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1. What is the optimal level of water fluoride?
2. Who set the standard for water fluoridation? What is the community water fluoridation based off?
- CDC and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
- Based on ambient air temperatures of geographic areas
3. What was the first material used for water fluoridation? Which of the various types of compounds are used in smaller communities?
Sodium fluoride (NaF)
4. Which compound is most frequently used for water fluoridation? Which is the least cost and easily handled compound for water fluoridation?
- fluorosilicic acid; low cost and ease of handling. most used
- Sodium fluorosilicate least cost
5. What is the relationship between cost per person of water fluoridation compared to the community the person receives the fluoridated water from?
- Cost of water fluoridation is usually expressed as the annual cost per person of the population being serve. An inverse relationship exists b/w the cost per person and the size of the population of a community.
- cost per person is lower in larger communities and higher in smaller communities
6. What other forms of fluoridation are there Condiments? Dairy products?
- salt fluoridation
- milk fluoridation
7. What is the added fluoride for dairy products per liter?
8. What is a gel-like substitute for APF?
Thixotropic; interproximal spaces
9. What are post-fluoridation instructions for patients?
NOT to rinse, eat, drink for 30min
10. How long does fluoride need to be applied for anticaries effect?
4min for maximal cariostatic benefits
11. When should Fluoride be applied to erupted teeth? How often should Fluoride be applied there after, in months?
- 12 months after eruption of primary maxillary incisors
- semiannual basis throughout the period of increased caries susceptibility
12. What age cohort is most recommended for fluoride varnish?
- <6 years
- 6-18 years
- older than 18 years 'low , moderate , high caries risk
13. How should fluoride rinses be used? Is it the only form of Fluoride one should receive? When should fluoride rinses be recommended to patients?
- dental public health programs
- children residing in areas in which the drinking water was deficient in fluoride.
- daily rinse
- for patients under medication with reduced salivation
- ortho appliance
- dental restorations
- gingival recession
- active caries, rampant
14. What symptoms present if fluoride is ingested?
- nausea and vomiting
- muscle tetany
15. What is the advantage of colored sealants?
- more precise placement of the sealant with visual appearance
- easier to monitor retention
16. What are dental tags?
- fingerlike depressions essential for retention in sealants
- projections of resin into the etched areas
17. How soon will sealants fail/fall off, if poor technique was applied? What are examples of poor technique?
- the first 3 months rapid loss of sealant is caused by faulty technique placement.
- no surface, not clean, dry
18. What is the best time to place sealants? Which teeth are typically sealed? Which teeth are best retained?
- fully erupted teeth
- occlusal surfaces premolars and molars
19. What are contraindications for dental sealants?
- patient behavior
- open, frank, carious lesion
- other surface of tooth
- large occlusal restoration
20. What type of surface is favorable for sealant retention? What helps prevent the failure against masticatory movements?
- maximum surface area
- deep, irregular pits and fissures prevent from masticatory failure
21. What is the cost difference between a sealant and a filling?
1.6 times more than sealing it
22. How does iron deficiency present in the oral cavity?
- pallor of the oral tissues and tongue.
- tongue appears shiny with blunted filiform papillae
23. What does zinc provide to the oral cavity?
- regulates inflammation by inhibiting the release of lysosomal enzymes and histamines.
- (deficiency can inhibit collagen formation, retard osteogenesis and bone matrix mineralization, reduce cell-mediated immunity)
24. What is cheilosis? And when does it present? With what mineral/vitamin deficiency?
- cracks in the corners of the mouth
- B-complex vitamin deficiency
25. What are potential causes of dental demineralization?
- excessive toothbrushing
- regurgitation of stomach acid
- gastro-esophageal reflux disease
- acid-containing foods or beverages
- carbonated beverages
26. What are the three local factors for dental decay to develop?
- susceptible tooth
- diet fermentable carbs
- specific cariogenic bacteria
27. How do dental providers recognize patients with eating disorders? What types of eating disorders are there? What should the dental provider say to patients when they seek for dental rehabilitation?
- pain and discomfort caused by dental complications.
- anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder
- empathetic and nonjudgmental
28. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes are at greater risk of what?
to develop oral infections and periodontal disease than the patient w/o diabetes.
29. What is a sweetener?
sugars or substances added to foods and beverages that provide a pleasurable taste and in some cases energy.
30. What does the taste receptor cell provide? Where does it relay information to?
- chemical detection of taste agents
- nerves messages the brain
31. What is sucrose? What is its common name in the household?
- nutritive sweetener and the most commonly used tabletop sweetener.
- table sugar
32. What are the typical roles of sugar?
- sweetening agent
- flavor blender and modifier
- texture and bodying agent
- dipersing/ lubricating agent
- caramelization/ color agent
- bulking agent
33. Which sugar is implicated in causing cavities? What is a fermentable carbohydrate?
sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose and all fermentable carbs
34. What is hereditary fructose intolerance? How do these patients react to certain sugars?
- genetic disease avoiding foods with fructose and sucrose
- persons experience nausea, vomiting, excessive sweating, malaise, tremor, coma, convulsions
35. What is a sugar alcohol also known as?
36. How do social norms and community expectations are predictors to what type of behavior? What is community intervention?
- individual behavior
- theory might be better able to predict behavior of the collective community than of one individual. social norms are more stable and provide strong normative beliefs to those in a close community.
37. What is the social learning theory? What makes it different from the other types of theories?
states that individuals do not learn or change behavior in a linera fashion. changes take place bidirectionally; environment, information, and behavior all affect one another.
38. What is external and internal locus of control?What is the main difference?
- is an extension of SLT it deals with perception of personal control over those elements and pertinent health issues.
- Internal locus occurs when individuals think their personal actions determine health status.
- External locus means individuals perceive others as being control of health decisions and health status.
- internal LOC individuals practice better oral hygiene and receive more dental services
39. What is the salutogenesis model? What are the two key contributing factors for health and disease?
- health terms of a continuum of ease to disease and the conditions surrounding the individual that provide coping resources.
- it closely examines the role of stressors and tension as contributing factors for health and disease.
40. How is learning defined as? Define each aspect?
- a dynamic process that involves
- motivation to learn
- knowledge retention
- transference; knowledge is applied to different settings
41. What are the six sources of adult motivation?
- social relationship; change behavior to meet people or improve social activities
- external expectations; desire to please someone in authority
- Social welfare; desire to improve society
- Personal advancement; improvement on the job or achievement of personal goal
- Escape stimulation; avoidance of boredom
- Cognitive interest; Learning for the sake of learning
42. What is a stressor? What are examples of these?
- source of disturbance that upsets a sense of equilibrium.
- can come from external or internal sources such as illness, hereditary factors, job stress, lack personal control
- they produce tension, perception of stress
43. What do smokers typically present with? Do they resolve on their own? What does smokeless tobacco present as in the oral tissue? What is its nickname?
- smokers are more likely to develop leukoplakia; premalignant lesion will resolve if smoking is discontinued.
- smokeless tobacco poses an oral cancer risk and smokeless tobacco-specific leukoplakia snuff dippers pouch.
44. What are clinical characteristics of smokers tissue? What disease are smokers prone to?
- precancerous lesions
- reduction of oxygen
- change in vasculature
- increase in proteolytic enzymes
- compromised PDL
- lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease
45. Why do smokers gingival tissue hide periodontal disease? What does the immune system do in their system?
- reduction of bleeding upon probing, causing misinterpretation of periodontal health.
- smoking alters the bodys ability to mount a host response at both the local and systemic levels by changes in vasculature.
46. Second hand smoke exposes how much more chemicals compared to mainstream smoke?
it can be up to 100 times higher
47. What is a poor man’s cigarette? Where are they imported from?
- bidis are small, hand-rolled cigarettes made from flakes and dust of dark tobacco leaves.
- imported from India or Southeast Asia.
48. Which athletes were the first to use mouthguards?
49. What is the purpose of the Academy of Sports Dentistry? And what is their purpose?
founded in 1983 to address the prevention of oral and facial injuries during athletic endeavors.
50. How do mouthguards work? What do they prevent?
- they work by moving soft tissue in the oral cavity away from the teeth and into the upper jaw, preventing laceration and bruising of the lips an cheeks, especially who wear ortho appliance.
- prevent chipping, fracturing, displacement, avulsion