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2010-09-08 23:47:18
ap english language composition aplec vocab

Summer assignment
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  1. allusion
    an indirect reference, often to another text or an historic event
  2. anadiplosis
    the repetition words at the end of a clause to start another one
  3. analogy
    an extended comparison between two seemingly dissimilar things
  4. anaphora
    the repition of words at the beginning of successive clauses
  5. anecdote
    a short account of an interesting event
  6. antecedent
    the noun to which a later pronoun refers
  7. antimetabole
    the repetition of words in an inverted order to sharpen contrast
  8. antithesis
    the use of parallel structures to highlight contrast or opposition
  9. aphorism
    a short, astute statement of general truth or life
  10. apostrophe
    when the writer breaks off and directs speech towards a dead, imaginary, absent person, or personified abstraction
  11. asyndeton
    leaving out conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses
  12. attribution
    verbs that tell when someone else's information or ideas are being used
  13. caricature
    an exaggerated description that distorts physical characteristics for comic effect
  14. colloquialism
    an informal or conversational use of language (slang)
  15. conceit
    an elaborate expression as an extended metaphor or far-fetched analogy between two seemingly dissimilar objects
  16. connotation
    that which is implied by a word, as opposed to the word's literal meaning
  17. deductive reasoning
    using a general case to find a specific case
  18. denotation
    the literal meaning of a word
  19. ellipsis
    to leave out one or more words that must be supplied by the reader or listener
  20. epistrophe
    the repetition of words at the end of successive clauses
  21. euphemism
    a less offensive or politically correct phrase used to replace an offensive one
  22. hyperbole
    exaggeration for the purpose of emphasis
  23. hypophora
    when a question is asked them immediately answered by the same person
  24. inductive reasoning
    using a specific case to find a general one
  25. invective
    abusive language placing the blame on someone
  26. irony
    a contradiction between what is said and what is meant
  27. juxtaposition
    placement of two things side by side for emphasis or comparison
  28. litotes
    when the argument is proven by negating the opposite
  29. loose sentence
    the main clause followed by subordinate phrases
  30. metonymy
    use of an aspect of something to represent a whole
  31. paradox
    a statement that seems contradictory but is actually true
  32. parody
    a piece that imitates and exaggerates the prominent freatures of another; used for comic effect or ridicule
  33. periodic sentence
    a sentence that buildes towards and ends with the main clause
  34. persona
    the speaker, voice, or character assumed by the author of a piece of writing
  35. polysyndeton
    the deliberate use of a series of conjunctions
  36. satire
    an ironic, sarcastice, or witty composition that claims to argue from something, but actually aruges against it
  37. premise
    • two parts of a syllogism (a form deductive reasoning). The major premise provides the predicate and the minor premise provides the subject
    • Major premise: All mamals are warm-blooded.
    • Minor presmise: all horses are mammals.
    • Conclusion: All horses are warm-blooded.
  38. pun
    a play on words with the same sound but different meaning
  39. scheme
    a pattern of words or sentence construction used for rhetorical effect
  40. synechdoche
    when a whole is referred to by a specific part of it
  41. syntax
    sentence structure
  42. tone
    the speaker's attitude toward the subject or audience
  43. understatement
    lack of emphasis in a statement or proint; restaint in language often used for ironic effect
  44. zeugma
    a construction in which on word (usually a verb) modifies or governs -- often in different, sometimes in-congruent ways -- two or more words in a sentence
  45. logical fallacy
    an error in reasoning that renders an argument invalid
  46. ad hominem
    an argument based of the flaws of the adversary instead of the merits of the case
  47. appeal to pity
    making the audience feel sorry for the cause in order to accept the conclusion
  48. appeal to prejudice
    the use of the people's emotions and prejudices to get the audience to accept the conclusion
  49. appeal to tradition
    when an argument is said to be correct because it is older or has always been done that way
  50. bandwagon
    when peer pressure is substituted for actual evidence
  51. begging the question
    tautology - when the arguer asks the audience to accept the arguement without any real evidence
  52. equivocating
    when a key word in an argument is used with more than one meaning
  53. false dilemma
    when the audience is given a limited number of options when they actually have more to choose from
  54. guilt by association
    when a person rejects a claim because they dislike the people that accept it
  55. hasty generalization
    a conclusion on a population based off of a small group
  56. non-squitur
    an argument that just doesn't follow
  57. oversimplification
    when the arguer leaves out certain facts and multiple facts are reduced to a few
  58. post hoc
    when it is proposed that one event cuased another just because it came first
  59. red herring
    when the aruger dodges to real issue by bringing attentino to an irrelevant issue
  60. slippery slope
    when the arguer claims that even one bad event will lead to a chain reaction with a disastrous result that can't be stopped