond
    Cellulose
  49. Do we have the enzyme to digest a beta 1,4 glycosidic bond between 2 glucose molecules
    NO

    that cellulose
  50. non-cho parts that carbs can be attached to by glycosidic bonds
    aglycones
  51. what enzymes hydrolyze glycosidic bonds
    glycosidases

    ** a hydrolytic enzyme--adds water
  52. alpha amylase cuts dietary starch and glycogen where?
    at the internal alpha 1,4 bonds at random intervals
  53. what is an example of a endoglucosidase and what does that mean
    alpha amylase

    it means it cuts in the middle (not at one end)
  54. The final digestion of carbohydrates occurs primarily at the mucosal lining of the upper jejunum by disaccharidases of the intestinal brush-border membrane

    The disaccharidases include the following (5):
    • Isomaltase
    • Maltase
    • Lactase (beta galactosidase)
    • Sucrase
    • Trehalase
  55. what is the other name for lactase
    beta galactosidase
  56. the disaccharaidases are associated with what side of the intestinal brush border membrane
    luminal side
  57. if you eat food containing lactose, starch, sucrose and cellulose which sugar(s) get digested in the mouth
    the only one that is digested is starch and you get:

    • starch dextrins
    • isomaltose
    • maltose
    • maltotriose
  58. Isomaltase is made up of what
    two glucose (alpha 1,6)
  59. lactose is made up of what?
    glucose and galactose
  60. sucrose is made up of what
    glucose and fructose--IN THAT ORDER
  61. maltose is made up of what
    glucose and glucose
  62. Galactose and glucose are transported into the mucosal cells by ______
    SGLT-1 (sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter)
  63. Fructose is transported by _____ which does not require sodium
    GLUT 5
  64. Glucose, galactose, and fructose are all transported into the portal circulation by ____
    GLUT 2
  65. SGLT for the most part are found in _____ (SGLT 2) and ____ ____ (____) (SGLT 1)
    intestinal cells (enterocytes)
  66. True/False: the mutation related to lactose intolerances occurs in the lactose gene
    FALSE

    The mutation does NOT occur in the lactase gene at all—occurs in an intron of a neighboring gene
  67. word for lactose intolerance
    adult hypolactasia
  68. A relative sweetness scale assigning sucrose the value of ____
    100
  69. what is another salivary endoglycosidase that breaks the glycosidic bonds in bacterial cell walls?
    lysozyme
  70. sugars that done promote caries (8)
    Galactose (monosaccharide)

    Fiber (cellulose, pectin, gums, beta-glucans)

    Polymonosaccharides (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, erythritol)

    Polyolmonosaccharides (lactitol, isomalt,maltitol)

    saccharin 

    aspartame

    acesulfame- K

    sucralose
  71. Salivary amylase hydrolyzes
    the alpha 1,4 glycosidic bond
  72. The bonds in cellulose are
    beta 1,4 glycosidic bonds
  73. The bonds that are in amylopectin are
    alpha 1,4 and alpha 1,6 glycosidic bonds
  74. The bonds that are in glycogen are
    alpha 1,4 and alpha 1,6 glycosidic bonds
  75. Sucrase hydrolyzes the
    alpha 1,2 glycosidic bond
  76. Lactase hydrolyzes the
    beta 1,4 glycosidic bond

Card Set Information

Author:
arikell
ID:
335330
Filename:
Carbs
Updated:
2017-10-23 02:58:52
Tags:
carbs
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Description:
Biochem Exam 2 Material
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