Plant Class 1

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  1. The earth & Sun originated [BLANK] billion years ago
  2. [T/F] For nearly 1 billion years, the earth was slammed by meteorites
  3. Early single-celled organisms consumed [BLANK] to stay alive
    Energy via Fermentation
  4. [T/F] All of the organisms on earth share a single celled ancestor
    • TRUE
    • animal, fungi & plants all share an identical genetic code to translate DNA into proteins
  5. Definition: Unicellular organism that lacks membrane bound organelles
  6. Definition: Organism whose cells have well defined membrane-bound organelles
  7. When life first originated, the earths atmosphere was mainly composed of what 3 things
    • Nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide
  8. Defintion: self-reliant feeder
  9. Definition: non self-reliant feeders; must consume other organisms to survive
  10. The 1st living organisms were [BLANK]
  11. Hetero or Auto -trophs...?
    1. Animals
    2. Fungi
    3. Plants
    • 1. Heterotrophs
    • 2. Heterotrophs
    • 3. Autotrophs
  12. Why would competition increase as organic molecules became scarce in the ocean?
    (HINT: whats the fundamental diff between fermentation and respiration?)
    Organic molecules in free solution rapidly became scarce
  13. When did Cyanobacteria first evolve?
    3 billion years ago
  14. Why were Cyanobacteria vital to the evolution of the Earth?
    Their form of photosynthesis used water and produced oxygen as a waste product
  15. Why was the evolution of photosynthesis such a biological revolution?
    It lead to the extinction of almost all of earth's oxygen-intolerant organisms
  16. How did the increase of oxygen in the atmosphere help further the colonization of plants on land?
    1. the O2 molecules were converted into ozone (O3) which absorbed the UV rays that were detrimental to living organisms
  17. Defintion: Two organisms living in a close, mutually beneficial association
  18. Definition: Symbiotic relationship in which one of the interacting organisms lives inside the cells of the other organism
  19. Whats an example of an Endosymbiotic relationship?
    a single-celled organism that carries out fermentation ate a bacterium that carries out respiration & the bacterium lives inside the organism and continues to remove harmful oxygen
  20. The ancestors of modern land plants were [BLANK] and they most likely facilitated the colonization of plants on land  by [BLANK]
    • Algae
    • -Organisms needed strong cell walls for support & specialized structures (roots) to anchor their bodies to the rocky surface
  21. Whats the most stressful factor for plants to overcome on land & why?
    Anchoring themselves to the ground
  22. What special adaptations (HOW) have plants evolved to seek out water & resist death?
    Special adaptations: roots, stems,stomata & waxy cuticle on leaves
  23. Whats the function of Roots?
    • 1. Anchor to the ground
    • 2. Water collection for maintenance and photosynthesis
  24. Whats the function of Stems?
    Support for leaves (necessary for photosynthesis) & water & nutrient transport
  25. Whats the function of Leaves?
    Photosynthesis, water retention, temperature control
  26. Name 2 Key innovations found in leaves & how have they helped plants diversify on land?
    • Stomata & Cuticle
    • -The cuticle aids in water retention & regulates gas exchange, while the stomata does the same; they open & close based on environmental cues
Card Set:
Plant Class 1
2017-11-06 07:25:02
Intro Evolution
Biology 3600
Evolution of life on land
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