Chapter 7

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  1. Cancer is the _____ most common cause of death in the United States with _________ deaths a year
    • second
    • 346,000
  2. THE FIVE-YEAR SURVIVAL RATE FOR THOSE WITH LOCALIZED DISEASE IS  __%  COMPARED WITH ONLY __% FOR CANCER WHICH HAS METASTASIZED
    • 76
    • 19
  3. What are some risk factors for oral cancer
    • AGE
    • SEX – men 2:1 ratio
    • SMOKING
    • DRINKING
    • HPV 16, 18 - Human Papilloma Virus
    • ARECA NUTS
  4. The most common sexually transmitted disease
    HPV 16 VIRUS
  5. HPV 16 VIRUS cause about ____% of cervical cancers. ______% of oral cancers are HPV positive. Age groups are ____ year olds. Twice as common in ______. Key locations for oral cancers are __________
    • 70
    • 60-80
    • 30-40
    • males
    • Tonsillar area and Oropharynx
  6. NEOPLASIA means ______ and refers to a process which really describes _________.
    • new growth
    • uncontrolled proliferation
  7. NEOPLASM is an
    abnormal mass of cells produced by this uncontrolled growth
  8. TUMOR means _______ and the study of tumors refers to _______.
    • swelling
    • ONCOLOGY
  9. In order for neoplasia to occur, there has to be an _________ change in a cell which is then passed on to new cells.
    irreversible genetic
  10. Cells in neoplasms are
    not normal
  11. Benign tumor or neoplasm is a localized tumor. It may be encapsulated, which means it is _________. It can _______, but it cannot __________
    • walled off by surrounding fibrous connective tissue
    • invade adjacent tissues (by getting larger)
    • spread to distant sites
  12. Malignant tumors
    invades other tissues and destroys surrounding tissue and can spread throughout the body (METASTATIC). Also known as CANCER OR MALIGNANCY
  13. –Resembling normal = __________
    –Not resembling normal = ___________
    –Varying shapes of cells = ___________
    • well differentiated
    • undifferentiated
    • PLEOMORPHIC
  14. What are some characteristics of Benign tumors
    • USUALLY WELL DIFFERENTIATED
    • USUALLY SLOW GROWING
    • MITOTIC FIGURES ARE RARE
    • USUALLY ENCAPSULATED
    • NO METASTASIS
  15. What are some characteristics of Malignant tumors
    • UNDIFFERENTIATED
    • SLOW TO RAPID GROWTH
    • NUMEROUS MITOTIC FIGURES
    • INVASIVE
    • METASTATIC
  16. Malignant Tumors

    EPITHELIUM = _________
    CONNECTIVE TISSUE = _________
    ENDOTHELIUM = ________
    MUSCLE = _________
    • CARCINOMA
    • SARCOMA
    • ANGIOSARCOMA
    • MYOSARCOMA
  17. What are three types of epithelium tumors
    • SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
    • BASAL CELLS
    • SALIVARY GLAND
  18. What is the clinical and histological appearance of a Papilloma
    • benign tumor that looks like a cauliflower and may be white or normal color depending on amount of keratinization
    • consists of finger-like projections of squamous epithelium with a core of connective tissue
  19. What is the treatment for a papilloma
    • Surgical removal which has to include the base of the lesion
    • With adequate surgery, they don’t recur
  20. Leukoplakia is a _______ that refers to a _________ and cannot be ________
    • clinical term
    • white plaque-like lesion that cannot be rubbed off
    • diagnosed as a specific disease
  21. Image Upload
    Leukoplakia
  22. Studies have shown that leukoplakia in the _________ are more likely to be premalignant or cancerous.
    floor of the mouth or the side or underside of the tongue
  23. Histologically leukoplakia may show
    dysplasia (premalignant) or even squamous cell carcinoma
  24. Erythroplakia is a clinical term used to describe
    an oral mucosal lesion that appears as a smooth red patch or a granular red and velvety patch.
  25. “Speckled” leukoplakia contains _______ areas
    both red and white
  26. What are some characteristics of epithelial dysplasia
    • –Mitotic figures
    • –Large dark nuclei
    • –Cells are jumbled
  27. CARCINOMA-IN-SITU is a ________ and usually associated with _________
    • Common mucosal lesion appearing as a white and/or red patch or a soft ulcer
    • tobacco or alcohol use
  28. Image Upload
    CARCINOMA-IN-SITU
  29. What is the most common primary malignancy of the oral cavity
    SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA
  30. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA clinically appears as
    an exophytic ulcerative mass, but early tumors may be erythroplakia, leukoplakia or speckled leukoplakia.
  31. The clinical main feature of Squamous cell carcinoma
    invasion of tumor cells through the basement membrane and into the underlying connective tissue
  32. Microscopically In a well-differentiated SCC, you would be able to recognize
    keratin production
  33. What are keratin pearls
    keratin within cells in a tumor
  34. ORAL SCC can occur anywhere in the mouth, but most occur on
    floor of mouth, underside/lateral side of tongue, soft palate, tonsilar pillar and retromolar areas
  35. In the TNM staging system for Oral SCCC what does the
    T1
    T2
    T3
    T4
    stand for
    • T1 – tumor less than 2 cm diameter
    • T2 – tumor 2 to 4 cm in diameter
    • T3 – Tumor greater than 4 cm
    • T4 – Tumor invades adjacent structures
  36. In the TNM staging system for Oral SCCC what does the
    N0
    N1
    N2
    N3
    stand for
    • N0 – no palpable nodes
    • N1 – ipsilateral nodes(same side as lesion)
    • N2 – Contralateral or bilateral nodes
    • N3 – Fixed palpable nodes
  37. In the TNM staging system for Oral SCCC what does the
    M0
    M1
    stand for
    • M0 – No distant metastasis
    • M1 – clinical or radiographic evidence of metastasis
  38. STAGE IV INCLUDES ANY PATIENT WITH
    M1
  39. Solar or actinic cheilitis can occur on the
    vermilion border of the lips and face.
  40. Prognosis for SCC ________ is much better than for that of the oral mucosa.
    of the skin
  41. The majority of solar cheilitis occurs in patients age
    40 and over
  42. Image Upload
    Verrucous Carcinoma
  43. Verrucous Carcinoma clinically appears as a
    slow-growing exophytic tumor with a pebbly white and red surface
  44. Basal Cell Carcinoma is a _______ composed of ________.
    • malignant skin tumor
    • basal cells
  45. Basal Cell Carcinoma clinically appears as a _______ and does not occur in the _______
    • nonhealing ulcer with rolled borders
    • oral cavity
  46. Since the source of salivary tumors is _________, benign salivary tumors are called ________.
    • glandular epithelium
    • adenomas
  47. All salivary gland tumors are diagnosed based on their
    histological appearance
  48. Intraorally, minor salivary gland tumors are most commonly located at
    the junction of the hard and soft palates
  49. Tumors of minor salivary glands occur more on which lip
    Upper lip
  50. Pleomorphic adenoma is a _________ accounting for ___% of all benign salivary gland tumors.
    • benign mixed (epithelium and connective tissue) salivary gland tumor
    • 90
  51. The most common extraoral site of the Pleomorphic adenoma is the
    parotid gland
  52. The most common intraoral site of the Pleomorphic adenoma is the
    palate, usually one side of the midline in the posterior palate
  53. Monomorphic adenoma is a _________ and differs from pleomorphic adenoma in that it _________
    • benign encapsulated growth in which epithelium forms a very regular, usually glandular pattern
    • lacks the connective tissue (mesoderm) component of the pleomorphic adenoma and by its regular   histologic pattern
  54. The Most common sites of the Monomorphic adenoma are
    upper lip and buccal mucosa
  55. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (cylindroma) is a _______ and microscopically looks like __________
    • Unencapsulated malignant tumor of salivary glands
    • swiss cheese
  56. The most common extra oral site of the Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (cylindroma) is the
    parotid gland
  57. Image Upload
    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
  58. The most common intra oral site of the Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (cylindroma) is the
    palate
  59. The Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (cylindroma) is more common in _________ and tends to be _______
    • women over 40
    • painful
  60. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a __________ composed of a ________
    • malignant, unencapsulated, infiltrating salivary gland tumor
    • combination of mucous cells and squamous-like epithelial cells called epidermoid cells
  61. Image Upload
    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma
  62. In the mucoepidermoid carcinoma the  _______ is the most common site of the major glands while _______ is most common site of the minor glands
    • Parotid gland
    • palate
  63. What is the most common malignant salivary gland tumor in children
    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

Card Set Information

Author:
haitianwifey
ID:
335415
Filename:
Chapter 7
Updated:
2017-10-28 17:58:50
Tags:
Chapter
Folders:
Oral Path
Description:
Chapter 7
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