Chapter 66 Respiratory Disease

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  1. Gas exchange occurs in the _______ at the ends of the __________.
    • alveoli
    • bronchioles
  2. Mucus secreted from ________ moistens inspired air.
    goblet cells
  3. Cilia assist in
    removing foreign material and contaminated mucus
  4. Respiratory disease assessment includes several objective measures including
    • 1.Vital signs
    • 2.Spirometry
    • 3.Pulse Oximetry
    • 4.Chest radiography (imaging)
    • 5.Blood Gas Analysis
    • 6.Cytology (body cells and fluids) and hematology evaluation
  5. What is Spirometry
    • a medical test that measures various aspects of breathing and lung function
    • A spirometer is the device that registers the amount of air a person inhales or exhales and the rate at which air is moved into and out of the lungs
  6. What is a Pulse Oximetry
    This is a medical test that measures blood oxygen saturation levels
  7. Healthy individuals have an oxygen saturation of _____%.

    A saturation level of _________ signifies poor oxygen exchange
    97-100

    91% or below
  8. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases include diseases of the
    nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx
  9. Lower Respiratory Tract Diseases includes diseases of the
    trachea, lungs, and bronchi and bronchioles
  10. The more common disorders of the upper respiratory tract are caused by _______ or allergic reactions that result in
    infections (e.g. sinusitis)

    inflammation
  11. Generally, _________ infections are considered to be a more serious infection
    lower respiratory tract
  12. Acute Lower Respiratory tract Diseases
    • Bronchitis
    • Pneumonia
  13. Chronic Lower respiratory tract Diseases
    • Cystic fibrosis
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • (COPD): Chronic bronchitis, Emphysema
    • Asthma
    • Tuberculosis
  14. Acute bronchitis is an acute respiratory infection that involves ________. Primary symptoms include ________.
    • large airways (trachea, bronchi).
    • cough with or without phlegm, that may last up to three weeks
  15. Which acute bronchitis is more prevalent? Viral or bacterial
    Viral
  16. Lower respiratory tract disease symptoms
    wheezing, shortness of breath, or chest tightness
  17. Pneumonia is an _________ that may be caused by ______, _______, or ________
    • inflammation of the lungs
    • viruses (most common), bacteria (less common), or fungi (most uncommon
  18. The etiologic agent of pneumocystis pneumonia is ________.
    Pneumocystis jirovecii (yee-row-vetsee)
  19. What are some symptoms of Pneumonia
    Fever greater than 100.4°, productive cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, visible on chest X-ray
  20. Community Acquired Pneumonia Refers to pneumonia acquired ________ and often follows a _______
    outside of hospitals or extended-care facilities

    viral respiratory infection, such as the flu
  21. Healthcare-associated or _______ Pneumonia is an infection occurring _______
    • Nosocomial
    • 48–72 hours after admission to a healthcare facility
  22. Nursing Home–acquired Pneumonia Occurs due to
    dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) from decrease in saliva and/or a decreased cough reflex
  23. Ventilator-associated pneumonia are caused by
    mechanically ventilated patients with no ability to clear oral secretions by swallowing or coughing
  24. Nonventilator-associated pneumonia is when
    biofilm forms on endotracheal tubes, catheters
  25. What two tests are available to determine exposure to M. tuberculosis
    Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) (Also known as the Mantoux test or purified protein derivative (PPD) test

    Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA): Blood test
  26. When ______ are seen on a stained smear of sputum, or other clinical specimen, a diagnosis of TB disease is suspected. However, the diagnosis is not confirmed until a ________
    acid-fast bacilli (AFB)

    laboratory culture is grown and identified as M. tuberculosis
  27. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is TB bacterial resistance to at least
    two of the first-line (most preferred) drugs, isoniazid and rifampin
  28. Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) isTB bacterial resistance to _______ and ________
    isoniazid rifampin, fluoroquinolone, and at least one of three injectable second-line drug
  29. Oral Manifestations of TB
    painful, deep, irregular ulcer on dorsum of the tongue
  30. Five types of Asthma
    • 1.Extrinsic (aka allergic or atopic) Allergic Triggers from Outside the Body
    • 2.Intrinsic (aka non-allergic or idiosyncratic)
    • 3.Drug-or-food-induced (Non-Allergenic, Non-Atopic)
    • 4.Exercise-induced
    • 5.Infection-induced
  31. Most common type of Asthma
    Extrinsic (aka allergic or atopic)
  32. A severe asthmatic attack that does not respond to treatment is referred to as
    status asthmaticus
  33. Drugs that cause Asthma- attack triggers
    • Aspirin-containing drugs (use acetaminophen).
    • Sulfite-containing local anesthetics solution, such as epinephrine.
    • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    • Narcotics and barbiturates
  34. Two of the most common Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) are
    • Chronic bronchitis
    • Emphysema
  35. ________ has been identified as the major risk factor in COPD.
    Cigarette smoking
  36. Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Bronchitis
    • Chronic Bronchitis
    • Chronic cough.
    • Copious sputum.
    • Chest radiograph abnormalities.
    • Sedentary, overweight, cyanotic, edematous & breathless, leading to the term “blue bloaters”.
  37. Describe Chronic Bronchitis
    Excessive respiratory tract mucus production sufficient to cause a cough with expectoration (coughing up mucus) for at least 3 months of the year for 2 or more years
  38. In Chronic bronchitis Obstruction is caused by ________ and there is difficulty breathing on ________
    • increased sputum (phlegm) and mucus plugging
    • on both inspiration (breathing in) and expiration (breathing out).
  39. A person with emphysema has difficulty breathing
    only upon expiration
  40. In emphysema,
    alveolar epithelium is injured and alveolar walls are destroyed
  41. Signs and Symptoms of Emphysema
    • Difficulty in breathing upon exertion.
    • Minimal, nonproductive cough (dry, no mucus).
    • Barrel chest (enlarged chest walls) due to increased use of respiratory chest muscles.
    • Weight loss.
    • Chest radiograph abnormalities.
    • Purses lips to forcibly expel air, leading to the term “pink puffers”.
  42. What is the cure for COPD
    There is no cure
  43. COPD is classified into what 5 stages
    at risk, mild, moderate, severe, and very severe
  44. At-risk COPD is defined as
    normal spirometry but patients have chronic symptoms of cough and sputum production
  45. Mild, moderate, and severe COPD has evidence of
    increased airway obstruction on spirometry in each progressive stage
  46. Very severe COPD is defined as
    severe airway obstruction with chronic respiratory failure
  47. Cystic Fibrosis affects the normal movement of  _______ and results in ________
    • salt (sodium chloride) into and out of certain cells
    • thick sticky mucus
  48. In children, the most common cause of sleep apnea is
    tonsilar hypertrophy

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Author:
haitianwifey
ID:
335785
Filename:
Chapter 66 Respiratory Disease
Updated:
2017-11-20 17:39:37
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Chapter 66 Respiratory Disease
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Chapter 66 Respiratory Disease
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