Psychiatric Disorders

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Psychiatric Disorders
2010-09-09 01:50:46
psych disorders

psych disorder
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  1. Positive
    (presence of abnormal features)
  2. Negative
    (Absence of normal features)
  3. Tardive dyskinesia
    -Old treatment for Schizophrenia

    -Chlorpromazine (sedating). Reserpine (effective but dangerous drop in blood pressure)
  4. Dopamine hypothesis-
    Loss of DA= Parkinsons. Too much DA= schizophrenia

    • -Supported by: Reserpine depletes DA (leak vesciles)
    • -Chlorpromazine blocks DA receptors
    • -Problems: takes weeks to work (cant be all D)
  5. Affective Disorders-
    • -Depression/mania. More sufer from unipolar than bipolar
    • -Amygdala/Prefrontal Cortex/Mesotelencephalic damaged (depression)
  6. Depression/Mania Treatments
    • -Treatment: MAOIs- Prevent breakdown of monoamines
    • -Tricyclic antidepressants- block reuptake of serotonin/norepinephrine (safer then MAOIs)
    • -SSRIs- Very successful
    • -Lithium- lots of side effects
    • -Sleep deprivation improves depression
  7. Monoamine Theory of Depression-
    Underactive serotonin/norepinephrine
  8. Diathesis-Stress model of depression-
    -inherited genetic susception to depression
  9. -HPA axis not as responsive to normal negative feedback
  10. Generalized anxiety disorder-
    stress/anxiety in absence of causal stimulus
  11. Phobia
    - anxiety triggered by stimulus
  12. Panic Disorder
    -onset rapid stress physiological response
  13. OCD
    -anxiety producing obsessive relieved by compulsive actions
  14. PTSD-
    continuing stress following extreme stress
  15. Anxiety Disorder Treatments
    • -Treatments: Benzodiazepines (hypnotics, muscle relaxants) GABA agonist. Increases probability of channel opening
    • -Serotonin agonists- Reduce anxiety without sedation/best long term treatment
  16. Cause of Anxiety?
    • Too little serotonin/GABA neurotransmission=anxiety.
    • Amygdala (fear/defensive maybe responsible)
  17. Barbiturates-
    setative/increased duration of GABA channel opening
  18. Tourettes Syndrome-
    involuntary movement/vocalization

    • -Major genetic component
    • -Hard to study/ no animal models
    • -Treated with neuroleptics
    • -Suggest basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex problem
  19. ADHD Types?
    hyperactive impulsive, inattentive, combined hyperactive impulsive and inattentive
  20. ADHD Brain differences:
    Smaller prefrontal cortex/cerebellum, lower levels of dopamine
  21. ADHD Treatment
    • -Atomoxetine- Norephinephrine reuptakeinhibitor
    • -Amphetamine salts (adderall/retalin) increase dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations in synapse