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  1. What is a tissue?
     A collection of cells with similar structure that’s function is to carry out specialized activities.
  2. 4 basic categories of tissues in human body
    •  lines body cavities and ducts
    •  No blood supply (avascular)
    •  Anchored in place by a basement membrane
    •  Functions are to protect, absorp, diffuse, secrete, and lubricate.
    • Forms secretory portions of most glands
    • In the outer surface of skin, lining of GI tract, respiratory tract, and lining of blood vessels
  4. Types of Epithelial tissue
  5. Image Upload 1simple Cuboidal
    • one layer of deep, square (box- or cube- like) cells
    • found: surface of ovaries, ducts of some glands
  6. Image Upload 2Simple squamous
    • 1 layer of flat, scale-like cells; have central nuclei;
    • adapted for diffusion and filtration
    • found: inside lungs, blood vessels, capillaries; lens of eye; eardrum
  7. Image Upload 3Simple columnar
    • one layer of long, tall cells (like a fence); nuclei of neighboring cells are usually found at same height along bottom of cells;
    • May have extensions of the membrane called microvilli (brush border);
    • May have goblet cells which produce mucus;
    • May have cilia on outside of membrane to propel particles (and mucus) along surface of the cells
    • found: lining the digestive tract – with microvilli from stomach to anus; Ciliated columnar epithelium is found in portions of the upper respiratory tract, and the uterus
    • Notice how the bottom layer
    • (Red Line), looks cuboidal in nature
    • but the because the top layer is columnar,
    • and it is the top layer which determines the classification, this is called stratified columnar.
    • Green line - Top layer
    • Red Line - Bottom layer
  10. Image Upload 5Pseudostratified columnar
    • cells appear to be stratified but are not;
    • nuclei are at different levels and some cells do not reach the surface.
    • found: Eustachian tubes (internal auditory tubes) and in the upper respiratory tract; nonciliated found in male urethra
  11. Connective Tissue
    •  supports, protects and binds other tissues together
    •  has few cells that are widely separated by large amounts of material between the cells
    •  e.g. adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, blood
  12. Connective Tissue Cell types
    • 1. Fibroblast
    • 2. Macrophage
    • 3. Mast cells
    • 4. Blood cells
  13. 1. Fibroblast
     large star shaped cell whose function is to produce intercellular matrix; this matrix is largely the protein collagen
  14. 2. Macrophage
     a phagocyte attached to fibroblasts
  15. 3. Mast cells
     found near blood vessels for the inflammatory response
  16. Image Upload 64. Blood cells
     RBC's and WBC's and platelets
  17. Loose - connective tissue
  18. Image Upload 7Areolar –
    found beneath the skin; has white collagen and yellow elastic fibers; flexible
  19. Image Upload 8Adipose –
    • this type of connective tissue has very little intercellular matrix. Each cell contains a large drop of fat that pushes the cytoplasm (and nucleus) into a thin band around the outer edge of the cell.
    • This fat is stored as a food source, as insulation, and as a cushion
  20. Image Upload 9Dense - connective tissue
    • Tendons - connect muscle to bone
    • Ligaments - connect bones to bone
    • connective tissue which is closely packed with high amounts of collagen and elastic fibers in matrix; tough; periosteum, fascia
    • Cartilage
    • Hyaline cartilage
    • - “gristle” - gives shape (to nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi), connects (ribs) and is found on ends on bones in joints; (most cartilage is this type)
  21. Image Upload 10Fibrous cartilage
    contains fibers; Found in vertebral discs
  22. Image Upload 11Elastic cartilage
    has elastic fibers; found in ear (pinna), epiglottis
  23. Image Upload 12Blood
    hemopoietic tissue
    •  consists of elongated cells that are capable of contracting
    •  produces the movement of body parts
    •  e.g. skeletal muscle, cardiac, smooth muscle
  25. Image Upload 13Muscle Tissue
    Striated - makes up skeletal muscles; (voluntary muscles)cells have striations or stripes and many nuclei;
  26. Image Upload 14Smooth muscles
    makes up the walls of hollow organs, as in respiratory, digestive reproductive tracts and blood vessels; involuntary muscles
  27. Image Upload 15Cardiac muscle
    in heart only; resembles striated muscle tissue but also has branches; Involuntary muscle
    •  consists of neurons and associated support cells
    •  they’re capable of conducting electrical impulses between body sites
    •  e.g. brain, spinal cord, and nerves
  29. Image Upload 16Nervous Tissue
    • makes up the brain, spinal cord and nerves;
    • initiates and sends nerve impulses;
    • directs and coordinates all body’s activities
    • Neuron - principal cell of nervous system
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