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Gas exchange occurs in the _______ at the ends of the __________.
Mucus secreted from ________ moistens inspired air.
Cilia assist in
removing foreign material and contaminated mucus
Respiratory disease assessment includes several objective measures including
- 1.Vital signs
- 3.Pulse Oximetry
- 4.Chest radiography (imaging)
- 5.Blood Gas Analysis
- 6.Cytology (body cells and fluids) and hematology evaluation
What is Spirometry
- a medical test that measures various aspects of breathing and lung function
- A spirometer is the device that registers the amount of air a person inhales or exhales and the rate at which air is moved into and out of the lungs
What is a Pulse Oximetry
This is a medical test that measures blood oxygen saturation levels
Healthy individuals have an oxygen saturation of _____%.
A saturation level of _________ signifies poor oxygen exchange
91% or below
Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases include diseases of the
nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx
Lower Respiratory Tract Diseases includes diseases of the
trachea, lungs, and bronchi and bronchioles
The more common disorders of the upper respiratory tract are caused by _______ or allergic reactions that result in
infections (e.g. sinusitis)
Generally, _________ infections are considered to be a more serious infection
lower respiratory tract
Acute Lower Respiratory tract Diseases
Chronic Lower respiratory tract Diseases
- Cystic fibrosis
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- (COPD): Chronic bronchitis, Emphysema
Acute bronchitis is an acute respiratory infection that involves ________. Primary symptoms include ________.
- large airways (trachea, bronchi).
- cough with or without phlegm, that may last up to three weeks
Which acute bronchitis is more prevalent? Viral or bacterial
Lower respiratory tract disease symptoms
wheezing, shortness of breath, or chest tightness
Pneumonia is an _________ that may be caused by ______, _______, or ________
- inflammation of the lungs
- viruses (most common), bacteria (less common), or fungi (most uncommon
The etiologic agent of pneumocystis pneumonia is ________.
Pneumocystis jirovecii (yee-row-vetsee)
What are some symptoms of Pneumonia
Fever greater than 100.4°, productive cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, visible on chest X-ray
Community Acquired Pneumonia Refers to pneumonia acquired ________ and often follows a _______
outside of hospitals or extended-care facilities
viral respiratory infection, such as the flu
Healthcare-associated or _______ Pneumonia is an infection occurring _______
- 48–72 hours after admission to a healthcare facility
Nursing Home–acquired Pneumonia Occurs due to
dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) from decrease in saliva and/or a decreased cough reflex
Ventilator-associated pneumonia are caused by
mechanically ventilated patients with no ability to clear oral secretions by swallowing or coughing
Nonventilator-associated pneumonia is when
biofilm forms on endotracheal tubes, catheters
What two tests are available to determine exposure to M. tuberculosis
Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) (Also known as the Mantoux test or purified protein derivative (PPD) test
Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA): Blood test
When ______ are seen on a stained smear of sputum, or other clinical specimen, a diagnosis of TB disease is suspected. However, the diagnosis is not confirmed until a ________
acid-fast bacilli (AFB)
laboratory culture is grown and identified as M. tuberculosis
Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is TB bacterial resistance to at least
two of the first-line (most preferred) drugs, isoniazid and rifampin
Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) isTB bacterial resistance to _______ and ________
isoniazid rifampin, fluoroquinolone, and at least one of three injectable second-line drug
Oral Manifestations of TB
painful, deep, irregular ulcer on dorsum of the tongue
Five types of Asthma
- 1.Extrinsic (aka allergic or atopic) Allergic Triggers from Outside the Body
- 2.Intrinsic (aka non-allergic or idiosyncratic)
- 3.Drug-or-food-induced (Non-Allergenic, Non-Atopic)
Most common type of Asthma
Extrinsic (aka allergic or atopic)
A severe asthmatic attack that does not respond to treatment is referred to as
Drugs that cause Asthma- attack triggers
- Aspirin-containing drugs (use acetaminophen).
- Sulfite-containing local anesthetics solution, such as epinephrine.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
- Narcotics and barbiturates
Two of the most common Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) are
- Chronic bronchitis
________ has been identified as the major risk factor in COPD.
Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Bronchitis
- Chronic Bronchitis
- Chronic cough.
- Copious sputum.
- Chest radiograph abnormalities.
- Sedentary, overweight, cyanotic, edematous & breathless, leading to the term “blue bloaters”.
Describe Chronic Bronchitis
Excessive respiratory tract mucus production sufficient to cause a cough with expectoration (coughing up mucus) for at least 3 months of the year for 2 or more years
In Chronic bronchitis Obstruction is caused by ________ and there is difficulty breathing on ________
- increased sputum (phlegm) and mucus plugging
- on both inspiration (breathing in) and expiration (breathing out).
A person with emphysema has difficulty breathing
only upon expiration
alveolar epithelium is injured and alveolar walls are destroyed
Signs and Symptoms of Emphysema
- Difficulty in breathing upon exertion.
- Minimal, nonproductive cough (dry, no mucus).
- Barrel chest (enlarged chest walls) due to increased use of respiratory chest muscles.
- Weight loss.
- Chest radiograph abnormalities.
- Purses lips to forcibly expel air, leading to the term “pink puffers”.
What is the cure for COPD
There is no cure
COPD is classified into what 5 stages
at risk, mild, moderate, severe, and very severe
At-risk COPD is defined as
normal spirometry but patients have chronic symptoms of cough and sputum production
Mild, moderate, and severe COPD has evidence of
increased airway obstruction on spirometry in each progressive stage
Very severe COPD is defined as
severe airway obstruction with chronic respiratory failure
Cystic Fibrosis affects the normal movement of _______ and results in ________
- salt (sodium chloride) into and out of certain cells
- thick sticky mucus
In children, the most common cause of sleep apnea is