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The earth & Sun originated [BLANK] billion years ago
[T/F] For nearly 1 billion years, the earth was slammed by meteorites
Early single-celled organisms consumed [BLANK] to stay alive
Energy via Fermentation
[T/F] All of the organisms on earth share a single celled ancestor
- animal, fungi & plants all share an identical genetic code to translate DNA into proteins
Definition: Unicellular organism that lacks membrane bound organelles
Definition: Organism whose cells have well defined membrane-bound organelles
When life first originated, the earths atmosphere was mainly composed of what 3 things
- Nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide
- NO OXYGEN
Defintion: self-reliant feeder
Definition: non self-reliant feeders; must consume other organisms to survive
The 1st living organisms were [BLANK]
Hetero or Auto -trophs...?
- 1. Heterotrophs
- 2. Heterotrophs
- 3. Autotrophs
Why would competition increase as organic molecules became scarce in the ocean?
(HINT: whats the fundamental diff between fermentation and respiration?)
Organic molecules in free solution rapidly became scarce
When did Cyanobacteria first evolve?
3 billion years ago
Why were Cyanobacteria vital to the evolution of the Earth?
Their form of photosynthesis used water and produced oxygen as a waste product
Why was the evolution of photosynthesis such a biological revolution?
It lead to the extinction of almost all of earth's oxygen-intolerant organisms
How did the increase of oxygen in the atmosphere help further the colonization of plants on land?
1. the O2 molecules were converted into ozone (O3) which absorbed the UV rays that were detrimental to living organisms
Defintion: Two organisms living in a close, mutually beneficial association
Definition: Symbiotic relationship in which one of the interacting organisms lives inside the cells of the other organism
Whats an example of an Endosymbiotic relationship?
a single-celled organism that carries out fermentation ate a bacterium that carries out respiration & the bacterium lives inside the organism and continues to remove harmful oxygen
The ancestors of modern land plants were [BLANK] and they most likely facilitated the colonization of plants on land by [BLANK]
- -Organisms needed strong cell walls for support & specialized structures (roots) to anchor their bodies to the rocky surface
Whats the most stressful factor for plants to overcome on land & why?
Anchoring themselves to the ground
What special adaptations (HOW) have plants evolved to seek out water & resist death?
Special adaptations: roots, stems,stomata & waxy cuticle on leaves
Whats the function of Roots?
- 1. Anchor to the ground
- 2. Water collection for maintenance and photosynthesis
Whats the function of Stems?
Support for leaves (necessary for photosynthesis) & water & nutrient transport
Whats the function of Leaves?
Photosynthesis, water retention, temperature control
Name 2 Key innovations found in leaves & how have they helped plants diversify on land?
- Stomata & Cuticle
- -The cuticle aids in water retention & regulates gas exchange, while the stomata does the same; they open & close based on environmental cues