Chemistry HL IB Chapter 2

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  1. Dalton’s Theory:
    • All matter consists of atoms
    • All atoms of a given atom are identical (false, isotopes)
    • The atoms of a given element are different from other elements and compounds
    • Atoms can not be created, destroyed or broken into smaller pieces (false)
  2. Atomic Number:
    Z

    Is the number of protons in the atom.

    Is on the bottom left corner.

    For a neutral atom, number of protons = number of neutrons
  3. The Mass Number:
    A

    The mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons.

    Upper left corner of the atom
  4. Isotopes:
    Same proton, different neutron number

    Chemical properties are determined by number of electrons and are thus the same

    Physical properties vary

    -higher mass

    -higher density

    -higher melting and boiling points

    -slower rate of diffusion
  5. Why are isotopes useful?
    Treating different kinds of cancer

    The sterilization of surgical instruments

    Nuclear power

    Crime detection
  6. Useful Isotopes:
    Cobalt 60

    Iodine 131

    Iodine 125

    carbon 12
  7. Relative Atomic Mass;
    mass x relative abundance) of all isotopes/ 100
  8. Electron Arrangement
    The Bohr model is the basis

    An electron arrangement gives the number of electrons in each shell or orbit
  9. Main energy level,
    • n, is called principal quantum number
    • increases as we get further from the nucleus
  10. n
    n=1 has an s orbital

    n=2 has an s and a p orbital

    n=3 has an s, p and a d orbital

    n=4 has an s, p, d, f orbital
  11. Full Electron Configuration
    Normal
  12. Condensed/ Abbreviated Electron Configuration
    With a soygaz
  13. Orbital Diagram Representation
    With the boxes
  14. Exceptions
    • Cu is 
    • 4s 1 3d 10

    • Cr is
    • 4s 1 3d 5
  15. Ionisation Energy
    • Ionization energy is the energy required to remove one mol of electrons from one mol of atoms in the gaseous state.
    • increases as more electrons are removed
  16. As the atom gets bigger and as we move down the periodic table
    ionization energy decreases bc electrons further from the nucleus are easier to remove
  17. The size of the atom decreases from left to right (same number of shells, more protons)
    ), thus the ionization energy increases
  18. Shielding:
    inner electrons will shield electrons in lower shells by repelling them . The greater the shielding effect, the lower the ionization energy. More electrons = less ionization energy
  19. Exceptions: ionisation
    It’s easier to remove electrons from subshell p

    Be has a higher ionization energy than B

     

    It’s easier to remove electrons from a full orbital

    N has a higher ionization energy than O
  20. Number of protons and number of electrons
    are equal for all atoms of an element
  21. the most dangerous
    Short wavelength, high frequency, high energy
  22. Speed of light: c =
    distance between successive crests x frequency

    weird h x v
  23. = E
    Electromagnetic Radiation, Energy of Photon
  24. E= formuola
    • Planck’s constant x frequency. 
    • (h x v)

    • since v = c/ weird h  
    • E= h.c/distance between crests
  25. Absorption line spectrum:
    • electron absorbs energy, goes to a higher energy level
    • mostly colorful with black lines
    • converges at high frequency
    • represents electrons going up from n=2
  26. Emission line Spectrum:
    • Electron loses or emits energy and goes down to a lower energy level (lines on black)
    • represents electrons going from n=2 to higher energy levels
  27. Transitions to n=1
    UV radiation (highest energy)
  28. Transitions to n=2
    visible light
  29. Transitions to n=3
    are infrared (lowest energy)
  30. rays from highest energy to lowest energy
    Gamma rays, X rays, UV, visible light, infrared, microwaves, radio waves

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Chemistry HL IB Chapter 2
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2017-10-25 21:28:57
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