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Penicillins are what kind of antibiotics?
what does penicillin inhibit
the cross-linking of peptidoglycan chains
What do penicillins have no effect on and why?
mycoplasma, protozoa, fungi, or viruses
because they have different cell walls
What are also beta-lactam antibiotics that operate in a manner related to that of penicillins but tend to be more resistant than penicillins to inactivation by beta-lactamases
Where are beta-lactamases found? (2)
- lateral gene transfer (resistance factors)
tetracyclines binds to what and inhibits what?
binds to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis
tetracyclines are known as ______
Aminoglycosides are bacterial antibiotics that include (4):
streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, neomycin
How do aminoglycosides work?
By inhibiting bacterial protien synthesis
_____ are bacteriostatic antibiotics that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis (translation). Erythromycin belongs to this class
bacteriocidal antibiotics, whose mechanism is the inhibition of topoisomerase II, a DNA gyrase
sometimes just called quinolones
beta-lactam antibiotics that are relative resistant to hydrolysis of beta-lactamases and are often used as antibiotics of last resort
A tricyclic glycopeptide which is used against multi-drug resistant organisms and its mechanism is the inhibition of bacterial synthesis of cell wall phospholipids and the inhibition of peptidoglycan polymerization
Mechanism of antibiotic action include (4)
- Inhibition of RNA synthesis
- Inhibition of folate metabolism
- inhibition mycelia acid synthesis (has to do with TB germ)
- Alteration of cytoplasmic membrane (inner membrane)
Resistance to antibiotics can be acquired by two major mechanisms:
- lateral gene transfer
- mutations via vertical gene transfer
Mechanisms of drug resistance can be classified into 5 main categories:
- Inactivation of drug by bacterial enzyme
- Over-production of drug target (bacteria overproduces itself)
- Altered permeability to drug (membrane and cell wall)
- Metabolic bypass of target pathway (pathway that is affected)
- Alteration in target protein (change it so it is no longer able to stand out as a target)