6 - Groups Identity

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  1. Homonculus
    idea that there is some little man inside the brain that makes up the neural basis of the self
  2. Thinking about the self vs. other kinds of stimuli activates
    the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)
  3. what is the mPFC activated by
    • hearing one’s own name
    • arbitrary associations to self (attention and memory tasks)
    • attending to one’s own emotional response relative to that of a person in a photo
  4. What makes up the sensorimotor self
    • sense of agency (free will, sense f being in control of one’s own actions)
    • sense of embodiment (existing within one’s own body)
  5. What makes up the ongoing self
    • personal memories
    • personality traits
    • motivation (maintain self esteem)
  6. What makes up the cultural/collective self
    • group membership (ethnic, national, etc)
    • share beliefs, skills, and rituals
  7. Libet experiment (sense of agency)
    • prediction of action consequences
    • used event related brain potentials (LRP)
    • found that the intention to act was noted before the movement onset
    • there is a curve leading up to the intention time before the subject even decides they want to act
  8. Lenggenhager et al. (2007) - sense of embodiment
    • subjects view visual depiction of their body
    • back is stroked with a stick
    • the higher the bar, the stronger the out of body experience
    • asynchronous timing - not as strong out of body experience
  9. Marcus (1982) - memory
    • measured current political attitudes in 1973 and again in 1982 they were asked to recall attitudes but they were skewed towards current beliefs
    • people tend to remember the past in terms of their current knowledge and beliefs
  10. Sahdra & Ross (2007) - memory
    those who identify strongly with an in-group are worse at remembering acts of historical violence by their in-group
  11. Ross & Wilson (2002) - memory
    self-enhancing memories are judged to feel more recent than memories that reflect badly on oneself
  12. Stanford Prison Experiment
    • two arbitrary groups (prisoners and guards)
    • different behavior emerged, us vs them mentality
    • replicated the sin europe and ground pretty consistent results
  13. Johnson & Johnson (1987) - what is a group
    • a collection of indiv interacting with one another
    • collection of ppl who join together to achieve a goal
    • collection of indie who influence each other
  14. social identity
    a collection of different group memberships (nationality, race, political allegiances)
  15. Shut, Pittinsky, Ambady (1999) - social identity
    • asian women view their math ability more favorably when ethnic identity is highlighted, relative to when gender is highlighted
    • priming ethnic identity increases math performance
    • priming gender identity decreases it
  16. Mitchell, Nosek, Banaji (2003) - memory
    white women show evidence of a more negative attitude towards Black women when race is highlighted vs when gender is highlighted
  17. social categories - the big three
    • gender
    • race
    • age
    • automatic and obligatory, they spontaneously trigger stereotypes, attitudes and behavioral tendencies
  18. Stereotyping
    • perceiving members of a given category as possessing various common attributes
    • efficient way of organizing and storing info about people in long-term memory
    • but also a source of bias and generalization
  19. Freeman & Ambady (2011/2009) - stereotyping
    • if we stereotype an object, we remember facts related to it but when stereotyping female, we think of attributes we have learned over time that may not always be correct
    • if you make male face a little more feminine, people gravitate towards feminine related stereotype (caring) before choosing male one (aggressive)
  20. prejudice
    negative attitudes, emotions, or behaviors to members of a group on the basis of their membership in that group
  21. stereotyping is _______ and prejudice is __________
    • cognitive
    • emotional
  22. brain areas for prejudice
    • amygdala
    • insula
    • striatum
    • ventral mPFC
    • OFC
  23. brain areas for stereotyping
    • dorsal mPFC
    • lateral temporal lobe
    • IFG
    • ATL
  24. Greenwald et al (2002) - in group favoritism
    • in group is more likely to resemble self than outgrip
    • people are more motivated to maintain a favorable self-concept
  25. Nuttin (1985) - name letter effect
    • charity donations before a hurricane were significantly less than after a hurricane
    • especially if name of hurricane matches their own
  26. Cikara et al. (2011) - in group favoritism
    • reward regions like striatum are activated when you see subjectively positive outcomes (when other team fails or your team wins)
    • pain regions like ACC are activated when you see subjectively negative outcomes (when your team fails or other team wins)
  27. Chen et al. (2005) - in group favoritism
    • chinese students shows in group bias to smiling, happy chinese faces
    • this predicted the extent to which they friended more in group vs out group members on Facebook
  28. Own race memory effect
    may reflect either perceptual expertise or tendency to process other races categorically
  29. Kurzban et al. (2001) - race encoding
    • found that people track group/team more than race, so race encoding can be erased but not gender because we will always track that
    • found that people were keeping track of team membership more because they would mistake statements made by a person with another person from the same team
  30. Van bavel et al. (2008) - role of motivation
    • people are assigned to a group, tiger or leopard
    • have to categorize people by race or team memberships
    • greater fusiform and amygdala activation to novel in-group members
    • no difference in activation based on race
  31. Lazaras, Ingrebtsen et al. (2016) - role of motivation
    • there is a positivity bias when perceiving in group members emotions
    • group membership influenced how you interpreted that face (happy, angry, etc) bc in-group members seemed more happy/positive
  32. How is the IAT measured
    • switch the original associations (from white/good to white/bad) and the response should be slower if you harbor the implicit association
    • critical measure is the difference in reaction time between the two
  33. Dunham et al. (2008) - divide between implicit and explicit bias
    • implicit - 6yr old kids see pro white anti black bias, stays the same at 10 yrs and throughout
    • explicit - ask them what kids they prefer to play with, they indicate they have no preference at first, but over time they learn the norms and reduce their intergroup attitudes
  34. Phelps et al. (2000) - fMRI of prejudice
    amygdala activity with viewing black faces correlates with IAT measure
  35. Cunningham et al. (2004)
    • for quick responses, see higher activity in amygdala
    • for longer exposure, see higher activity in ACC or prefrontal cortex
    • researchers argued that if given more time, we deliberately try to control and get rid of our biases — which is why amygdala activity goes away at longer exposure
  36. Lieberman et al. (2005)
    • when you have perceptual task, you see higher activity to black faces than white faces in amygdala
    • in verbal task, you don’t see higher activity to black faces, but see higher activity in RVLPFC (right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex)
    • amygdala activity and prefrontal cortex activity is negatively correlated (when one is more active, other is not)
  37. Amodio et al (2003)
    startle response greater for black faces than asian or white faces (not out group per se)
  38. Bias as reduced mentalizing
    • there was mPFC activity for high warmth/high competence people (pride), high warmth/low competence people (pity), and low warmth, high competence people (envy)
    • but lose mPFC activity for low/low people (disgust) because they are so dehumanized we don’t even consider the contents of their mind
  39. external vs internal motivations to control prejudice
    • external - “i attempt to appear non-prejudiced towards black people in order to avoid disapproval from others”
    • internal - “I attempt to act in non-prejudiced ways towards black people because it is personally important to me”
    • people with internal motivators have lower IAT scores and lower startle responses to black faces
  40. what is FFA important for
    • face perception
    • recognizing race/group memberships
    • cross race effect (remember faces of own group than other group)
  41. what is ACC important for
    • involved in monitoring for potential bias
    • conflict monitoring
  42. what isDLPFC important for
    • regulating racial bias
    • involved in inhibition
    • can dampen/down regulate amygdala’s activation
  43. Lai et al (2016)
    need meaning positive contact with racial outgroup members to increase IAT scores and be less prejudiced
  44. Feed-forward approach
    • look at a face
    • observe facial features
    • look into social categories
    • think about stereotypes, attitudes, goals
    • all of this affects behavior
  45. Top-Down vs Bottom-Up
    • top down = context/knowledge driven, look at general concept and then get to specifics, rely on expectations
    • bottom up = stimulus driven, get general idea from specific input
  46. Freeman et al. (2012) - stereotypes influence race perception
    • when given a range of faces, more likely for people to categorize racially ambiguous guy in the suit as white
    • but the racially ambiguous guy in low status clothes is seen as black man
  47. Hugenberg & Bodenvasen (2003/4) - stereotypes influence race perception
    people with high levels of implicit race bias will ascribe more anger to black faces
  48. Dotsch et al (2008) - stereotypes influence race perception of moroccans
    high-prejudice perceivers had internal visual representations of Morococcans as more untrustworthy and criminal
  49. Stolier & Freeman (2016) - stereotypes affect visual perception
    • faces automatically trigger stereotype knowledge in ATL
    • black/male closer together
    • female/happy
    • asian/female
  50. Weapon identification task
    • when primed with black face, have more errors categorizing tool (usually as a gun)
    • when primed with white face, have more errors categorizing as a tool instead of gun
  51. what happens to object representations in the FG/OFC/ATL in the context of a black target
    they become stereotypically biased
Card Set:
6 - Groups Identity
2017-11-09 07:46:30
lecture 6 / ch 9
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