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Flipping the repro tract
Not in horses! Not in >60d cows!
What to palpate for in the mare
- cervix (tone increased in diestrus and pregnancy), uterine body, bifurcation, horns (pregnancies implant at base), broad ligament (dorsal) to ovary.
- Large follicles, ovulatory fossa. Horses will always have follicles during breeding season.
Transrectal ultrasound in the mare
- NEVER further than you can reach!
- Uterus for evidence of edema (heterogenous echotecture of wall) and content (preg, fluid, air, FB)
- ovary for CL, follicles (ALWAYS present during season)
#1 reason for cow palpation
early pregnancy diagnosis
what to palpate for in cows (6)
when and how to palpate
what to look for to dx preg
- size: fetus, caruncles, uterine artery
- cervix (roll of quarters, turkey neck, see if repro tract is heavy, "fixed" after 70d), uterine horns (fluid-filled), ovaries (follicle and CL with papilla), fetus, caruncles (after 70d) and uterine artery
- not <60d in pregnancy
- "flip" the uterus to palpate properly.
- Look for increase in size, asymmetry, fluctuation and fetal membrane slip.
4 positive signs of pregnancy
- Fetal membrane slip
- amnionic vesicle
- placentomes (cotyledons)
- ONLY 4 positive signs of pregnancy
initiation of parturition
- fetus secretes cortisol
- dam responds with dilation of cervix and caudal repro tract and initiates contractions
- fetus enters birthing position, engages cervix
- Ferguson's reflex
- uterine contractions
3 stages of parturition
- 1: dilation of the cervix until rupture of allantois (water breaks)
- 2: delivery of fetus/fetuses
- 3: expulsion of the fetal membranes
goals of managing dystocia (3)
- preserve life of dam
- preserve viability of fetus
- preserve future fertility of dam
When to interfere with calf dystocia (normal timing)
how long is fetus viable
- 2-3h of labor without progress
- normal progression is amnion, 15-20min, one foot, 15-20min, two feet, muzzle, head, shoulder, completion.
- ENTIRE PROCESS <75min.
- fetus viable for 8-10h after stage II begins. (so CLEAN before you palpate)
relationship between long axis of fetus and maternal birth canal (longitudinal anterior/posterior vs transverse dorsal/ventral)
- surface of maternal birth canal to which fetal spine is applied.
- can be dorso-sacral, dorso-pubic or dorso-ilial
- disposition of the head and limbs of the fetus (relative to normal birthing posture)
- abnormal flexion of a joint, etc.
- Bilateral hock flexion, lateral deviation of head and neck, etc.
- be clean
- be gentle
- use LOTS of lube
pushing fetus back into uterus to make room for obstetrical manipulation
correction of maldisposition of the fetus
which joint of fetus do you correct first?
- most proximal
- in cattle and horses, maybe camelids, forelimbs MUST be fully extended. Sm ruminants maybe, canines, felines and porcine don't really matter much
if you can pull anterior or posterior, you should pull
2 general causes of dystocia
- obstruction: physical correction.
- lack of productive uterine contractions: medical correction
causes of obstructive dystocia
- inadequate size of maternal pelvis: C-section. Splitting pelvis possible in heifers
- incomplete dilation of soft tissue of caudal repro tract: C-section or time +/- Ca
- Fetal maldisposition: incorrect PPP. Anterior or posterior both fine, though posterior more likely to cause dystocia.
- Uterine torsion
uterine torsion in bovine
- most common in this species. Occurs in mares and camelids pre-term with colic signs
- usu dx at term. Dorso-pubic positioned calf always has torsion (not in mare).
- usu singleton large calf. Unable to engage birth canal so cervix may not be dilated.
- Often after correction, calf still has lateral deviation of head and neck
- corrected by manual rotation, detorsion rod, scheffer method (plank in the flank), or C-section
HOw to correct bilateral hip flexion (as in breech)
- correct both hind limbs to hock flexion before correcting hock flexion to extension
- breech can cause dystocia in any species except SA and pig
cattle delivery tips (3)
- rotate calf so that sternum and hips both come out d/v
- birth canal breaks twice, so calf goes up, down, up. Pull dorsally.
- Angle of pelvis better if cow allowed to lie down.
mare delivery tips (3)
- vagina of mare is sensitive, traumatized by repeated entry. Use amnion between arm and vagina to reduce friction, also during delivery.
- uterine contractions are extremely powerful. May require GA and controlled vaginal delivery.
- neck and limbs of fetus are very long. C-section is risky and expensive. Fetotomies are important.
puppy/kitten delivery tips (3)
- puppies are fragile!
- Premature have low survival rates, so KNOW the DUE DATE
- angle of vagina is acute, pull downward
pig delivery tips (3)
- full bladder interferes
- downwards bend of uterus in large litters, causing unproductive contractions
- needle teeth of piglets make holding the face complicated
camelid delivery tips (2)
- neck of cria is extremely long and complicated to correct
- cervix is muscular and can be manually dilated
male puberty and testicle descent of dog
- both testes in scrotum at birth, if not, by 6mo.
- Puberty at 9mo
- ruminants: scrotal circumference
- stallion: total scrotal width (scrotal calipers) and/or ultrasound
accessory sex glands of
- dog: prostate, ampulla (?)
- tom: prostate, bulbourethral glands
- stallion, bull: prostate, ampulla, vesicular glands, bulbourethral glands
- boar: prostate, vesicular glands, bulbourethral glands
- all but dog have bulbourethral
- all have prostate
- boar has all but ampulla
semen collection in ruminants
AV or electroejaculator. Need training for AV
- semen color and volume
- motility analysis: total MOTILE sperm (% that are moving) and progressive motility (% moving forward).
- In ruminants, look at gross motility
- semen concentration: densimeter, nucleo-cell counter or hemocytometer. Need volume and concentration.
- sperm morphology: eosin nigrosine stain, count morphological defects.
which animals have fractionated semen
- boar, stallion and dog. (these also have the most volume)
- Cat, camelid, bull and ram don't.
semen collection in dog
- 5d sexual rest. If >10 you may want a second ejaculation.
- 62d spermatogenic cycle
- digital manipulation
- director cone (latex AV, more contamination) vs collection tube (may lose sperm-rich fraction and damage tip of glans penis
- More responsive with a teaser (can use frozen-thawed vaginal swabs from estrus bitch on perineal area). Can give PGF2alpha, can't give testosterone
- clean, grasp first first finger and thumb behind bulbus glandis (tie), pulse bulbus with other three fingers. Retract prepuce once partially erect. Detumesce and replace before kenneling.
- 1st fraction: presperm. during thrusting. Hard to separate from sperm-rich. Clear to cloudy. Dog will stop thrusting and try to tie
- 2nd fraction: sperm rich. milky-white, homogenous, 1-4ml. Yellow = urine or pus, red or brown = blood (trauma or dz)
- 3rd fraction: prostatic portion. Clear.
- pH: 6.5-7.0
- motility: ASAP, drop on slide. Low light. Total motility, progressive and speed.
- Normally >70% motile, >80% progressive and >80% "fast"
- 2nd fraction for concentration. Should be >300million. morphology
- >80% normal, 200 million total
BSE in stallions
- satisfactory, questionable, unsatisfactory
- No strict cut-off limits. Needs 1x10^9 or more progressively normal, morphologically normal sperm in SECOND of 2 ejaculates collected 1 hr apart after 1 week of sexual rest.
canine female repro tract
- ovary: 1-3cm caudal to each kidney, completely surrounded by ovarian bursa and fat deposits
- uterus: long and ventrally curved horns, corkscrew in diestrus, thickened/edematous in estrus
- cervix: may protrude into vagina, hangs dorsally.
- vagina: bottle-shaped, very long. Deep fornix with thick dorsal fold (pseudocervix).
- external urethral orifice: at vestibulovaginal junction
- vestibule: 5-6cm
- vulva and clitoris: labia are thick. Aim swab vertically and dorsally to avoid clitoral fossa.
- period when capability of reproduction is attained (first proestrus at 6-10mo in bitch)
- split heat - normal vaginal d/c for 5-7d, then disappear, then back 1-2wks later. NOT FOLLOWED BY OVULATION
proestrus in bitch
- serosanguineus d/c
- pheromonal secretions to attract male but not allow mounting
- edematous vulva and vaginal stroma
- vulva winks when touched
- "Flag" tail when perivulvar skin touched
estrus in bitch
- starts on LH surge day or after.
- vulva enlarged but softer
- d/c more straw-colored
- teasing males, males attracted, actively seeks males.
- urine marking
- flagging, lordosis, vulva points upward
- characterized by acceptance of male
diestrus in bitch
- ~2mo whether pregnant or pseudopregnant (can be up to 3mo).
- 3d before end of behavioral estrus
- higher P4 from CL
anestrus in bitch
- quiescent time, doesn't attract males. vulva small with minimal d/c.
Canine endocrine of estrus
Estrogen high in proestrus, drops towards end as P4 starts to rise. When both are low-ish is LH surge.
Vaginal smear performance, cells and what they mean (stages of cycle)
- cotton swab into dorsal vestibule or caudal vagina.
- Dorsocranial and rolled over dorsal mucosa in one direction to collect cells.
- roll on microscope 3 or 4 times. Air dry
- Basal cells: non-cornified, small and round, rarely seen.
- Parabasal cells: non-cornified, round to oval with normal-appearing nucleus (largest nucleus: cytoplasm ratio)
- Intermediate cells: non-cornified? Smaller more prominent nuclei
- Superficial cells: large epithelial cells. Borders are irregular or angulated. Dark, pyknotic nucleus (or even not distinguishable). cytoplasm has more straight sides.
- Anucleate cells: no nucleus, more square.
- proestrus: Erythrocytes and mix of epithelial types. May be neutrophils and bacteria. Late proestrus has more superficial and large intermediate. Thin epithelial lining
- Estrus: no neutrophils, few erythrocytes. >90% superficial cells. Background clear, no bacteria or debris, lots of clumping cells. Thickened vaginal epithelium with no inflammatory cells
- diestrus: abrupt drop of 20-50% is cytological diestrus. Parabasal, neutrophils. Can't tell from proestrus.
- anestrus: parabasal and intermediate. Hard to tell from diestrus and proestrus.
Timing for small ruminant and alpaca births
timing for pig birth
piglet/20-30mins. Placenta afterwards
timing for horse birth
20 mins, but if actually trying help after 6-8 mins!
timing of dog birth
- 4-36h from water breaking to first puppy
- puppy/30 mins but can be longer if not straining
Timing of cat birth
Can stop, just leave them alone! If you bring them in, you WILL get a C-section