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  1. What is an artifact?
    images other than anatomy or pathology that do not contribute to a diagnosis can be avoided with careful patient preparation prior to exposure.
  2. scratched film probable causes:
    • Dropped film on Floor
    • No gloves
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  3. static electricity film causes:
    • –Low humidity
    • –Pulling film out of packet too quickly
    • –Use of laytex gloves
    • Solution:
    • –Increase humidity where the film is stored (50-75%)
    • –Place rubber mats on the floor
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  4. What is going on?
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    • 1. patient did not occlude completely on image receptor biteblock
    • 2. inadequate vertical angulation, no apical, caused elongation
    • 3. incorrect distomesial horizontal angulation, overlapped proximal surfaces
  5. What is going on?
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    • 1. patient did not occlude completely causing slanting or diagonal occlusal plane 
    • 2. excessive vertical angulation, incorrect position of image receptor caused foreshortening
    • 3. bent film; artifact
  6. Whats going on?
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    reversed film packet error
  7. whats going on?
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    conecut error
  8. Whats going on?
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    • radiopaque artifact
    • lead thyroid collar
  9. whats going on?
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    underexposed or underdeveloped; light image
  10. whats going on?
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    overexposed or overdeveloped; dark image
  11. whats going on?
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    radiopaque arrtifact; partial denture left in place
  12. processing errors:
    • Development error
    • Processing and darkroom protocol errors
    • Chemical contamination
  13. Developer weak or old:
    • film densities compromised
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  14. Fixer loses strength:
    • film takes a longer time to “clear” or become transparent, in unexposed areas
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  15. development error:
    underdevelopment- not left in developer for required time  overdevelopment- left in developer too long
  16. Under Exposed / Under Developed
    • Too little time
    • Too low kVp or mA
    • Didn’t adjust exposure for bone density
    • Large mass
    • Didn’t hold button down full timeUnderdeveloped
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  17. Over Exposed / Over developed
    • Too much time
    • Too high kVp or mA
    • Didn’t adjust exposure for bone density
    • Child
    • Elderly (lean)
    • Held button down too long
    • Overdeveloped
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  18. Whats going on?
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    Premature contact w/ developer
  19. whats going on?
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    Fixer splatter
  20. whats going on?
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    • film fog 
    • decreased image contrast
  21. whats going on?
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    double exposed
  22. whats going on?
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    • Reticulation
    • Cracking of film emulsion = due to warm chemicals & cold water
  23. whats going on?
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    amalgam tattoo
  24. whats going on?
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    • Purposefully done to make film /PSP more comfortable
    • Bent film/PSP can jam automatic processors
  25. Metallic restorations:
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    • restorations absorb x-rays
    • Very little radiation comes in contact with the receptor [film]
    • area of receptor remains unexposed
    • metallic restorations appear completely radiopaque on a dental image
  26. Nonmetallic restorations:
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    • vary in appearance from radiolucent to slightly radiopaque
    • depending on the density of the material
    • Gold is the most dense and least radiolucent
    • acrylic the least dense and most radiolucent
  27. Amalgam Restorations:
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    • One-surface amalgam restorations
    • Amalgam overhangs
    • Amalgam fragments
  28. Identify:
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    • 2 surface metal fillings
    • Overhang
    • fragments
  29. What is the difference on a radiograph between gold and amalgam?
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    • Gold restorations appear completely radiopaque and exhibit a smooth marginal outline [contours]
    • Amalgam restorations less contoured and more varied
  30. Stainless Steel and Chrome Crowns:
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    • Appear radiopaque, but not as densely radiopaque as amalgam or gold
    • Outlines and margins appear smooth and regular
    • Some areas may appear “see-through” on a radiograph
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    retention pins
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    stainless steel crown
  33. Post and Core Restorations:
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    • Usually seen in endodontically treated teeth
    • Appears radiopaque
    • The core portion resembles the prepared portion of a tooth crown
    • The post portion extends into the pulp canal
  34. Endodontic treatment
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    • (1) Post and core within the root canals
    • (2) Gutta percha
  35. Porcelain Restorations:
    • Porcelain restorations is slightly radiopaque and resembles the radiopacity of dentin
    • All-porcelain crowns
    • thin radiopaque line outlining the prepared tooth and then cement may be evident through the slightly radiopaque porcelain crown
  36. Porcelain-fused-to-metal crown [PFM]
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    The metal component appears completely radiopaque, and the porcelain component appear slightly radiopaque.
  37. Composite RestorationsImage UploadImage Upload
    • Vary in appearance from radiolucent to slightly radiopaque
    • Depending on the composition of the composite material
  38. Acrylic Restorations:
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    • These are often used as an interim or temporary crown or filling
    • Least dense of all nonmetallic restorations
    • Appears radiolucent or barely visible on a dental image
  39. Materials Used in Restorative Dentistry:
    Base materials:
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    • cavity liners placed on the floor of a cavity preparation to protect the pulp
    • appear radiopaque, less radiodense than amalgam
  40. Materials Used in Restorative Dentistry:
    Metallic pin
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    • used to enhance retention of amalgam or composite
    • cylindrical or screw-shaped radiopacities
  41. Pontic
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  42. Cantaliver Bridge
    • are used when there are adjacent teeth on only one side of the missing tooth 
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  43. Maryland  Bridge
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    consists of a pontic with one or two metal clasps or wings on one or both sides that are cemented or bonded to adjacent natural teeth
  44. Materials Used in Endodontics:
    Silver points
    • used to fill pulp canals
    • They are very radiopaque, similar to other metallic materials, appear more radiodense than gutta percha
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  45. Materials Used in Endodontics:
    Gutta percha
    • claylike material used to fill pulp canals.
    • Appears radiopaque, similar to base materials, is less radiodense than metallic restorations
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  46. Materials Used in Prosthodontics:
    • Patients should be instructed to remove all complete and partial dentures before dental images are taken **
    • Complete dentures
    • ives the illusion of rootless, or “floating” teeth
    • Removable partial dentures [RPD ]
    • metal base with acrylic saddles appears densely radiopaque where metal is present and slightly radiopaque in the areas of acrylic
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  47. Materials Used in Orthodontics
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    • Orthodontic bands, brackets, and wires may be observed on dental images.
    • They have a characteristic appearance
  48. Materials Used in Oral Surgery
    • Implants
    • The appearance varies based on the shape and design of the implant used.
    • Suture wires, metallic splints and plates, bone screws, and stabilizing arches are used in oral surgery to stabilize fractures of the maxilla and mandible
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  49. whats this?
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  50. whats this?
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  51. name?
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    • (1)Amalgam
    • (2) Porcelain fused- to-metal crown
    • (3) Post and core
    • (4) Gutta percha
    • (5) Base material
    • (6) Full metal crown
    • (7) Retention pin
    • (8) Metal pontic
  52. Name?
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    • (1)Radiopaque composite
    • (2) Radiolucent composite (or acrylic resin or silicate)
    • (3) Porcelainfused-to-metal crowns
    • (4) cement under this crown
    • (5) Silver point endodontic filler
  53. The dental radiographer must play an active role in the education of patients concerning:
    • Radiation exposure
    • Patient protection
    • Value and uses of dental radiographs.
    • Education can achieved though oral presentation, printed literature or a combination of both
  54. Non-verbal communication is?
    • Is 80% of communication.
    • Smiling
    • Eye contact
    • Posture
    • Sitting down when talking to patients.
  55. Are dental x-rays really necessary?
    Early disease detection can only be done using dental x-rays
  56. How often should I have dental x-rays?
    X-ray needs are based on your individual needs
  57. Can I refuse x-rays and still be treated?
    • No. In most cases patient can’t be treated without x-rays. Treatment without necessary x-rays is negligent.
    • No document can be signed to release the dentist from liability.
  58. Instead of taking x-rays now, can you use the x-rays from a previous dentist?
    Yes if the x-rays are recent and they are diagnostic
  59. Why do you use a lead apron?
    Lead apron protects you from unnecessary radiation
  60. Is it safe to take x-rays during pregnancy?
    With a lead apron no detectable radiation reaches the child. ADA & FDA guidelines regarding x-rays “do not need to be altered because of pregnancy”. Many dentist elect to postpone x-rays, because of patient concerns; **double up on lead apron**
  61. Are dental x-rays safe?
    Dental x-rays are safe when taken as recommended. They have a very small amount of exposure and are only taken when their benefit outweighs the risk
  62. Can a panoramic x-ray be taken instead of a complete series:
    Not recommended because: A panoramic x-ray only shows general condition of mouth, it does not show the detail needed to diagnose many conditions.
  63. Experts ____ always predict a specific outcome from an amount of radiation exposure
  64. Radiation protection conservatively assumes that any amount of radiation may ______
    pose a risk
  65. All ionizing radiations are _____
  66. Radiation Effects:
    • disruption of cellular metabolism
    • Produce biologic changes in living tissues
    • The amount of x-radiation used in dental radiography is small, but biologic changes do occur
  67. What the operator needs to know about radiation:
    DA/DH must understand _____
    • –how the harmful effects can occur
    • –how to discuss the risks of radiation with patients
    • Exercising safety precautions
    • Minimize radiation exposure
    • Radiograph retakes
    • –contribute to unnecessary exposureare preventable when proper protocol
  68. True or False: The benefits out way any risks.
  69. X-Radiation is measured by ______
    its ability to deposit its energy into things
  70. Système International (SI) units:
    modern version of the metric system ***ADA Requires SI terminology to be used on national board exams
  71. (GY) Gray or (rad) Radiation Absorbed Dose:
    is the amount of ionizing radiation that is absorbed into a substance
Card Set:
2017-11-12 05:19:14
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