DH Radiology

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DH Radiology
2010-09-09 01:15:22

Quiz #2
Show Answers:

  1. What is quality assurance in the Dental office?
    Special prodedures that are used to ensure the production of high-quality diagnostic radiographs
  2. Who is ultimately responsible for administration of quality assurance?
    The dentist
  3. How can the dental radiographer aid in implementation of administration of quality assurance?
    By being knowledgable of the quality assurance plan
  4. Quality control tests
    specific tests used to monitor dental radiograph equipment
  5. What do quality control tests monitor?
    • Dental x-ray machine
    • Dental x-ray film
    • Screens and cassettes
    • Dark room lighting
    • processing equipment
    • processing solutions
    • Viewing equipment
  6. Describe quality administration procedures
    • Description of plan
    • Assignment of duties
    • monitoring schedule
    • maintenance schedule
    • record-keeping logs
    • evaluation and revision plan
    • in-service training
  7. What must you do to care for x-ray machine?
    check for calbration, and adjust for accuracy
  8. how often must you test dental x-ray machine?
    once a year
  9. What does x-ray machine testing look for?
    • minor malfuncionts
    • machine output variations
    • inadequate collimation
    • tubehead drift
    • timing errors
    • inaccurate kilovoltage and milliamperage readings
  10. How do you test for freshness of x-ray film?
    process one unexposed film
  11. How will a fresh unexposed film appear after testing?
    clear with a slight blue tint
  12. How will an unfresh film appear after testing? Why does it appear this way?
    • appears fogged
    • expired film, improper storage, exposed to radiation
  13. What are extraoral screens used within a cassette holder examined for? how do you avoid this condition?
    • dirt or scratches
    • clean monthly with recommended cleaners
    • appy astistatic solutions
  14. What are cassette holders examined for?
    • worn closures
    • light leaks
    • warping resulting in fogged or blurred radiographs
  15. How do you check for adequate film-screen contact?
    flim-screen contact test using wire mesh
  16. How does the film appear if there is adequate film-screen contact?
    wire mesh image has uniform density
  17. How does the image appear if there is inadequate film-screen contact?
    • the film exhibits varying densities
    • areas of poor contact appear darker
  18. What should you examine on the radiograph viewing equipment?
    • dirt and discoloration of plexiglass
    • should emit uniform and subdued light
  19. How do you care for radiograph viewing equipment?
    • wipe daily
    • replace discolored plexiglass
    • replace blackened flourescent bulbs
  20. Why is film processing one of the most critical areas in quality control?
    because in can result in a large number of nondiagnostic film
  21. What must the dark room be tested for? and how often?
    • light-tightness and proper safe-lighting
    • every 6 months
  22. How do you check for light-tightness in the dark room
    turn off all the light including safe-light, and observe room for light leaks
  23. How do you correct light leaks in the dark room?
    with weather stripping or black tape
  24. How do you test the safe light?
    with the coin test method (after the light leak test has been performed)
  25. How will the film appear if there is proper safe lighting?
    no visible image is present on the processed radiograph
  26. How wil the film appear if there is improper safe lighting?
    the image of the coin and fogged background appear on the film
  27. how often must the proccessing equipment be monitored?
  28. What do you check in the processing equipment?
    • water circulation system
    • solution levels
    • replenishment system
    • temperatures
    • processing time
  29. How do you test to see if the processing equipment is running properly?
    run 2 films, one exposed, one not exposed
  30. How will the films appear if the processing equipment is running properly?
    • exposed film-pure black
    • unexposed film- clear bluish tint and dry
  31. How will films appear if the processing equipment is not functioning properly?
    • exposed flim- not black and dry
    • unexposed film- not clear and dry
  32. Describe general care for processing solutions
    • replenish daily
    • change every 3-4 weeks
    • evaluate daily before patient films are run
  33. Name 2 methods for checking developer strength
    • reference radiograph
    • stepwedge radiographs
  34. Reference radiograph
    processed under ideal conditions and then used to compare the film densities of radiographs processed daily
  35. What do matched densities in reference radiograph testing indicate?
    developer solution strength is adequate
  36. What do unmatched densities on reference radiograph test indicate?
    • if dinsities on daily radiographs are light-developer is weak or cold
    • if densities on daily radiographs are dark-developer is too strong or hot
  37. Stepn wedge radiograph
    process one of twenty exposed radiographs under ideal conditions
  38. When the fixer solution is at full strength how long should it take the film to clear?
    no longer than 2 minutes
  39. Name the 3 types of radiographic examination that use intraoral film
    • periapical exam
    • inter proximal exam
    • occlusal exam
  40. Periapical exam purpose
    exam entire tooth and supporting bone
  41. periapical film type
    PA film-shows root and apex and surrounding bone
  42. technique used for PA exam
    • paralleling techniqu
    • bisecting technique
  43. interproximal exam purpose
    • examine crowns of maxillary and mandibular teeth on a single film
    • examine adjacent tooth surfaces and crestal bone
  44. interproximal exam film type
    bite-wing film including bitewing tab
  45. interproximal exam technique used
    bitewing technique
  46. Occlusal exam purpose
    to examine large area of jaw on one film
  47. occlusal exam type
    occlusal film-pt bites on film
  48. occlusal exam technique
    occlusal technique
  49. Complete Mouth Radiographic series
    series of intraoral dental radiographs that show all the tooth-bearing areas of the maxilla and mandible
  50. what film types does the CMRS include?
    • 4 maxillary molar-premolar PA's
    • 3 maxillary anterior PA's
    • 4 bitewing films
    • 4 mandibular molar-premolar PA's
    • 3 mandibular anterior PA's
    • include edentulous areas as well
  51. When is the CMRS appropriate?
    new adult pt. presents with clinical evidence of generalized dental diseas, or a history of extensive dental treatment
  52. Diagnostic criteria for intraoral radiographs
    • images with opyimum density, contrast, definition and detail
    • images with least amount of distortion as possible-same size and shape as tooth
    • FMX must show include all tooth-bearing areas
    • PAX must show entire crown and root of teeth being examined as well as 2-3 mm beyond root apices
    • BWX must show open contacts or interproximal tooth surfaces- not overlapped
  53. Prescribing of dental radiographs is based on_______. Professional judgement is made by_____________. indentifies what 3 things?
    • pt. needs
    • the dentist
    • number, type, and frequency
  54. Parallel
    moving or lying in the same plane (railroad tracks)
  55. Perpendicular
    intersecting or forming a right angle
  56. intersecting
    to cut across or through
  57. right angle
    angle of 90 degrees formed by 2 perpendicular lines
  58. long axis of tooth
    imaginary line that divides tooth longitudinally into 2 equal halves
  59. central ray
    central portionof the beam of x-radiation
  60. Describe the principles of the paralleling technique
    • film is placed parallel to the long axis of tooth
    • central ray of the x-ray beam is directed perpendicular to the film and long axis
    • film holder must be used
    • object-film distance must be increased to keep film parallel
    • target film distance must be increased as a result of object-film distance
  61. What must you increase the target-film distance to to compensate for magnification and loss of definition?
    16" using long cone or PID
  62. What does rectangular collimator do?
    reduces radiation exposure to pt. by 70%
  63. Name 5 types of film holders
    • Rinn XCP
    • precision film holders (collimator)
    • Stabe bite block (disposable)
    • EEZEE-grip film holder (Snap-a-ray)
    • hemostat with bite-block
  64. Size of film used in anterior regions
    • size 1
    • placed vertical
  65. Size of film used in posterior regions
    • size 2
    • placed horizontally
  66. Film placement
    positioned to cover teeth examined
  67. Film position
    positioned parallel to long axis of tooth, and away from tooth
  68. Vertical angulation
    rays must be perpendicular to film and long axis of tooth
  69. Horizontal angulation
    central rays must be directed through the contact areas between the teeth
  70. film exposure
    x-ray beam must be centered on the film to ensure that all areas of the film are exposed
  71. Describe pt. preparation for radiographs
    • explain radiographic procedure
    • adjust chair to upright and comfortable height
    • adjust headrest so upper arch is parallel to floor and midline is perpendicular to the floor
    • place lead apron with thyroid collar
    • remove all objecs from mouth and glasses
  72. Describeradiographic equipment preparation
    • set kVp and mA
    • open sterilized package and assemble
    • insert film packet into holder
  73. What is the exposure sequence for anterior teeth?
    • start with maxillary right canine
    • move to maxillary right lateral and central incisor
    • move to left maxillary central and lateral incisor
    • move to left maxillary canine
    • move to left mandibular canine
    • move to mandibular incisors
    • move to right mandibular canine
  74. Describe the sequence for posterior exposure sequence
    • assemble XCP for maxillary right premolars
    • then move to maxillary right molars
    • then mandibular left premolars
    • then mandibular left molars
    • then assemble XCP form maxillary left premolars
    • then move to maxillary left molars
    • then mandibular left premolars
    • then mandubular left molars
  75. Maxillary canine exposure
    should show center of canine, mesial of 1st premolar, and distal of lateral incisor
  76. Maxillary incisor exposure
    centered on contact between lateral and central incisor
  77. mandibular canine exposure
    centered on canine, shows mesial of 1st premolar and distal of lateral incisor
  78. mandibular incisor exposure
    centered on contact between central incisors- show all lateral and central incisors
  79. maxillary premolar exposure
    centered on second premolar, show from canine to 1st molar
  80. maxillary molar exposure
    centered on second molar, show from distal of 2nd premolar to 3rd molar
  81. mandibular premolar exposure
    center film on second premolar, show from canine to first molar
  82. mandibular molar exposure
    center on 2nd molar, show all three molars
  83. What can you do to modify the paralleling technique in case of shallow palate?
    Use cotton roll if tilt exceeds 20 degrees
  84. What are the advantages of the parallel technique?
    • Accuracy-image that has dimensional accuracy and is free of distortion and exhibits maximum detail
    • simplicity-simple and easy to use and learn
    • duplication- easy to duplicate and repeat comparisons of series have great validity
  85. What are the disadvantages of the paralleling technique?
    • film placement is difficult
    • can be uncomfortable to patients
  86. Film exposure errors
    • result in nondiagnostic film
    • additional radiation to the pt. if retake is necessary
  87. How does an unexposed film appear? Why did this happen?
    • film appears clear
    • occured becuase the film was not exposed
  88. How does a film exposed to light appear? What caused this
    • black
    • the film was exposed to white light
  89. How does an overexposed film appear? Why did this happen
    • images are darker
    • excessive exposure time, kVP, or mA
  90. How does an underexposed film appear? Why did this happen
    • image is light
    • inadequate exposure time, kVP, or mA
  91. How might a film appear if incorrect film placement was performed?
    • absence of apices- film was not positioned into pt. mouth to cover apices
    • occlusal plane appears tipped or tilted - the edge of the film was not placed parallel to the incisal-occlusal surface of teeth
  92. How does the film appear if incorrect horizontal angulation was used?
    contacts on teeth appear overlapped
  93. How do forshortened images appear? Why did this happen?
    • teeth appear short with blunted roots
    • verticle angulation was excessive (too steep)
  94. How do elongated images appear? Why did this happen?
    • long distored teeth appear on film
    • vertical angulation was insufficient (too flat)
  95. How does a cone cut appear? Why did this happen?
    • unexposed area appears on film
    • PID was not aligned with the XCP
  96. name 6 types of miscellaneous technique errors
    • film bending
    • film creasing
    • phalangiona
    • double exposure
    • movement
    • reversed film