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  1. Largest cause of failure to become pregnant is
    from the failure to breed or inseminate at the most favorable time with high quality semen.
  2. Steps that must happen before fertilization (post-insemination) and just after
    1 egg
    2 sperm
    2 zygote
    • Egg: LH peak stimulates resumption of meiosis and ovulation
    • Sperm: transport through female repro tract, reservoir in uterine tube.  Capacitation (acrosome rxn, hyperactivation).
    • mixing of chromosomes and cell division
    • Zygote enters uterus.
  3. Dairy cattle breeding
    • AI with quality frozen semen.
    • Heifers bred on heat detection, cows timed and then heat detection. Cows ovulate 10-15h after the end of estrus (12 best).  Once bleeding (metestrus), too late
    • early: lower fertility but better embryo
    • late: higher fertility but poorer embryo (old)
  4. OvSynch (with PreSynch)
    • PGF2alpha: 2 shots 2 weeks (day -28, day -14) apart to pre-synchronize cows (not heifers) and make sure they have a dominant follicle.
    • GnRH: day 0, causes ovulation of a dominant follicle.  CL forms, new follicular wave in 2-3d. 
    • PGF2alpha: day 7 to cause luteolysis of mature CL, estrus in 2-3d
    • GnRH: day 9, ovulation in 24-32h
    • Timed AI: 16h post GnRH
    • doesn’t work in heifers - conception rate much lower
  5. Progesterone-based ov-synch (CIDR)
    • Exogenous progesterone induces an artificial luteal phase, to cause neg feedback on pituitary (inhibits gonadotropin release and LH surge), blocks final maturation of dominant follicle. 
    • Once source of progesterone removed, estrus in 2-5d
  6. resynch
    60% or more still open after each AI. Restart OvSynch with GnRH shot, but NO PG until after pregnancy Check!!  33d
  7. goal of beef cattle breeding
    • Tight breeding/calving season of 45-60d
    • BSE for bulls every year to achieve
  8. Equine breeding basics - best ways, how often, what follicle size
    • pasture is very efficient
    • in-hand breeding: tease mares and breed every 48h in estrus
    • DVM has to predict time of ovulation and organize availability of semen
    • follicles grow ~3mm/day (faster with CL/progesterone). >35 mm
  9. Equine AI
    timing for all three
    • FROZEN inseminate 6h before or 6h after ovulation
    • COOLED inseminate up to 2d before ovulation (1 day is better) or 6h after. 
    • FRESH give ovulation agent and semen at same time (or ov the day before)
    • >500 million progressively motile, morphologically normal sperm
    • usu shipped extended, cooled.  PLAN TIMING INCLUDING SHIPPING (some don't deliver on weekends)
    • not for thoroughbreds
  10. equine postbreeding examinations
    Monitor via U/S for ovulation, intrauterine fluid accumulation (Manage with oxytocin, prostaglanins, uterine lavage)
  11. Time of canine repro
    • sperm can live up to 7d in female repro tract
    • oocytes viable for at least 4 days after ovulation
    • long proestrus and estrus
    • Monitor 3x/week because more flexible. (Vaginal cytology, vaginoscopy, progesterone levels, looking for LH peak.
  12. Natural mating of canines
    initial intromission followed by “tie”. Breed every 2 days until no longer receptive.
  13. Canine AI
    • vaginal deposition is easily performed
    • fresh, cooled: breed on days 3 and 5  OR   4 and 6 post LH peak
    • Frozen: short sperm lifespan, requires intrauterine deposition (transcervical or surgical) on days 5 and 6 post LH peak.
  14. Postbreeding complications of canines
    • Endometritis: fluid seen by ultrasound
    • vaginitis: dark brown or yellowish vaginal discharge
  15. Feline breeding management
    • Take queen to Tom (ideally)
    • leave undisturbed.
    • Tom bites back of neck. A few seconds to a few minutes.
    • Jump apart, groom, repeat
    • one time only induces ovulation in about half of females
  16. Sheep natural breeding management (time, heat detection, flushing)
    • 45d breeding period, multi-sire pasture breeding with fertile rams. We can’t really tell when they’re in heat.
    • Ram: Ewe (1:15-50)
    • FLushing: increase plane of nutrition before breeding to increase ovulation rates. Only works in underfed sheep
    • Use heat-detection marking harnesses (colors change 14-16d, cull those covered more than 2-3 times b/c not getting pregnant)
  17. Cornell Star System
    • Allows year-round marketing of lambs
    • 5 73d breeding periods instead of 1, most ewes lamb 3 times in 2 years.
  18. Sheep AI with fresh or frozen
    • fresh semen: collect with artificial vagina or electroejaculation, inseminate with >50 million in <0.25mL. Deposit at external os cervix through speculum (elevated hindquarters of ewe). Synchronize or spontaneous
    • Frozen semen: intrauterine insemination required. Guelph (pull cervix to align folds, inseminate with gun. Laborious and time consuming, 70%) vs laparoscopic (extensive specialized equipment, 75%).
  19. Sheep AI timing
    • Heat detection via harness.  Heat at 9am, breed at 3pm.  Heat at 4pm, breed at 8am. 
    • Intravaginal progesterone, inseminate 54-60h after withdrawal.  55-60%
  20. Goat breeding management (pasture vs hand vs AI)
    • Pasture: 1 buck to 40-60 does per season.
    • Hand mating:  more common, check for heat 2x/day, breed 12-24h after estrus onset.
    • Synchonization possible but no approved drugs
    • Fresh semen like sheep in os cervix, vaginal
    • frozen semen intrauterine through cervix, easier to penetrate than in sheep
  21. Swine breeding management, storage, process, amt for AI
    • bred by heat detection and natural mating or AI
    • commercial semen can be stored at room temp for 5d.  Breed q24h.  
    • Vets aren’t involved. 
    • Restrain sow with pressure on loin, pipette in cervix, inseminate into uterus - screw in (lefty-tighty, righty-loosy, several minutes, slow and easy). At least 100mL because huge uterus.
  22. Alpaca breeding
    • behavior - female will cush when male approaches. She’ll spit if pregnant or not in estrus yet.
    • take female to male pen
    • copulation >15m
    • breed 1-3x on successive days
    • INDUCED ovulators. Expose to male again in 1-2wks to confirm ovulation
  23. Embyo transfer
    • Breed the donor then flush the uterus, transfer to recipient uterus. 
    • So you can keep using mom and get more embryos.
    • Max offspring born per year, and can wash embryo to get rid of disease
    • usu bovine, equine, sm ruminant. 
    • Donor must be able to become pregnant. Transcervical or surgical into uterine tubes or uterus.
  24. In vitro fertilization (ICSI)
    • oocytes harvested from follicles and fertilized in vitro. 
    • IVF overcomes female infertility.  ICSI (intra—cytoplasmic sperm injection) overcomes male infertility
    • first maturation phase, then fertilization phase (intracytoplasmic sperm injection), then embryo culture
  25. cloning/somatic nuclear cell transfer
    • “Dolly”
    • identical genetic makeup with different mitochondrial genome
    • Isolate cell from donor
    • take oocytes from different donor and remove nucleus
    • put one donor cell next to enucleated oocyte
    • supply electrical pulse to fuse cells
    • Lots of placental and fetal defects, and won’t be exactly the same.
  26. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  27. Internal sex glands of the male
    ram and goat
    • cat: prostate, bulbourethral gland
    • dog: prostate
    • Stallion: ALL!  Ampulla, prostate, vesicular gland, bulbourethral gland
    • bull: ALL! Ampulla, prostate, vesicular gland, bulbourethral gland
    • Ram and goat: ALL!  Ampulla, prostate, vesicular gland, bulbourethral gland
    • Boar: prostate, vesicular gland, bulbourethral gland
    • Camelid: Prostate, bulbourethral gland
    • Ampulla ONLY in all 4 (dogs have a microscopic one), everyone has a prostate. most have a bulbourethral. Cats = camelids.
  28. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  29. types of penis and species
    • fibroelastic: ruminant, camelids, boar
    • vascular: stallion, cat, dog
  30. phimosis
    inability to extend penis - can't get out of prepuce
  31. paraphimosis
    inability to retract penis - can't get back INTO prepuce
  32. priapism
    inability to detumesce the penis (blood flow problem)
  33. extension of a camelid penis
    persistent frenulum until 3y, testosterone dependent.  Can't extend until that age
  34. Traditional penile difficulty in pigs (5)
    • persistent frenulum - can't cover normally
    • urolithiasis
    • erectile dysfunction: corpus spongiosum shunts
    • Trauma from breeding, bite wounds. 
    • preputial diverticulum just caudodorsal to prepuce opening - can get infected and sore.  Remove
  35. Common penile problems in bulls (7) with tx
    anatomical, traumatic, irritating, viral, degenerative, congenital, acquired
    • Pendulous prepuce leads to prepucial prolapse then preputial stenosis/cicatrix causing phimosis or paraphimosis (dep on inside or outside once gets inflamed).  Tx with sx resection or sling/bandage.
    • broken penis/penile hematoma: cow falls down, bull is stuck inside, tubica albuginea tear.  Sx if RECENT within 5-10d.  Sexual rest will recover 50% - ISOLATE COMPLETELY for 60-90d.
    • Hair rings from mounting - discomfort, aren't servicing cows, swelling.  Grasp with gauze and remove hair.
    • balanoprostitis: IBR = bovine Herpes.
    • ventral/rainbow deviation or corkscrew/spiral deviation: Corkscrew develops with age, can be sx corrected. prevents intromission.  
    • persistent frenulum: should separate by 8-11mo. Heritable but still breed. Ligate, resect. Rest 2wks
    • Fibropapillomas: warts (=most common neoplasm). Autogenous vax, remove.
  36. Small ruminant common penile problems (3)
    • penile hematoma
    • urolithiasis/blockage: Ca apatite and phosphate-based calculi.  High grain, low roughage diet helps. Block vermiform appendage (resect)
    • balanoposthitis/pizzle rot: corynebacterium renale or mycoplasma or virus. Usu in castrated. Diets high in protein = alkaline urine - DON'T
  37. Stallion common penile problems (7)
    viral, traumatic, neuro, traumatic, neoplastic, parasitic, accumulation
    • coital exhanthema: herpes III STD, vesicular lesions, painful, transmitted. Self-limiting, 2 weeks, don't want to breed because ow. No effect on preg but scar. 
    • hemospermia: make sure not a vaginal laceration (maiden mare has hymen). Penis drips after bleeding. Trauma, vs urethral lesions vs accessory sex gland disease (vesicular). Urethroscopy after collections. Sexual rest for 3wks to 3mo (+ abx)
    • urospermia: usu chronic due to detrusor sphincter dysynergia (DSD). Occasionally due to resp probs. Train to urinate first (scent marking, fresh bedding in stall, furosemide and food reward).
    • Trauma: support tissue, pressure wrap, NSAIDs, hydrotherapy, exercise, sometimes surgical drainage. Can use compression therapy for acute injuries - elastic vs IV squeeze bags. Chronic may need amputation
    • Neoplasia: SCC esp in light skinned. Also prepuce - depigment.  Can treat (5FU, cryo, radiation) Melanoma, always malignant. debulk, vaccinate
    • parasitic habronemiasis: parasitic infection of habronema or drashia larvae. Ivermectin!
    • Beans: can be huge and cause ulcers, clean yearly.
  38. Penile probs in dogs (6)
    trauma, developmental, idiopathic, develop + idio, acquired, neoplastic
    • trauma: os penis!  Licking - self-inflicted. semen collection, fights. 
    • Hypospadia: urethral opening on ventrum of penis rather than at end.  Developmental. Sx.
    • urethral prolapse: intermittant bleeding, red "pea" on tip of penis, increased urination.  Sx replace or removal, prevent masturbation. 
    • urethral prolapse with hypospadia: same but on ventrum of penis
    • paraphimosis: prepuce can fold inside. Sexual excitement, neuro, fracture of os penis, constriction by hair ring or scar, swelling due to trauma, neoplasia or idiopathic. If recent, clean, lube, replace. May need sx.
    • TVT: grows within 60d after transfer, exudate (serosanguinous to purulent), "cauliflower-like" lesions.
  39. Cats penile problems
    • penile spines indicate testosterone, can tell if castrated. 
    • Hair rings
    • 20% have os penis
  40. diagnosis of scrotal hernia
    • Rectal exam straight into scrotal sac (trauma) or indirect through inguinal ring (wide inguinal rings)
    • common in premature foals.  Colic, sx
  41. testicular hydrocele (what is it? consequences) and hematocele (cause, tx, result)
    • hydrocele: excess fluid between parietal and vaginal tunics of the tunica vaginalis.  Non-inflammatory, usually acquired, in breeds (Spanish, Andalusian), more common in hot. Plummets ejaculatory quality. 
    • Hematocele: trauma. Extension of hemoperitoneum. Evacuate the vaginal cavity and suture tunica albuginea. Orchidectomy likely indicated. Detrimental to spermatogenesis
  42. diagnosis, tx, consequences of testicular/spermatic cord torsion
    • esp in stallions (standardbreds). 
    • dx: location of epididymis.  
    • Dynamic rotation of testis in some stallions, considered "unsound" but incidental. 
    • Torsion causes vascular compromise, acute pain, colic-like signs, infarction of the testis.  Requires sx.
  43. describe incidence, diagnosis, tx, prognosis of cryptorchidism
    • Testis failure to initiate abdominal, inguinal or scrotal passage (Agenesis is extremely rare--it's in there)
    • <5% in most species. Most common in horses or dogs
    • unilateral vs bilateral.  
    • Polygenetic recessive. 
    • dx: palpation, look for scars. US better than palpation
    • gelding vs cryptorchid: check testosterone, testosterone stim, anti-mullerian hormone. in cats, check for penile spines. Behavior can't tell.
    • Increased risk of neoplasia, behavioral issues. Thermoreg will prob cause sterility.
  44. testicular hypoplasia - species, cause, result
    • usu bulls, can be in any species. Autosomal recessive, incomplete penetrance. Daughters may have ovarian hypoplasia.
    • Fertility has never been normal.
  45. incidence, diagnosis, tx, prognosis of testicular degeneration
    • very prevalent.  Thermal, infectious and toxic injuries.  
    • Fertility WAS normal.
    • gets squishy, then small and hard
    • Stallion idiopathic testicular degeneration: acquired, small, soft testis. Not sure why  Poor sperm cell morphology and round cells, declining fertility. May get worse.
  46. cause, tx of orchitis
    • Traumatic or infectious (brucella in dogs)
    • tx with abx
    • hemi-orchidectomy
  47. tumor types (4), diagnosis, metastasis of testicular neoplasia
    incidence in dogs, bulls, stallions, cats, sheep, goats, pigs.
    • Interstitial (Leydig) cell tumor, Sertoli cell tumor, Seminoma, tertoma. Sertoli and Seminoma more likely in abdominal testes
    • Macroscopic appearance pretty diagnostic. 
    • Metastasis is rare. Unilateral or bilateral, multiple or single, more than one type can occur at the same time. 
    • OR contralateral atrophy can happen from hormone secreting tumors or thermoregulation
    • Interstitial (Leydig) Cell tumor: low malignancy, paraneoplastic syndrome. Retained testes and neoplastic testis. Slower growing, smaller and less often diagnosed.  
    • Sertoli Cell tumor: most common hormone secreting tumor (paraneoplastic). Rare metastasis. ESTROGEN - male dogs = nipple enlargement. Prepucial smear squamous, like an estrus smear.
    • dogs: all same prevalence
    • Stallions: teratoma (abdominal testes), Seminoma (adult scrotal testes), Sertoli cell tumor (rare), interstitial cell tumor (rare)
    • Bulls: uncommon. Interstitial cell tumors (older bulls)
    • Rare in cats, sheep. VERY rare in goats, pigs.
  48. Varicocele in rams
    Varicose veins of the pampiniform plexus. Most common in sheep, little effect of fertility.
  49. scrotal neoplasia (dogs and horses
    • MCT in dogs (most common)
    • LSA and Sarcoids in horses
  50. horse scrotum probs
    • Drug reactions
    • Inguinal hernia: Drop into scrotum on rectal or through inguinal rings. Often in premature foals. Colic, sx.
    • Neoplasm: LSA and sarcoids
  51. scrotal frostbite victims
    • older bulls because pendulous scrotum
    • horses
    • causes issues in thermoregulation and therefore spermatogenesis
  52. dx and MO of vesicular adenitis in bulls and stallions
    • aka vesiculitis, seminal vesiculitis
    • Trueperella pyogenes
    • dx: leukospermia (diff-quik of ejaculate), rectal palpation, U/S
  53. Sperm accumulation syndrome in stallions and bulls
    • Blockage in ampulla from accumulation of senescent sperm (idiopathic).  
    • Unilateral is intermittant ejaculations of one side.  Bilateral is intermittant or complete obstruction. 
    • dx: palpation and US (thickening and/or enlarged diameter)
    • tx: oxytocin
    • prevention: put on regular collection/mating schedule
  54. dx, tx of canine prostatic neoplasia
    • adenocarcinoma or TCC of prostatic urethra
    • Rare! Usu dx late, MST 2mo
    • Castration is not protective
    • palpable prostate in castrated male is a bad sign
    • Palpation: irregular asymmetric, enlarged, painful
    • Rads and U/S show prostatomegaly, prostatic mineralization (**).  
    • Tx: palliative.
  55. diagnosis of general prostatic dz of dogs
    most common possibilities, dx, tests, signs, tx
    • neutered dogs only get cancer (though could have infection/abscess)
    • In mature dogs, start with BPH (prone to bacterial infection)
    • dx: digital palpation, US, rads, urinalysis
    • test: third fraction of ejaculate, urine, U/S guided aspirate vs blind aspirate, prostatic "wash", Bx (US vs sx). Rads and US
    • signs: blood in urine, on prepuce, in semen, tenesmus, dysuria, locomotion problems, abdominal pain, systemic disease
    • tx: castration! Cures all but abscess, tumor and maybe cyst. Abx (TMS, fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol)
  56. Genetic and endocrine control of libido
    • +/- GnRH
    • NEVER testosterone
    • Libido is genetically determined (season, age, nutrition may be a factor) and affected by physical (lame, eye sight)
    • steroids cause poor sperm quality, so don't administer or stress!
  57. Mgmt of mating behavior disorders in stallions
    • frequently learned, sometimes genetic or frustration. (neg reinforcement, loss of interest, ejaculatory failure)
    • Patient retraining with cooperative mare (respond in <3min usu).
    • Diazepam to help with focus, imipramine to lower ejaculatory threshold. 
    • Older stallions with health issues may partially ejaculate (4 pulses instead of 7)
    • Can do ex-copula ejaculation (imipramine and xylazine) if can't cover naturally.
    • Eliminate pain/discomfort, give progesterone (NOT TESTOSTERONE)
  58. Steps of infertility workup (5)
    • suggests female has been bred and there is an infertility problem (dif from BSE).  Goal is to ID the problem
    • Obtain thorough history: particularly repro like cycles, parity, etc. Diet, vax, travel. 
    • complete PE: BCS, signs of infectious
    • PE of repro tract: palpation and U/S, speculum and cervical palpation
    • Diagnostic tests: R/O infectious, cytology and culture of uterus +/- bx, hysteroscopy
    • monitor repro function
  59. If you see a CL, the animal is in _____
    diestrus.  Unless it's a dog.
  60. indications for and advantages of male breeding soundness exam
    • indications: prepurchase, to investigate existing problems, post-injury, to book appropriate number of females.  
    • Guidelines set by SFT to assess POTENTIAL fertility
    • classifications: satisfactory, questionable, unsatisfactory
    • Requirements: produce normal semen, be able to achieve erection and coitus, have normal libido, be free of infectious and genetic disease
  61. Breeding Soundness Evaluation in males
    • indications: prepurchase, investigating existing probs, post-injury, or to book a number for mares. 
    • Satisfactory, questionable, unsatisfactory. 
    • assesses potential fertility. 
    • advantages
    • required to produce normal semen, capable of erection and coitus, normal libido, free of infectious and genetic dz
    • health hx, repro hx, ID, PE (vision, limbs, heart/lung, TEETH), genital exam, internal genitalia, semen analysis, libido and mating ability, special tests like BRUCELLA etc.
  62. appropriate means of semen collection for pig, dog, cat, camelid, ruminant, equine
    • Artificial vagina, electroejaculation, digital massage, chemical
    • Pigs: "gloved hand technique", filter due to lots of gel (lg volume).  Boar mounts dummy
    • dogs: digital stimulation in presence of estrous bitch. 3 fractions: presperm (urethral), sperm-rich, post-sperm (prostatic)
    • cats: difficult to collect. Electro under GA or specially constructed artificial vagina. Also aspirate semen from queens.  Chemical (dexmedetomidine). 
    • Camelids: difficult. Electro usu not satisfactory. AV and dummy, or vaginal aspiration of females. 
    • Ruminants: AV with dummy or female, electro. Semen is concentrated and small volume.
    • equine: Tease (evaluate for lesions), culture, wash, retease, mount, AV. There is a gel fraction.  Missouri, Colorado, Nishikawa models of AV.
  63. describe and perform semen evaluation
    • protect semen from sudden temp change, heat and cold, water, contamination and direct sunlight
    • macroscopic: volume (species and method specific), odor, pH, color (blood, urine, dirt, pigment), concentration (hemocytometer)
    • microscopic: motility (mass/gross in ruminants, 0-5, waves, 5 is most), individual sperm motility (dilute ruminant - total (mvmt) and progressive motility), morphology
  64. describe characteristics of ejaculates from Bull, Ram, Buck, Camelid, Stallion, Boar, Dog, Cat
    • Bull: 5mL, No fractions, 125bil sperm, >70% motile, >75% normal morphology
    • Ram: 1mL, no fractions, 2000bil sperm, >90% motile, >85% normal
    • Buck: 0.5mL, 2zil, 70% motile, 80% normal
    • Camelid: 3mL, no fractions, 300mil sperm, >30% motility, >50% normal
    • Stallion: 60mL, fractions, 120bil sperm, NO MIN FOR MOTILITY OR MORPHOLOGY.  Want 1 bil prog motile, morpho normal in the second of 2 ejaculates 1 hr apart. 
    • Boar: 250mL, yes fractions, 100bil sperm, >60% motile, >80% normal
    • Dog: 10mL, yes fractions, 125bil sperm, >80% motile, >80% normal
    • cat: 0.2mL, no fractions, 60bil sperm, >75% motile, >70% normal
  65. estrous cycle
    • physiological and behavioral changes between the start of consecutive estrus. 
    • goal: synchronize development of follicle to ovulate a fertile oocyte, prepare uterus to receive and time mating with ovulation.
  66. puberty
    • time of first estrus/ovulation.
    • approproach can be seen in developing follicular waves to an increasingly closer state to ovulation
    • pre-puberty, the hypothalamus (tonic GnRH center) is VERY sensitive to estradiol (neg feedback from developing follicles, reduced GnRH and LH secretion
    • Once ovulation occurs, subsequent cycles are normal
  67. transition period in estrous cycle
    • after seasonal anestrus or entering seasonal anestrus
    • after parturition/lactational anestrus
    • similar to puberty
  68. patterns of estrous cycling (2.5) and examples/species
    cow, mare, dog, cat, goat, sheep, alpaca, pig
    • polyestrous: return to estrus after diestrus.  Seasonally (mare, queen, ewe, doe) vs non-seasonal (cow, alpaca, pig)
    • monestrus: anestrus after diestrus (once a year for wolf, fox, bear vs 6-8mo in a bitch)
  69. patterns of ovulation (2)
    • spontaneous: ovulation with every cycle, most species
    • induced: ovulation triggered by mating (these species are GREAT at repro - queen, alpaca, rabbit)
  70. stages of estrous cycle
    • proestrus: FSH increases, follicular growth begins, estradiol secretion
    • estrus: receptive. Estradiol maximal or increasing, LH peak
    • metestrus: transition from estrogen to progesterone dominance
    • diestrus: functional CL, dominated by progesterone
    • anestrus: no follicular or luteal activity
  71. Bovine estrus detection
    • estrus mucus (metestrus bleeding)
    • other cows mounting
    • increased activity, vocalizing, friendly, decreased rumination, stand to be mounted
    • soft cervix, toned and edematous uterus on palpation
    • large follicle and no CL on U/S (always present in metestrus, diestrus)
    • decreased progesterone
    • pedometer (increased mvmt), mounting device/tail paint
  72. Equine estrus detection
    • vulva conformation, discharge
    • Tease stallions, "wink", squeal, urinate
    • cervix soft on palpation. Edematous, "wilted rose"
    • uterus soft on palpation and edematous on U/S
    • large follicle and no CL (present in diestrus)
    • decreased progesterone (high in diestrus)
  73. Canine estrus detection
    • stands for mating (ONLY time)
    • Post-bloody discharge (proestrus), vulva softens and swells
    • Cytology >90% superficial cells
    • Follicles/CL present - only one!
    • increased progesterone (also in diestrus).  Everyone else is decreased!
  74. feline estrus detection
    • will stand for mating, crouching, lordosis, vocalize, restless, affectionate (estrus, proestrus)
    • cytology 40-60% superficial cells
    • follicles
    • increased estrogen. High progesterone is diestrus.
  75. camelid estrus detection
    • cush when males orgle (spit off in diestrus)
    • moist, external os protrudes, is open
    • edema in uterus, high tone
    • no CL present (present in diestrus)
    • decreased progesterone (high in diestrus)
  76. caprine estrus detection
    • seek out makes, rapid tail mvmt, increased bleating and urination
    • vulva swollen, thick cloudy mucus, external os relaxed
    • Large follicle, no CL
    • decreased progesterone
  77. ovine estrus detection
    • seek out rams, stand to be mounted
    • vulvar swelling, thin mucus
    • large follicle, No CL
    • decreased progesterone
  78. swine estrus detection
    • lordosis during back pressure, mounts pen-mates, pricks ears, seeks boar
    • swollen pink vulva, slight mucus discharge
    • decreased progesterone
  79. Ways to evaluate the female repro tract
    external evaluation of the vulva, vaginoscopy, hysteroscopy, ultrasound, palpation
  80. methods to determine stage of estrous cycle
    Behavior, external signs, internal signs (cytology, palpation, US, lab tests)
  81. congenital ovarian abnormalities (5)
    • agenesis, unilateral or bilateral
    • duplication, from ovarian fragmentation
    • developmental: sex reversal
    • developmental: freemartin
    • cystic remnants of developmental structures, as single cysts or chains
  82. Sex reversals
    • XX sex reversal: should be female but has male phenotype. No germ cells (sterile). Common in polled goats and cocker spaniels
    • XY sex reversal: mutation or failure of Y genes to activate. Sterile, wide range of phenotypes
    • androgen insensitivity: production of androgens normal but receptors lacking
  83. Freemartin
    • masculination of freemartin female, mainly in cattle (rare in sm ruminant), caused by co-twin with male
    • anastomosis of branches of umbilical arteries (chimera)
    • hypoplastic gonads (usu ovotestes), hypoplastic uterus, with no/minimal connection to vagina, short vagina, enlarged clitoris, prominent hair on vulva, seminal vesicular glands.
  84. Cystic remnants of developmental structures (epoophoron, paraoophoron, fimbral cyst, mesonephric duct cyst). Locations, origins
    • epoophoron, cyst at cranial edge of ovary (opposite uterus) from connection to mesonephric duct
    • Paraoophoron - on uterus end, from connection to mesonephric duct
    • fimbrial cyst: very common in horses, most mares have them. Only a prob if the block the opening.  From paramesonephric duct
    • mesonephric duct cyst - on ovaduct
    • Image Upload
  85. 4 ovarian tumor types
    • germ cell tumor: dysgerminoma, teratoma
    • stromal tumor: granulosa tumor/sex cord-stromal tumor
    • epithelial tumor: papillary adenoma, adenocarcenoma, cystic adenoma, papillary cystadenoma
    • non-gonadal tumor: LSA, leiomyoma/sarcoma, HSA
  86. Ovarian germ cell tumor
    • rare
    • dysgerminoma: similar to primordial germ cells. Male/testicular homolog is seminoma (not rare at all)
    • teratoma: germ cells differentiate to tissues in two or more germinal layers lineages (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm).  Find odd parts like teeth, hair, bone in teratomas.
  87. Stromal tumor (female)
    • aka sex cord-stromal tumors (because granulosa cells arise from sex cords?)
    • considered together because often granulosa cells and theca cells in same tumor
    • "granulosa cell tumor" is mixed of these two anyway (Granulosa-Theca cell tumor).
  88. Epithelial tumor
    • Very rare in domestic animals except the bitch
    • surface epithelium: papillary adenoma or rarely metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma
    • subsurface epithelial structure: cystic adenoma
    • together, papillary cystadenoma
  89. non-gonadal tumor
    • lymphosarcoma: usu in corpus luteum of cattle with systemic lymphoma
    • leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma: smooth muscle tumor, usu not clinical
    • hemangiosarcoma: dogs
  90. bovine anovulatory conditions
    • postpartum vs cystic ovarian follicles/luteinized cyst: stops estradiol surge from follicle from causing GnRH surge, so no LH and no ovulation.
    • usu poor metabolic status
    • hypersensitivity to estrogen negative feedback on hypothalamic-pituitary axis
    • cystic ovarian disease is a different perturbation of hypothalamic-pituitary axis
    • Anovulatory conditions: 
    • 1. follicular growth to emergence but not deviation (no estradiol surge)
    • 2. follicular growth to deviation but not to ovulation
    • 3. follicular growth to ovulatory or larger size
    • usu preovulatory sized follicle causes estradiol surge, which leads to GnRH surge causing LH surge, = ovulation. 
    • Cysts: RESET hypothalamic-pituitary axis (with progesterone). Give GnRH followed by prostaglandin to luteinize, give progesterone if necessary.
  91. things that cause oophoritis in cattle
    • Bovine herpes virus in cattle! 
    • also in uterine disease where content leaks up uterine tubes to ovary. 
    • Or due to trauma from oocyte pick-up
  92. Equine anovulatory follicles (2)
    • Persistent: follicle doesn't respond to drugs. Usu late or early in season, will go away eventually but interferes. 
    • Hemorrhagic: hemorrhage and fibrin webs seen in follicle. No ovulation, variable progesterone.  Will eventually become CL. Occurs spontaneously or from exogenous prostaglandin at the wrong time. Usu more than once.
  93. germinal inclusion cysts in equines
    • peritoneum is trapped during ovulation, forms a cyst near ovulatory fossa, could interfere with ovulation
    • considered paraneoplastic, associated with increased risk of granulosa-theca cell tumor
  94. Granulosa-theca cell tumor in equine
    • "stud-like" behavior in mares
    • most common ovarian tumor in mares
    • often endocrine-active
    • at any age (even fetus) but usu ~ 8yo
    • usu unilateral, contralateral ovary inactive (due to inhibin)
    • rarely metastatic. 
    • dx: hormone panel (testosterone, inhibin, progesterone, and anti-mullerian hormone), US
    • tx: surgical resection
    • Px: good for life and fertility
  95. ovarian varicosity
    • prominent blood vessels on the surface of the mare ovary
    • age-related changes lead to veins being varicose
    • thrombi may cause infarction
    • specific to equine
  96. canine follicular cysts (4 kinds/locations, 1 in particular)
    signs, tx
    • usu in 8+yo females, but can appear in young
    • follicle >8mm, persistant, results in clinical signs
    • single or multiple, can get quite large. Unknown etiology (estrogen exposure?)
    • Most clinical signs are estrogen effects (persistent estrus, irregular estrus, bilaterally symmetric alopecia).  Tx via OHE. Could try to luteinize but rarely successful (hCG, GnRH)
    • Also luteal cysts (rare, lining of luteal cells), cystic rete ovarii (dilated rete in hilus of ovary, mesonephric remnant), cystic subsurface epithelial structures (chains of cysts under ovarian epithelium)
  97. papillary adenocarcinoma in bitch
    • unilateral or bilateral on ovaries (?)
    • ddx for ascites or hemoabdomen in older bitch
  98. oophoritis in the bitch
    • inviltration of mononuclear leukocytes to ovary
    • immune?  Unknown etiology
    • affect fertility and cyclicity
    • dx: histopath
    • tx: OHE, px for fertility is poor
  99. ovarian remnant syndrome in bitches and queens
    • iatrogenic
    • signs: coming into heat despite spay (years after)
    • dx: signs of estrus (with cytology), positive anti-mullerian hormone or positive progesterone test, U/S (usu caudal to kidney)
    • exploratory surgery - have to check all the fat in the abdomen.
    • tx: ovariectomy (again)
  100. ovarian follicular cyst in queens
    • causes prolonged estrus
    • ddx cystic rete ovarii and granulosa-theca cell tumor
    • can try luteinizing with hCG or GnRH, or OHE
  101. polled intersex in goats
    • genetically female but exhibit male or mixed phenotype, sometimes with ovotestes (sterile)
    • homozygous for "polled trait related intersex syndrome" deletion on chromosome 1 (causes trait)
  102. swine cystic ovarian disease
    • common cause of infertility
    • can be single, but multiple cysts has more prominent phenotype
    • dx via US
    • culled
  103. salphingitis
    • inflammation of the uterine tubes, often from uterine infection.
    • shouldn't be able to feel uterine tubes on palpation
  104. hydrosalphynx
    • water in the uterine tubes
    • usually with hydrometra/mucometra
    • shouldn't be able to feel uterine tubes.
  105. uterine segmental aplasia
    • parts of uterus not present or not connected. 
    • cattle: white heifer disease, common in white shorthorn breed. Just missing a segment. 
    • uterus unicornus: when one uterine horn is missing
  106. equine, alpaca pyometra
    pathogenesis, tx, px
    • dz caused by vaginal or cervical adhesions that prevent secretions from leaving uterus, causing accumulation of purulent material
    • no or minimal systemic illness
    • usu after a dystocia. 
    • tx: resect adhesion (cut vaginal septum or wedge of cervix), prevent re-adhesions with steroid cream (?).  Re-checks are irritating and can cause re-adhesion
    • px: good for life, poor for fertility
  107. canine, feline pyometra
    depends on, predisposing, signs, dx, tx
    • CL-dependent
    • predisposing: estrogen + progesterone, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, opportunistic pathogen (e coli, staph aureus, strep, pseudomonas, proteus, etc) can all cause
    • signs: vary. Heat within 2 months, lethargy/depression, decreased appetite, fever, abnormal vulvar discharge, PUPD (endotoxin), acute abdomen. 
    • dx: hx/MDB, imaging, purulent vulva discharge culture/cytology
    • tx: OHE!  Abx, supportive care.
    • Medical: ONLY in special conditions (young, O desperately wants to breed, open pyo in stable condition).  Abx, PGF2alpha, supportive care. Monitor CBC, P4, US. 
    • Cystic endometrial hyperplasia is permanent, so will come again quickly (shortened diestrus), and WILL end up with another pyo.
  108. cystic endometrial hyperplasia
    • common in canine, feline, porcine
    • usu age-related due to multiple exposure to progesterone
    • simultaneous exposure to estrogen appears to exacerbate CEH formation
    • predisposes to pyo, decreases fertility
    • Bubbles all over endometrial lining.
  109. adenomyosis
    • presence of endometrial glands and stroma between muscles of myometrium, sometimes with segmental aplasia in cows
    • makes uterus weaker and prone to rupture
  110. endometrial polyp
    usu canine and feline, can be very large in lumen of uterus. Looks like a tumor.
  111. uterine serosal inclusion cysts
    • thin-walled cystic structures on the serosal (broad ligament) surface of the uterus
    • arise from surface epithelial indentations that are pinched off
    • seen mostly in older multiparous bitches, sometimes ruminants. 
    • incidental
  112. Image Upload
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  113. Endometrial cysts in mares
    • not glandular, usu in older mares, associated with lymphatics
    • seen on US
    • can inhibit embryo migration if very large.  If occludes uterine lumen, CL may not acknowledge pregnancy (block embryo migration, need 2/3)
    • removed by laser.
  114. post-breeding endometritis
    • mare and bitch mostly, occurs in all species.
    • normal uterine inflammatory response to breeding, to clear excess sperm and debris. Should clear in 48h. 
    • Mare tx: uterine lavage, ecbolic drugs, intrauterine infusion
    • bitch tx: systemic abx
  115. Endometritis in mares - 2 kinds. Dx, tx
    • chronic endometritis - bacterial and/or fungal
    • look for predisposing factors like poor perineal conformation. 
    • C/S. 
    • bacterial: abx, physical lavage with fluids.  Biofilm!
    • Fungal: antifungal, physical lavage. Biofilm!
  116. canine endometritis. Cause, dx, result
    • causes infertility
    • dx via bx
    • bacterial infection
  117. retained endometrial cups
    • from chorionic girdle cells of equine trophoblast
    • cells invade into mare uterus and secrete equine chorionic gonadotrophin.  Last ~70d
    • Can be retained and functional (produce eCG) if immune system doesn't stop them. 
    • Mares luteinize the follicles and can have diestrus ovulations on consecutive estrous cycles
    • dx: testing circulating eCG or hysteroscopy
    • tx: not rewarding. Laser ineffective. Will go away in months to years
  118. Bovine
    double cervical os
    uterus didelphus
    imperforate hymen
    • double cervical os: cervix opens to each horn separately. Which do you inseminate?
    • uterus didelphus: complete division of uterus and cervix
    • imperforate hymen: no opening in hymen, secretions can't get out and semen can't get in.
  119. canine vaginal prolapse (and bovine)
    bovine likelihood, tx.
    • associated with estrogen exposure. Almost always intact bitches during proestrus and estrus (or exposure to exogenous progesterone like O's cream)
    • may occur in dystocia, tenesmus or forced extraction during a tie
    • dx: PE showing protrusion of vaginal muscosa from vulva. Confirm estrus/proestrus
    • tx: spay. Self-limiting, resolves when bitch enters diestrus.  Sx removal if does not resolve after spay
    • VERY common in bovine. No real tx. Maybe try not to breed?  Can fix sx or pexy cervix, but $$$
  120. canine vaginitis - 4 types, risks (3), signs (2), dx (4), tx
    • types: puppy vaginitis, adult onset vaginitis, anatomic abnormalities, misc (canine herpes, FB, neoplasia, immune suppression, abx etc)
    • signs: purulent/mucopurulent vaginal d/c, irritation/licking of perineum
    • increased risk with: vaginal septum, vaginal stenosis, hooded vulva
    • dx: vaginal cytology, vaginoscopy, UA and culture. 
    • tx: ID and tx underlying. Systemic abx help with clinical signs but don't get rid of it. Incontinence tx due to irritation.  Surgery only if SEVERE, won't help otherwise.
    • Puppy vaginitis is self-limiting, no tx or just topical. Allow one cycle before spay, as spay makes it take longer to get over.
  121. Gartner's duct cyst
    remnant of mesonephric duct.  Usu benign, incidental.  Could be large or uncomfortable
  122. How to hasten puberty in gilts (4)
    • normally 200-240d, faster in crossbred. Delayed by heat stress
    • Boar exposure: 5-alpha-androsteinedione from submaxillary salivary glands. start at 150-160d old for 10-15mins/day to hasten by 30-60d. 
    • Stress: transportation or regrouping around 160d, 25-35% will be in estrus in a week. Best combined with boar exposure
    • housing: 6-12 gilts together help achieve by 180d. Delayed if <3 or >30
    • PG600: 400 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropic + 200 IU of hCG induces follicular growth, estrus and ovulation after 185lbs/5.5mo. 90% within 4-6d. Can try 2nd shot in 3 weeks, 50% more. Better litters if first estrus after induction is skipped.
  123. How to manipulate mare transition (4-7)
    • want Jan1 born foals, so breed Feb15 (when mares aren't cycling)
    • can use light, melatonin, dopamine, prolactin, GnRH, FSH, LH
    • Light: extend photoperiod (16h of 10-candle light from Dec1) or 1h artificial light 10h after dark. Or equilume mask
    • Dopamine antagonist: sulpride injectable (NOT PO)
    • Progesterone: in oil, start when follicles 30mm
    • GnRH analog: low dose deslorelin or histrelin
  124. doe and ewe transition manipulation (3)
    • Photoperiod: need it darker. Light-tight barn on long days, give 20h light in winter and 14h in summer, or 20h in Dec then 8h in Feb, estrus in 6-8wks. 
    • Melatonin implant: NOT LEGAL. but with light manipulation and male exposure, can cause estrus in 2-3d
    • ram/buck effect: NO contact for 30-60d, then introduce teaser 14d before breeding season to cause LH surge (1st estrus in 2d, ignore, 2nd 5 days later, breed). Introduce intact male.
  125. how to induce estrus in the bitch (4)
    • diethylstilbestrol: 6-9 until proestrus, 100% proestrus and 100% preg rate
    • bromocriptine: 21d, 70-100% proestrus, 83% preg. Causes vomiting. 
    • cabergoline: 30d max, 80-100 (or lower) proestrus, 86-93 preg rate. 
    • GnRH: variable success
  126. how to delay estrus in the bitch
    • need 13-150d after estrus for uterine involution/repair. 
    • Mibolerone (steroid): up to 6mo to prevent estrus (and improve hair coat)
    • side effects: clitoral hypertrophy, musky odor, inter-dog aggression, vaginal discharge, liver damage (check frequently)
    • start 1mo before expected heat. Estrus variable after stopping.
  127. How ovulation is induced naturally, 2 drugs that mimic, 2 species with exceptions
    • LH surge, caused by GnRH surge, caused by estrogen positive feedback.  
    • hCG mimics LH effect on follicle
    • GnRH receptors respond to GnRH analogs, pituitary secretes LH. 
    • Neither of these works in bitches - can luteinize but don't necessarily cause ovulation
    • mares need longer acting drugs - prolonged exposure to LH
    • rest ovulate within 2d
  128. how follicular wave is initiated (4 ways)
    • FSH surge, which can be caused by giving FSH or GnRH analog: as long as no suppression from dominant follicle
    • removing dominant follicle: U/S guided needle aspiration, bovine
    • ovulation of dominant follicle: hCG or GnRH, bovine
    • removing inhibition of FSH by pituitary: horses usu, inhibit FSH with progesterone and estradiol, then wait for new follicle wave to begin
  129. how to induce luteolysis in dif species (bovine, equine, canine, feline, sm ruminant, swine, alpaca)
    • induced by prostaglandins (broken down in lungs, esp ruminants). Effects include vomiting (d/c), colic/sweating (h), shock (d)
    • bovine: single large dose
    • equine: single small dose
    • canine: small 2-3x/d for several days to reduce adverse
    • feline: multiple doses, less but longer side effects
    • small ruminant: single dose, resistant
    • swine: only effective in last days of diestrus
    • alpaca: extremely sensitive, deaths reported. Single dose
  130. Extend diestrus (2, mare)
    • supplement progesterone or preserve CL to prevent estrus behavior and prevent ovulation to synch estrus
    • mare: marbles (into uterus just after ovulation), delays return to estrus for 3mo in 40%. OR Progestins like altrenogest. Works well but wear gloves!
  131. How mom recognizes a pregnancy (2-3)
    • Release of luteotropin (prostaglandin)
    • prevention of luteolysis: block luteolysin secretion, block delivery, alter metabolism or alter receptors
    • both!
  132. Maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants
    interferon tau (IFN-tau) from trophoblast inhibits oxytocin receptor synthesis by endometrial cells so they can’t respond to oxytocin from CL to produce PGF2alpha
  133. maternal recognition of pregnancy in sow
    • conceptus produces E2
    • PGF2alpha secreted into uterine lumen instead of into blood so the ovary/CL doesn’t get it. 
    • 2 conceptus per horn
  134. Maternal recognition of pregnancy in mare
    • conceptus migrates, needs 3/4 of uterus to deliver signal - migrates around this area.  
    •         If <3/4 available, embryo doesn’t survive.
    • unknown signal (“holy grail”). 
    • Embryo sends a signal (PG E2) once it’s fertilized and ready. Opens uterine tubes and goes into uterus.  THERE IS AN EMBRYO SOMEWHERE.
  135. camelid maternal recognition of pregnancy and location
    • Almost all pregnancies in LEFT horn
    • PGF2alpha synthesis or release inhibited
    • via unknown mechanism
  136. Maternal recognition of canine, feline pregnancy and length of pregnancy, diestrus
    • unknown!
    • Canine: in ~60d will either have puppies or go into diestrus (preg = dies). 
    • Feline: 60d pregnant, 45d in diestrus
  137. Placental hormones (6)
    • Estrogen: prime uterus for parturition (preg test or preg monitoring)
    • equine chorionic gonadotropin: produced by chorionic girdle, act as LH to produce CL
    • hCG: luteotrophic to produce CL
    • placental lactogens: mammary development
    • relaxin: SA and equine placenta, can be used as preg test
    • progestogens: support preg in some species that are not CL dependent. Inhibit myometrial contractions
  138. Progesterone importance in pregnancy
    • pregnancy maintenance
    • Removing the source will terminate pregnancy
    • Comes from CL in some species
    • steroids +/- PG in non-CL dependent species
    • Goats, llama, pig, dog, cat have no placental P4 (sheep, cow and horse do), only horse doesn’t have CL P4 throughout pregnancy.
  139. How to tell a swine is pregnant
    • Failure to return to estrus
    • palpation per rectum in larger sows (>30d)
    • transabdominal US: 20-30d, uterus is fluid-filled. Should have at least 2 conceptus per horn to maintain maternal recognition
  140. How to tell a small ruminant is pregnant
    • Ewes bred are marked by ram
    • US is best - too small for transrectal palpation but can do transrectal US or transabdominal US (>45-90d)
    • can detect twins and triplets (or quad).  
    • Hydrometra gives false positive.  
    • Rads >90d
  141. False pregnancy
    • Common in pets, not bred or out of season. 
    • Elevated serum P4, accumulation of fluid in uterus but no caruncles (US).
    • Dx: Estrone sulphate test >50d
    • Tx: 5-10mg dinoprost or 125-250mcg cloprostenol because CL dependent - lyses CL and allows fluid evacuation and return to cyclicity
  142. How to tell if a cow is pregnant (7), how to age a fetus/amnion.  Enlargement of gravid and ipsilateral horns.
    • Transrectal palpation: membrane slip, amniotic vesicle/sac
    • Can also feel fetus later, or cotyledons (>2 = not ovaries)
    • enlarged fluid-filled ipsilateral horn of CL (>30d, 45 best)
    • slip or palpation of chorioallantoic membrane (>30d)
    • ballotment or palpation of fetus (>70d)
    • palpation of placentomes (>100d)
    • palpation of fremitus in the middle uterine artery (>90d)
    • fetal aging based on size, measure your fingers. 
    • Amnion 42d = 1 finger.  48, 52, 58, 65 is a hand. 
    • Fetus 70d 1 finger, 80, 90, 100, 120d is hand
    • gravid horn grows alone until 7mo, then contra enlarges
    • 2mo - mouse, 3mo rat, 4mo small cat, 5mo lg cat, 6mo beagle
    • transrectal US: not reliable until 25d, most accurate >30d. Sexing 60-80d.
  143. endocrine tests for pregnancy in cows - limitations, what it tests for, species, accuracy, speed, $
    • Progesterone: does not distinguish diestrus vs pregnancy 
    • Pregnancy-specific Protein-B (PSPB): produced in placenta of ruminants. ELISA/IDEXX.
    • Goats 26d, sheep 22d, cows 30d (or any time >90d pre-calving).
    • 97% accurate, results in 48h, $7.50/test in small, $2.25 in cow.
  144. How to tell a horse is pregnant (5, 3 NOT)
    • NOT: teasing, membrane slip, serum P4
    • 1. transrectal palpations: long tight cervix and good uterine tone at day 20 (not definitive esp in older, also twins screw this up)
    • 2 transrectal palp: Palpable bulge at base of pregnant horn over developing conceptus at d30-40.  Harder in those quickly rebred.
    • 3. transrectal ultrasound: method of choice. Embryonic vesicle visible d11, check for twins by 15d post-ovulation. Embryo at d22 and HB at 25d. 35d for early death.  
    • Endocrine tests: 
    • 4: eCG good b/c cups must be present, but false positives if embryo dies.  
    • 5: Estrone sulfate good from day 90 on. 
    • May not ovulate at breeding date, so recheck - times may be off.
  145. twin pregnancy in equine
    • usu due to asynchronous ovulation, may be several days apart in age
    • hard to detect before day 15, one is younger/smaller so hard to find, and often fail to scan whole uterus once find one preg.
    • more common with fertility drugs
    • Usu one will die anyway.
  146. sex determination of fetus and when (bovine, equine)
    • Look for genital tubercle on US.  Closer to umbilicus is male, closer to tail is female.  
    • 55-63d in equine
    • 60-80d in bovine
  147. How to tell a camelid is pregnant (5)
    • Behavioral: spit at male 15d post-breeding
    • high P4: not specific
    • Transrectal palpation: >40d
    • U/S: transrectal >12-16d after mating, heartbeat in 24-25d.
    • U/S: Transabdominal - left flank 40-80d, right flank >80d.
  148. canine gestation length
    longer in bitches carrying a small litter or if pups are dead. 65d from LH peak (ovulation 2d later), or 57d after cytological diestrus
  149. Canine pregnancy diagnosis (3)
    • Transabdominal palpation: 3.5-4.5wks
    • transabdominal US: most accurate at > 20d, usu performed at 25-58d post LH peak. NOT for counting embryos, but can give whelping date with measurements
    • Rads: >45d for mineralization of skull, spine. Most accurate for fetal count.
    • hormonal: Relaxin produced by placenta. ELISA 21d, recheck in 7-10d. Positive even after preg LOSS.
  150. Twin reduction (5)
    • often self-reduce, esp in same horn. 
    • Manually reduce: while still mobile, use probe to crush. Mobile until ~17d.
    • Hard to get one and not the other once they’re fixed next to each other. MUST be 4mm apart to avoid damage. Once you start working on one, keep working until it’s completely reduced. Pick whichever one you can most easily crush. 
    • Ultrasound-guided allocentesis: best before day 35, go into uterus and aspirate allantoic fluid.
    • Transabdominal cardiac puncture: inject a bunch of procaine penicillin into fetus between day 115-130. TRY to inject the small one, but get the one you can get. Trans-abdominal, jab in very fast. 
    • Craniocervical dislocation: 60-110d. Transrectal vs surgical/flank. Better success than cardiac puncture. Fetus can stay alive for weeks with HB.
  151. Fetal mummification
    cows, mares, sows, litter-bearing species
    causes (3)
    signs (3)
    • Fetal death and absorption of fluids, retention of CL and fetus, closed tight cervix.  STERILE
    • sporadic in cows (give PGF2alpha)
    • rare in mares (from twinning)
    • frequent in sows
    • litter-bearing species (even cows and horses) can have WITH normal fetuses. 
    • can be from abortion diseases (BVD), genetic factors (chromosomal abnormalities in fetus), induction of abortion
    • signs: anestrus, hard-ish rectal mass, absense of parturition because fetus doesn’t produce ACTH or cortisol. 
    • Tx: PGF2alpha to expel fetus, two doses often required. 
    • Px: good.
  152. maceration vs mummification
    bacterial involvement
    clinical signs
    • mummification: sterile, no systemic illness, dry fetus, tx with PGF2alpha. Px good
    • maceration: septic, systemic illness, emphysematous or bones, PGF2alpha or estrogen with bone removal, px is poor
  153. Fetal maceration
    • decomp of soft tissues and placenta - SEPTIC ENVIRONMENT. Leaves bones.  Relaxation of cervix allowed bacterial invasion with retained CL.  Causes emphysema in 24-48h, maceration in 4d. 
    • Signs: foul uterine discharge, fever, anorexia, decreased milk production. Distended swollen crepitous fetus. Once macerated, thick uterine wall, bones embedded
    • tx for emphysematous: PGF2alpha to induce luteolysis, fetal extraction if cervix open, treat metritis
    • tx for macerated: estrogen to dilate cervix, manual bone extraction (LUBE), surgical removal, slaughter (poor px).
  154. Hydropsical conditions
    • more in cows, then horses, rare in SA
    • excessive accumulation of placental fluids.  Hydroallantois > hydroamnion.  
    • Normally amniotic space = 3-5L, allantoic space: 8-15L.
    • dx: transrectal palpation, transrectal/transabdominal US
    • Tx: Euthanasia/salvage!  Or induce parturition (watch for hypovolemia). Slow drainage in valuable animals.
  155. hydroallantois vs hydroamnion
    clinical signs
    • hydroallantois: placental, more common, rapid round abdomen, nonpalpable fetus, watery/clear fluid, abnormal placenta, normal fetus, poor px
    • hydroamnion: fetal, less common, slow pear-like, palpable fetus, viscous fluid, normal placenta, abnormal fetus, good px for cow.
  156. Hydroallantois
    • accumulation of allantoic fluid >8-15L, can be 120-220L (cows > Horses, SA rare)
    • last 3 mo of pregnancy, RAPID abdominal enlargement AROUND amnion/fetus
    • signs: anorexia, weakness, reluctance to move, dyspnea, recumbency.
    • Potential for rupture of body wall or prepubic tendon
    • can be associated with decreased number of placentomes or adventitious placentation (all over the place and flat).
    • More common than hydroamnion (which is slow accumulation, abdomen is pear-shaped, fetus can be palpated. Fluid viscous, fetus abnormal). 
    • Feels round, fetus not palpable, fluid watery/clear. Placenta is abnormal but fetus normal. 
    • Px: poor.
  157. Rupture of prepubic tendon and/or abdominal wall in equine
    predisposing/causes (5)
    • Predisposing and causes: draft mares, hydrops, twins, uterine torsion, genetics. Often none. 
    • signs: painful hot edema, bloody mammary secretion, mammary gland displaced cranially
    • US for degree of muscle involvement
    • serial AST/CK to show muscle damage.
    • Dx: ventral wall edema? Painful to walk or palpation? Bloody mammary secretions.
    • tx: Sx may or may not work.  induce parturition of fetus if mature. If not, belly wrap, restrict exercise, induce once fetus matures.
    • px: embryo donors but can’t be preg again.
  158. four morphological types of placentitis in equine
    • ascending (most common)
    • focal mucoid (nocardio form)
    • diffuse (hematogenous)
    • multifocal
    • placentitis in 3-5% of pregnancies in thoroughbreds, causes fetal loss
  159. etiology, path, causes, dx, tx and outcome of placentitis in equine
    • bacteria: strep equi zoo, E coli, kebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, amycolatopsis lexingtonenesis/pretoriensis
    • fungi: aspergillus, Candida
    • ascending infection gets past cervix, causes inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins, also enters umbilical cord and fetal infection
    • signs: premature udder development, vulvar discharge. Maybe none. NO systemic signs.
    • dx: measure distance between fetal membranes and uterus, shouldn't be too big (edema)
    • tx: broad-spectrum abx, anti-inflammatories, pentoxifylline, maybe progesterone?  Trying to avoid contractions
    • px: poor.  If fetus is born (not aborted, usu), will be septic!
  160. Vaginal prolapse in LA
    • inherited (conformation) vs pluriparous and fat cows (in place but pops out when laying down vs high estrogen in late pregnancy vs vaginal edema vs prolapse of swollen tissues of vaginal floor vs increased abdominal pressure during recumbency
    • stays out too long, drying, necrosis, straining, more prolapse. Can cause frostbite, predators. 
    • signs: mild is just during recumbency.  Severe is extensive, can include bladder!!
    • tx: clean, epidural (empty bladder with catheter first if involved), replace.  Vulvar retention sutures (Buhner = HUGE needle with handle, purse-string with umbilical tape. Remove before calving). In severe, can cervipexy (prepubic tendon) or vaginopexy (prepubic tendon, ischial ligaments or toggle).  Calve and cull!  Inherited.
  161. pregnancy toxemia/ketosis in small ruminants and dogs
    timing, risk factors
    • inadequate nutrition
    • esp in cows, small ruminants and dogs
    • bitches with large litters that are anorectic (negative energy balance)
    • ewes and does: usu 1-3wks before parturition.  If before day 140 of gestation, higher risk of severe disease and mortality
    • signs: listless, aimless, muscle twitch/temor, opisthotonos, bruxism.  Progresses to blindness, ataxia, sternal recumbency, coma, death
    • tx: propylene glycol, induce parturition or abortion with dexamethasone +/- prostaglandin. Watch for fatty liver in bitches (c-section).
  162. campylobacter fetus venerealis in bovine, small ruminant
    • VD
    • bulls are asymptomatic, permanent carriers once >4yrs. 
    • Survives in crypts of penile and preputial integument
    • Cows: irregular return to estrus, sporadic abortion, eventually develop immunity and become carriers too
    • dx: culture of smegma, fetus, vaginal/cervical mucous
    • tx: eliminate bulls, vaccination
  163. tritrichomonas foetus in bovine
    • VD
    • asymptomatic in bulls
    • cow: infertility, rare abortions, pyometra
    • dx: preputial sample with Diamond's medium
    • control: AI, use virgin bulls, NO VAX, no legal tx
  164. *brucella abortus in bovine
    • eradicated from NE USA (RB51 vaccine strain)
    • "contagious abortion" or "bangs disease"
    • ZOONOTIC - causes undulant fever in humans (via milk)
    • moroccan leather appearance of placenta
    • abortion at 5-8mo
  165. leptospirosis in bovine
    • causes abortions (serovar - hardjo)
    • infected urine, placental fluids, milk or contaminated environment/water
    • abortion from 4mo to term
    • dx: culture from fetal kidney
  166. Listeria monocytogenes in bovine
    • "circling disease"
    • ingestion of poorly fermented silage
    • signs: fever, weight loss, endometritis, encephalitis, abortion in 3rd trimester (sporadic or abortion storm)
    • control: stop feeding spoiled silage, isolate aborting cows
    • tx: broad spectrum abx (milk withdrawal)
  167. coxiella burnetti in bovine, small ruminant
    • Q fever
    • zoonotic
    • usu subclinical but can cause anorexia and late abortion
    • risk of infection at parturition via inhalation/ingestion/direct contact with birth fluids or placenta
  168. BVD in bovine
    • abortion at any trimester, embryonic early death, stillbirth, congenital birth defects (eye, thymus, brain), arthrogryposis
    • calves infected in-utero seem normal but have no immunity
    • Cull carriers
  169. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) in bovine
    • bovine herpes virus - there is also infectious pustular vaginitis (IPV)
    • abortion, infertility, respiratory infections, conjunctivitis
    • abortion storms usu >5mo gestation.  Red nose! and mm
    • tx: VAX!
  170. Neospora caninum in bovine
    • cycles between canids and ruminants - oral or vertical
    • mid-gestational abortion (4-6mo).  Pre-mature calf, birth of impaired calf, or normal calf
    • brain hemorrhage, myocarditis
  171. mycotic abortions in bovine
    • oral infection. Aspergillus, candida and others
    • Thick, leathery cotyledons and intercotyledonary placenta
    • abortions in 3rd trimester
    • head and neck lesions on fetus
  172. Schmallenberg virus in bovine
    • orthobunyavirus
    • causes abortion
    • transmitted by culcioides midges and vertical transmission (in utero)
    • Europe
  173. Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) and detection
    • Taylorella equigenitallis
    • copious vaginal discharge
    • carrier stallions
    • culture stallion penis, urethral fossa, mare following test mating.  To detect carrier, culture clitoral sinuses and fossae.  
  174. Equine Herpesvirus
    • EHV 1: abortion, weak, non-viable foals, neurologic disease, resp disease. Abort 3wk-4mo, no signs. STORM abortions. Don't mix pregnant, vax (killed or MLV to prevent nasal shedding/viremia, doesn't prevent abortion)
    • EHV 4: resp disease
    • EHV 3: vuvlar/penile lesions, "coital exanthema", heal with apigmented, contracted scars
  175. Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)
    • occasional epidemic abortion
    • abort 7-10d PI (mid-late preg)
    • naive mares bred to + stallions or semen will seroconvert
    • signs: mild resp disease, flu-like or VD. limb edema or urticaria?
  176. Cord abnormality abortions in equine
    • >7 twists
    • torsion
    • wraps around limb
    • dilated vessels and urachus, distended bladder.
    • Abortion. 
    • Long cord is a risk?
  177. body pregnancy abortion in equine
    • pregnancy in BODY of uterus, not in horns.
    • Causes placental insufficiency, not enough room to grow, so abort.
  178. Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome (MRLS)
    • Eastern tent caterpillars cuticle covered with barbed septae.  Mare ingests, septae travel into fetus and cause early abortion (increased echogenicity of fetal fluid) or late abortion (fetal funisitis = infection of umbilical cord in late pregnancy). 
    • Also see uveitis, pericarditis.  Lots of neutrophils in umbilical cord
  179. brucella ovis
    • epididymitis
    • RARELY placentitis and abortion
    • small ruminants can get other Brucellas, but this is most common
    • B. mellitensis vaccine
  180. toxoplasma gondii in small ruminants
    • zoonotic!
    • 20% abortion rate
    • ingestion of food/water contaminated by cat feces
    • signs: fetal resorption, stillbirths, weak lambs
    • "pepperoni pizza" cotyledons, necrotic foci
  181. brucella canis in dogs
    • gram negative coccobacillus
    • zoonotic
    • host is dog, wild canids
    • transmission: ingestion, inhalation, coitus, direct contact
    • MO in high numbers in vaginal discharge of aborting female, also in urine
    • signs: epididymitis, periorchitis, occasional abortion
    • dx: AGID.  5-10wks post-infection before Abs detected
  182. Canine herpesvirus
    • severe viral infection of puppies 1-3wks old
    • disseminated focal necrosis and hemorrhage
    • inclusion bodies
    • tx: Keep environmental temp 37C!  
    • Expose naive bitches to older multiparous bitches
  183. feline viral rhinotracheitis
    • herpesvirus
    • resp infection with fever, sneezing, inflamed eyes/conjunctivitis, rhinitis
    • fatal in kittens
    • vax
  184. feline panleuk
    • parvo
    • enteritis
    • often fatal
    • cerebellar hypoplasia in kittens (if cat infected during preg)
    • spread transplacentally: abortion, stillbirth, embryonic resorption and fetal mummification
    • vaccine
  185. feline leukemia
    • abortion late in gestation
    • other forms of repro failure (fetal death, resorption)
    • vax!
  186. porcine parvo
    • fetal death
    • small litters, mummification
    • mummies of different sizes
  187. porcine picornaviruses
    large group of enteroviruses causing SMEDI (stillbirth, mummification, embryonic death, infertility
  188. pseudorabies
    • herpesvirus of pigs
    • neonatal illness and death (100% in 7 day old piglets)
    • pregnancy failure, early embryonic death and return to estrus, mummification, weak neonates, stillborn
  189. PRRSV
    • porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
    • long term carrier status
    • fetal death, abortion (often only part of litter.  50% of positive piglets die soon after birth)
  190. porcine circovirus
    • types 1 and 2
    • PMWS: post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome
    • vax since 2006
  191. Gestation length of 
    • cat  - 2 mo
    • dog - 65d
    • sow - 3mo, 3wk, 3d
    • ewe - 5mo
    • doe - 5mo
    • cow - 275-295d (9-10mo)
    • camelid - 11.5mo (variable)
    • mare - 320-360d (11-12mo)
  192. how to know foaling is imminent (7)
    • ventral and hindlimb edema
    • udder development - 2-6wks. Maidens late
    • perineal relaxation - 1-3wks
    • engorgement of teat ends - 1 wk
    • waxing - 1-3d
    • some mares will leak milk for a week before
    • increase in Ca and Mg in milk in 72h before foaling. decreased Na and increased K 24h pre-delivery (some never change).  pH usu decreases from 8 to below 7 in 24h before.
    • Ca more tells you when foaling will NOT occur
  193. how to know calving is imminent (5)
    • "bagging up", udder growth
    • pelvic ligament relaxation
    • vulva elongation and swelling ("springing")
    • clear vaginal mucus 1-2d pre-partum (loss of mucus plug)
    • restlessness
  194. day of whelping, and things that tell you it's coming
    • 57d from cytological diestrus (when superficial cells drop 50%)
    • 63d after ovulation
    • 65d after LH surge
    • temp drop (<99) 8-24h before (P4 is a thermoregulator, when it drops so does rectal temp--then rises again)
    • Progesterone drops 24-48h before
    • lactation 2wks to several days, some never
    • nesting behavior 5-7d
    • contraction - 12h.
    • lochia (water breaking) - 1-2h
  195. Stages of parturition
    • stage 1: uterine contraction, cervical relaxation.  Hormonal cross-talk between fetus and dam. Not a lot of abdominal effort. Ends when water breaks/rupture of chorioallantois. Fetal cortisol causes hormone cascade, uterine contractions tell fetus to move into position, engages brith canal, Fergusson's reflex leads to oxytocin secretion, cervical dilation, pressure in canal breaks chorioallantois. 
    • stage 2: fetal expulsion. FAST in horse/alpaca
    • stage 3: fetal membrane expulsion (do NOT manually remove in mare/cow)
    • Stages 2 and 3 kind've happen together in litter-bearing.
  196. *fetal positioning (PPP)
    • Presentation: relationship between fetal long axis and dam long axis.  longitudinal (anterior or posterior to sacrum) vs transverse (ventral or dorsal in contact with sacrum)
    • postition: relationship between fetal spine and dam's pelvis.  Dorso-sacral, dorso-pubic, right or left dorso-iliac
    • Posture: relationship of fetal head, neck and limbs to fetus.  Right deviation or the head and neck, unilateral carpal flexion, bilateral hock flexion, etc. 
    • normal in small animals: 60% cranial, 40% caudal
  197. 1-2-3 rules for foaling
    • foal stands in 1h
    • foal nurses in 2h
    • mare passes placenta in 3h
  198. mare passage of placenta
    • if not within 3h, EMERGENCY!
    • retained predisposes to metritis, laminitis, sepsis and death
  199. Most common cause of dystocia in the 
    • Cow: fetopelvic disproportion (just doesn't fit!). Then malposition
    • mare, ewe, doe: fetal malposition
    • sow, queen: uterine inertia
  200. causes of small ruminant dystocia
    • MECONIUM IS AN EMERGENCY!!  Intervene!
    • Ringwomb = failure to dilate cervix. Give PGF2alpha, NOT OXYTOCIN (obstruction!)
    • check for multiple fetus, deliver backwards fetus first
  201. canine C-section if
    • 4 or more pups! 4 = no medical mgmt
    • fetus won't fit
    • most true dystocia requires C-section
    • medical only if: puppies are fine, bitch in good health, cervix dilated, fetal size normal.  Dystocial caused by primary uterine inertia or secondary to fatigue.  Oxytocin, Ca, Glc
  202. ID of a red bag and what you do
    • velvet structure bulging from vulva, star in center
    • failed rupture of cervical star, premature placental separation
    • BREAK THE ALLANTOCHORION!!  Deliver the foal.  
    • Needs to have a star--otherwise it could be a bladder prolapse
  203. puppy/kitten survival/resuscitation
    • 1 person/pup!
    • remove fetal membranes and tie umbilical cord
    • gentle vigorous stimulation in towel drying
    • clean airway using infant suction bulb
    • warmth and humidity in incubator
    • give O2 if don't start breathing in 30sec
    • naloxone (1 drop)
    • doxapram (1 drop, resp stim)
    • GV-26
    • once awake, nurse or SQ serum immediately
  204. Obstetric mantra
    be clean, be gentle, use lots of lube
  205. How to recognize dystocia
    • prologed stage 1 (failure to progress)
    • prolonged stage 2
    • malposition of presenting body parts
    • red bag!
    • know the timeline for the species!!
    • intervene when you see an obvious problem or when no progress is seen for >15-20 mins.
    • watch for fetopelvic disproportion - baby just doesn't fit through the birth canal
  206. How do you tell if a fetus is alive or dead?
    • withdrawal reflex
    • anal reflex
    • corneal reflex
    • double and triple check before you move to a fetotomy, they are often ridiculously depressed.
  207. when to intervene in SA dystocia?
    • >72d from breeding
    • >4h between rupture of first choroallantois and delivery of first puppy
    • >30min of hard straining with no pup
    • >2h between puppies
    • strong contractions with pup in canal and not progressing
    • malodorous vaginal d/c (likely means dead puppies)
    • green/black discharge for more than 3h (normal as long as there is progression) with no contractions
    • rectal temp dropped >24h ago and no pups
    • fetal HR below 200 = distress!!!
  208. uterine torsion
    • most common in cattle, dx during parturition as dystocia, failure to progress. Broad ligaments attach caudally. If the CALF IS UPSIDE DOWN, THE UTERUS IS TORSED. Vaginal twist = uterine twist. Try to fix with vaginal, detorsion rod, plank-in-flank or c-section
    • mares and alpacas get in mid-late gestation and present as colic. Broad ligaments attach dorsally. Usu too early to deliver fetus, so correct via sx.
    • canine and feline very rare, systemic, bloody discharge (both preg and non-preg)
  209. uterine involution
    • complete by 45-50d postpartum. 2nd post-partum ovulation around this time
    • complications and energy balance, etc can delay. 
    • Thin-walled, flaccid, smooth uterus is probably pathological
    • lochia gone by ~18d.
    • most common problems in dairy cattle: more production stress, more intensive housing, etc. Normal for them to have bacterial contamination 2-3wks post-calving
  210. metritis in cows
    • inflammation of all layers of the uterus within first week postpartum. 
    • SYSTEMIC illness, obvious clinical dz
    • 20-40% of cows. 
    • signs: fetid, red/red-brown, watery vulvar discharge, large atonic thin-walled fluid-filled uterus, endotoxemia (depression, agalactia, fever, anorexia, GI atony, tachycardia, tachypnea, dehydration, peritonitis)
    • Puerperal metritis
    • tx: severe and toxic = urgent and intensive. IU abx are poorly absorbed. Systemic ceftiofur, maybe penicillin. oxytocin to stop fluid buildup. NSAIDS and fluids. DON'T FLUSH dairy cows, or use anything else. 
    • 62% self-cure, 75-80% better with tx. 
    • px: may decrease milk yield and fertility, laminitis, death.
  211. purulent vaginal discharge in cows
    • aka muco-purulent or purulent d/c in cranial vagina. Was "clinical endometritis"
    • 4-5wks postpartum
    • signs: vaginal discharge (variable), uterus may be slightly large and doughy, lower preg rate, no systemic signs, short or irregular estrous cycles
    • dx: grade character of vaginal d/c, mucus:pus %
    • tx: IU cepharpirin (not available in US). There is no US tx
  212. Bovine endometritis
    dx, path, tx, px
    • aka subclinical endometritis
    • inflammation of endometrium
    • dx via endometrial cytology (lavage vs cytobrush) >5-10% neutrophils. Hyperechoic on US. Bx and culture get varied results. 
    • caused by impaired uterine involution, contamination or infusion of irritants into uterus. Usu T. pyogenes
    • tx: controversial. IU abx no good (maybe metricure), PGF2alpha in animals with CL.  Doesn't change fertility. 
    • px: expected to recover
  213. Cervicitis in cows
    • inflammation within cervix
    • dx: >5% neutrophils on cytobrush 1mo after calving. vaginal speculum, hyperemia of external os, mucopurulent exudates
    • hard to distinguish/commonly seen with endometritis or PVD
  214. Pyometra in cows
    pathology, MO, signs, tx, px
    • purulent exudate in endometrial cavity, from PERSISTENT CL.  Not cycling!  Usu in cows that ovulate before resolving bacterial infection post-calving. CL persists because IU fluid prevents luteolysis.  
    • usu T. pyogenes. Maybe fusobacterium, prevotella. 
    • signs: anestrus. Usu no d/c but maybe thick/creamy when laying down. Enlarged asymmetrical fluid-filled horns.  CL with no fetus or fetal membrane slip
    • tx: PGF2alpha, 2 days in a row for best efficacy. If fails, give more. If fails again, check for scar tissue preventing fluids from exiting.
    • px: must recover quickly, fertility dep on how long it was there
  215. most common pathogens (2) in postpartum uterine disease in cattle
    • E coli in first week postpartum, associated with metritis
    • trueperella pyogenes in weeks 2-3 with endometritis
    • e coli predisposes to trueperella
    • P4 makes uterus more susceptible to disease
  216. Retained fetal membranes in cows.  Timeframe, risks, path, signs, tx
    • failure of expulsion by 24h, 5-15% in dairy cows, more in older. 
    • risks: abortion, stillbirth, multiple births, dystocia, uterine torsion, heat stress, hydrops condition, periparturient hypocalcemia, nutritional (Se and VitE)
    • impaired neutrophil fctn in late preg, NOT decreased muscular contraction (actually INCREASED frequency and amplitude)
    • signs: obvious unless membranes still completely inside - vaginal exam warranted. Decreased milk production. 
    • tx: DO NOT REMOVE. Usu benign neglect.  Prevent with appropriate nutrition and supp, monensin.
  217. Equine puerperium
    • Uterine involution REALLY FAST
    • re-epithelialization, return to non-gravid size within 30d. Some lochia, scant serosanguinous d/c. First foal heat 7-10d post-partum. Fertile.
  218. Perineal laceration in mares and tx
    • 1st degree: only mucosa
    • 2nd degree: muscle but not rectum
    • 3rd degree: full thickness to rectum
    • Fecal contamination of vagina/uterus decreases fertility.  
    • Surgical correction.
  219. Equine postpartum evisceration or hemorrhage
    • Hoof of foal causes uterine tear, caudal vaginal tear
    • Can happen after natural breeding
    • Humane euthanasia
  220. Uterine artery rupture +/- to broad ligament hematoma
    who it affects
    • can affect maiden or multiparous mares
    • signs: colic just after parturition, sweating, pale mm (shock).
    • If contained, hematoma. Otherwise, hemorrhage and drop dead. 
    • Aminocaproic acid
  221. contusion sequelae in postpartum cattle
    • bruising is normal. But in cattle esp, swelling can cause nerve paralysis - obturator = splayed legs.  
    • tx: supportive care, hobbles, steroids.  Usu Supportive is enough.
  222. Cervical lacerations postpartum and sequelae
    • Predisposes to placentitis
    • sx repair, but this predisposes to pyo in a mare, which usu ends their fertility.
  223. Retained placenta in mares
    • failure to pass within 3h, most common postpartum prob in mare.  
    • Predisposing: draft mares, NONGRAVID horn is thinner and more folding and attached so more commonly retained. Dystocia, uterine inertia due to decreased Ca, overstretching of myometrium (twins, hyrops), myometrial degeneration.
    • signs: uterine infections, metritis, fever, endotoxemia, dehydration, systemic illness, laminitis
    • dx: EXAMINE THE PLACENTA, transrectal palp for large thin walled flaccid friable uterus, transrectal US, vaginoscopy/vaginal exam.  Usu CBC and fibrinogen to monitor systemic progression. 
    • tx: oxytocin, antimicrobials, anti-inflammatories, fluids, uterine lavage.  Ice feed if digital pulses increase.  
    • DO NOT REMOVE - hemorrhage, invagination of uterine horn, delayed uterine clearance.
  224. Uterine prolapse postpartum
    • cattle, sheep, mares, queens, and sows (poor px), less common in bitch. 
    • predisposing: hypocalcemia, excessive straining (obstructive dystocia)
    • tx: restrain, epidural, elevate uterus to reduce edema, clean, assess damage, repair tears
    • tx: replace, check both horns for placement, infuse lots of saline or dilute betadine.  Oxytocin, Ca, Abx
    • complications: arterial rupture and exsanguination, intestinal incarceration
  225. Mare uterine prolapse risk factors
    risk factors
    risk factors: late term abortions, prolonged parturition, dystocia, retained fetal membranes, old age.
  226. Small animal uterine prolapse
    • uncommon, more in queen than bitch.  Usu prolapse immediately or within hours.  Unilateral or bilateral.  
    • Tx: manual preposition, laparotomy reposition, amputation/OHE.
  227. uterine rupture
    • spontaneous or iatrogenic.  Presents as evisceration in sheep, septic abdomen in SA. 
    • Can be caused by using oxytocin in obstructive dystocia!!
  228. canine puerperium
    • uterine involution: complete by 12 weeks.  uterine desquamation and re-epithelialization
    • normal lochia: scant, from bloody to black/green in 24h, progress to dark red/brown but non-odorous, resolve by 3wks.
  229. Hypocalcemia (eclampsia or puerperal tetany) in bitches
    • all breeds susceptible, esp toys.  Prepartum, peripartum or postpartum, usu 2-4wks postpartum. 
    • signs: stiff gait, trembling, twitching, seizures, tachycardia, panting, hyperthermia
    • dx: hx, PE, ionized Ca
    • tx: fluid therapy, Ca glc
  230. SA retained placenta
    • uncommon, usu from prolonged whelping or dystocia.  Usu in toy breeds. 
    • signs: persistence of green-black discharge for longer than 24-26h post-partum, usu putrid odor.  Systemic illness 2-4d after whelping.  Poor maternal behavior.
  231. Canine metritis
    caused by
    • inflammation of endometrium and myometrium.  Immediate postpartum dz.
    • could be associated with retained placenta, retained pups, obstetrical manipulations
    • ascending bacterial infection
    • signs: depression, systemic illness, malodorous discharge, fever, shock
    • dx: cytology shows neutrophils, bacteria.  Enlarged doughy uterus, abd rads or US.  Blood work shows neutrophilic leukocytosis or leukopenia. 
    • tx: fluids, systemic broad spectrum abx, dextrose for hypoglycemia, sx, ecbolic therapy (PGF2alpha, oxytocin)
  232. Subinvolution of placental sites (SIPS)
    When to suspect
    who it happens to
    • normal lochia last up to 3-6wk, >6wks, suspect SIPS.  Involution delayed >12wks. 
    • Trophoblastic cells don't degenerate and continue to invade deep glandular layer of endometrium or myometrium.  
    • More common in maidens <3y
    • signs: normal bitches with hemorrhagic uterine discharge for weeks
    • dx: cytology (trophoblast cells), uterine swelling of different sizes (palpation, US)
    • tx: spontaneous remission. OHE with severe hemorrhage or ulceration.
  233. Canine mastitis
    • usu during lactation. Ascending bacterial infection, trauma, poor hygiene, hematogenous spread.  Usu e coli
    • acute, chronic, gangrenous.  Single or multiple glands affected. 
    • signs: red, hot, edematous, or firm. 
    • dx: color of milk (can be normal!), cytology and culture
    • gangrenous: WEAN NEONATES. Sx removal or wait and wound care. 
    • tx: oral abx (cephaliexin, clavamox, macrolides), fluids PRN.  Abscessed glands should be lanced, drained, flushed. Cabergolin/Dostinex for 5-7d to suppress lactation
  234. postpartum dysgalactia syndrome in sows
    • aka MMA (mastitis, metritis, agalactia)
    • first three days after farrowing. Restless piglets, losses due to malnutrition.  
    • tx: abx, NSAIDs. Cross-foster piglets.
  235. Pros (6) and Cons (9) of surgical contraceptives
    • Pro: pop control. Uterine, ovarian, testicular, mammary cancer. pyometra, androgen-dependent disease like BPH, perianal adenoma, prostatitis, perineal hernia. VD, behavior. 
    • cons: hemorrhage, infection, GA, ovarian remnant, stump pyo, urinary incontinence, recessed vulva/juvenile vaginitis, delayed physeal closure, obesity
  236. Progestins as hormonal contraceptive (2)
    • megesterol acetate: negative feedback on hypothalamus/pituitary. Reversible. CEH/Pyo, mammary development, lactation post-tx. 
    • medroxyprogesterone acetate: same effects. SQ in male to decrease motility, morphology, sperm output. not labeled for SA
  237. androgens as hormonal contraceptives
    Mibolerone/testosterone: neg feedback on pituitary to block LH secretion. FEMALE only, reversible. Dogs ok. Clitoromegaly, mucoid vaginitis, liver dysfunction
  238. GnRH agonists as hormonal contraceptives
    • Male and female. 
    • Suprelorin (ovuplant) implant: downregs GnRH receptors, induces one heat cycle then inhibits. OK for cats. Return to estrus is variable, fertility may be altered. Hard to find to remove!  NOT LABELED FOR SA
  239. Immunocontraception (2)
    • Female only: ZP3 = abs against zona pellucida, sperm unable to bind, causes ovarian dysfunction
    • male and female: GnRH vaccine causes GnRH abs to decrease pituitary secretion. Hard to produce durable titers
    • disadvantages: don't work 100%, require boosters, adjuvent side effects.  NOT FOR SA
  240. injectable chemical contraception (1)
    male only: intratesticular, intraepididymal and intravasdeferens.  Neutersol (zync gluconate) = direct damage to germ and somatic cells.  Testosterone declines after injection but normal 2yrs later. Not 100%, pain and necrosis, irreversible.
  241. mismate management (3)
    • 40% of bitches that mate once become pregnant
    • confirm pregnancy at 30d
    • DON'T USE ESTROGEN - right after mating, alters endometrium to prevent attachment but causes bone marrow suppression and predisposes to Pyo. 
    • Prostaglandins: Cl lysis followed by decrease in P4 and abortion. Causes myometrial contractions. Repeat doses until P4 declines. .  effects: hypersalivation, v/d.  Decreased when walked after admin.  Not life threatening.
    • Prolactin inhibitors: cabergoline and bromocriptine. Dopamine receptor agonists that inhibit prolactin secretion, which is luteotropic. CL lyses, abortion. effects: vomiting and anorexia.  Often used with prostaglandins. 
    • Progesterone antagonists: Alizin binds to P4 receptors in uterus to block, cause abortion. No side effects. Not available in US.
  242. intrauterine marbles in mares
    • downregulates COX2, prolonging CL lifespan.
    • Complications: fall out, may not work, lodging of glass in endometrium causes pyo. 
  243. oxytocin in mares as contraceptive
    • Give oxytocin every day from day 8-14 after ovulation, downregulates COX2, prevents PGF2alpha and prolongs CL lifespan.
    • Safe for mare but requires multiple doses.  
    • Should work for 2mo, but not always.
  244. Progesterone as contraceptive in mares
    • regamate (daily PO) or progesterone injectable (weekly, painful!)
    • Negative feedback to decrease LH
    • inhibits estrus behavior.
    • Mares can cycle.
  245. immunocontraception in horses (2)
    • porcine ZP vaccine: prevents fertilization and causes oophoritis, but less than in SA. Booster annually. mares still present signs of heat. Not FDA approved.
    • GnRH vaccine: anti-GnRH antibody by using GnRH conjugated with foreign proteins. Stops gonadotropin secretion. Works in male and female. Variation on response within individuals.
  246. Contraception in wild animals (3)
    • progestagens
    • immune: GnRH and ZP3
    • GnRH agonists

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2017-11-16 17:40:20

Therio Vb
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