DCASE UNIT 6A 2017

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  1. CHEMICAL WARFARE (U.S. POLICY) PROHIBITS
    • Development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention or transfer of chemical weapons.
    • Use of chemical weapons
    • Engagement in Military preparations to use weapons
  2. CHEMICAL WARFARE (U.S. POLICY) ALLOWS
    • Research & development for industrial, agricultural, medical or pharmaceutical activity
    • Defensive research related to the protection against chemical weapons
    • Agents used for riot control purposes (Riot Control Agents – RCA)
  3. NUCLEAR WARFARE (U.S. POLICY) PROHIBITS
    Use or threat to use nuclear weapons

    Military or other preparations to use weapons

    Development, testing, production, acquisition, deployment, stockpiling, retention or transfer of weapons, components, and delivery vehicles

    Nuclear weapons research
  4. NUCLEAR WARFARE (U.S. POLICY) ALLOWS
    • Disarmament research.
    • No more than 1000 warheads in each of the stockpiles of Russia and the U.S.; no more than 100 warheads in each of the stockpiles of China, France, and the United Kingdom
  5. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE (U.S. POLICY) PROHIBITS
    • Offensive research
    • Stockpiling agents
    • Development of weapons systems
    • Use under any conditions
  6. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE (U.S. POLICY) ALLOWS
    • Defensive research
    • Stockpiling of Antidotes
  7. WHAT IS AN AEROSOL?
    Finely divided particles of liquids or solids that are suspended in air, and which behave as a gas.
  8. WHAT DOES PERCUTANEOUS MEAN?
    Can be absorbed through unbroken skin or can injure the skin directly.
  9. WHAT IS VOLATILITY?
    Measure of how readily an agent evaporates
  10. WHAT DOES COMMUNICABILITY MEAN?
    Ability of a pathogen to be transferred from one individual to another within a target population.
  11. The period of time required for the pathogens to establish themselves in the body of the host and to produce disease symptoms is know as what?
    INCUBATION PERIOD
  12. A characterization of the length of time an agent released into the environment can retain it’s ability to cause injury or illness.
    PERSISTENCY
  13. Ability of infectious agents to permeate (penetrate) and remain present throughout due to their size.
    PERVASIVENESS
  14. The relative ability of infectious agents to produce disease
    VIRULENCE
  15. The separation of potentially exposed group in order to limit the area of exposure of an infectious agent.
    QUARANTINE
  16. An impairment of the normal state of the living animal or plant body or one of its parts that interrupts or modifies the performance of the vital functions
    DISEASE
  17. A microorganism which is capable of producing disease.
    INFECTIOUS AGENT (PATHOGEN)
  18. WHAT ARE THE GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS?
    • LOW AGENT CONCENTRATIONS REQUIRED
    • DELAYED EFFECTS
    • PERVASIVE
    • DIFFICULT TO DETECT
    • EASY TO PRODUCE
    • DOES NOT DESTROY MATERIAL
    • HIGHLY WEATHER DEPENDENT
  19. WHAT ARE THE WEATHER EFFECTS OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS?
    • SUNLIGHT = DEATH (UV)
    • TEMPERATURE > 170°F GENERALLY KILLS
    • HUMIDITY NEEDED FOR LONGER LIFE
    • WIND AFFECTS DISPERSAL
    • RAIN WASHES AGENTS OUT
  20. WHAT IS THE DOWNWIND HAZARD AREA FOR BIOLOGICAL AGENTS?
    150NM
  21. WHAT ARE THE METHODS OF TRANSMISSION OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS?
    • Aerosol Spray
    • Direct Contact
    • Food and Water
    • Vectors
  22. WHAT ARE THE CATEGORIES OF INFECTIOUS AGENTS?
    • BACTERIA
    • RICKETTSIAE
    • VIRUSES
    • FUNGI
    • PROTOZOA
    • PRIONS
    • RESEARCH HAS SHOWN THAT ONLY BACTERIA AND VIRUSES ARE KNOWN POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS (BWA)
  23. The most militarily significant of the infectious agents. 

    Molecule of genetic material (non-living) Extremely small.  Can pass through our filters
    Responsible for 60% of all infectious diseases including:
    Ebola
    Monkey Pox
    Rift Valley Virus
    Yellow Fever
    Small Pox
    VIRUSES
  24. The least militarily significant of the infectious agents.
    Primarily used to destroy crops
    Includes: molds / mildews / yeast
    Responsible for: Wheat Rust / Potato Blight / Corn Smut
    FUNGI
  25. Responsible for: Tularemia / Plague / Anthrax / Cholera

    Dissemination method:
    Aerosol Spray / Direct Contact / Food and Water / Vectors
    BACTERIA
  26. Disseminated by:
    Tick/fly bites (vectors)
    Contaminated Water (covert ops)
    Inhalation (aerosol spray)
    TULAREMIA
  27. Found in rodents and their fleas
    Pneumonic (inhalational) form: greatest BWA potential (communicable)
    Bubonic form spread by vectors
    PLAGUE
  28. Incubation period 1-7 days
    Duration of disease 1-5 days
    Kill rate 10-100%
    Anthrax
  29. Most common naturally occurring (bacteria found in soil)

    Spores enter through a break in the skin
    CUTANEOUS ANTHRAX
  30. Initial signs are nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, and fever & chills — followed by severe abdominal pain & swelling, vomiting blood, and severe diarrhea.
    GASTROINTESTINAL ANTHRAX
  31. Initial symptoms may develop in 1-6 days, and resemble the common cold or flu: sore throat, mild fever, muscle aches, & shortness of breath
    INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX
  32. Single celled parasites
    require a living host
    extremely small (0.3 - 0.5 microns)
    Transmitted by ticks (vectors)
    Responsible for:
    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever / Typhus
    RICKETTSIAE
  33. Spread by ticks (vectors)
    Originally known as “black measles”
    3-5% cases still fatal
    Symptoms (2-14 days):
    Fever / Headache / Abdominal pain/vomiting
    Can be treated with antibiotics
    ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER
  34. Since 10,000 B.C.

    Last naturally occurring case was in 1977

    Disseminated by:
    Direct Contact
    Aerosol spray

    Vaccine available

    Symptoms 12 to 14 days after exposure
    Survivors are permanently scarred
    No treatment after symptoms are exposed
    Vaccination 3 to 7 days after exposure offers protection
    SMALLPOX
  35. 1976:

    first outbreak of Ebola
    caused 431 deaths in Zaire and Sudan

    Disseminated by:

    Direct Contact
    Aerosol spray

    No cure or anti-virus
    Mortality rate up to 89%
    Those who survive for 2 weeks often make a slow recovery
    EBOLA
  36. Single cell organisms

    Have motile ability

    Larger than bacteria

    Live in most habitats

    Strategic application:
    Food
    Water

    Responsible for:

    Amebic Dysentery
    Malaria
    PROTOZOA
  37. Identified in 1980’s

    Composed of misformed proteins

    No known therapies

    Resistant to heat and chemicals

    Characterized by loss of motor skills, dementia, paralysis, wasting and eventual death

    Responsible for:

    Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) (Mad Cow Disease)

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

    Gerstmann-Strussler-Schienker Syndrome (GSS)
    PRIONS
  38. INFECTIOUS BIOLOGICAL AGENTS DEFENSE
    • Active Defense
    • Requires accurate intelligence
    • Avoid possible attack areas
    • Pre-emptive strike
    • Passive Defense
    • Before the attack
    • During the attack
    • After the attack
  39. WHAT DOES THE DCA DO BEFORE THE ATTACK?
    DCA works with the XO

    • Personal hygiene
    • Area sanitation

    • DCA works with XO and Medical
    • Immunizations up to date
    • Vaccines/antidotes not expired

    TRAINING!!!
  40. WHAT ACTIONS DO PERSONNEL TAKE DURING THE ATTACK?
    • Don Individual Protection
    • MCU-2/P Mask
    • JSLIST (Joint Service Light Weight Integrated Suit Technology) and CBR IPE
    • Shipboard Protective Measures
    • Avoidance: 
    • Circle William
    • Counter Measure Washdown System (CMWD)
    • Collective Protective System (CPS)
  41. WHAT ACTIONS ARE TAKEN AFTER AN ATTACK?
    Decontaminate Personnel (showers)

    • Decontaminate the Ship
    • HTH primary
    • Soap & water secondary

    • Decontaminate Food
    • Prepared (discard)
    • Unopened (if possible)

    Decontaminate Water

    Quarantine Potentially Exposed Personnel
  42. Non living organisms. Chemical compounds of biological origin that may be lethal, when inhaled or ingested, or incapacitating on skin contact…by-products of living organisms, or their lab-produced synthetic equivalents.
    POISON
  43. The amount of biological or chemical agent administered (or received) per body weight, in a given period of time.
    DOSE
  44. A minimum number of organisms (pathogens) required to produce infection in a human host.
    INFECTIVE DOSE
  45. Dose at which a “normal person” is expected to die.

    LD50 – Median Lethal Dose. Dose at which 50 % of exposed, unprotected personnel are expected to die.

    LD100 – Dose at which 100 % of exposed, unprotected personnel are expected to die.
    LETHAL DOSE
  46. WHAT ARE THE PROPERTIES OF BIOLOGICAL TOXINS?
    • Deadlier than Chemical Nerve Agents
    • Up to 100 times
    • Variable Persistency:
    • Short or long
    • Easy to produce
    • Stable
    • Long term storage
    • Dual use equipment
    • Production
    • Dissemination
  47. WHAT ARE THE METHODS OF DISSEMINATION FOR BIOLOGICAL TOXINS?
    • Aerosol Spray
    •     Line Source
    • Munitions
    •     Point Source 
    •     Multiple Point Source
  48. WHAT ARE THE EMPLOYMENT ADVANTAGES OF BIO TOXINS?
    • Smaller Payloads Required
    • (deadlier than nerve agents)
    • Greater Area Coverage
    • (downwind hazard = 150nm)
    • Limited Detection Capability
    • Little or No Medical Protection
  49. BIOLOGICAL GROUPING BY SOURCE
    • MYCOTOXINS
    •      -Fungi

    • BACTERIAL TOXINS
    •     -Exotoxin (secreted by bacteria)
    •     -Endotoxin (within bacteria cell)

    • ALGAL TOXINS
    •     -From Algae

    • ANIMAL TOXINS (VENOMS)
    •    -Spiders, Frogs, Snakes
    •    -Marine Dinoflagellates (shellfish, mollusks)

    PLANT TOXINS
  50. Affect the Central Nervous System and interfere with transmission of nerve impulses

    –Examples: Botulinum Toxin, Tetanus Toxin and Saxitoxin
    NEURTOXINS
  51. Cause cellular destruction or interfere with metabolic processes.
    Necrotoxins & Hemotoxins
    Example: Ricin Toxin
    CYTOXINS
  52. Attack the intestinal tract.
    Example: Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) (the cause of most food poisoning)
    ENTEROTOXINS
  53. Alter cell membrane structure and function.
    Only toxin posing a percutaneous hazard
    Act similar to chemical blister agent
    Limited to tricothecene mycotoxins . Example: 12 toxin
    DERMATOXINS
  54. WHAT MEDICAL TREATMENTS ARE AVAILABLE FOR BIO TOXINS?
    • Palliative (Supportive) Treatment
    • Treat symptoms shock / fever

    • Ignores cause
    • Intensive Treatment (ICU)

    • Artificially maintain critical organ functions
    • cardiac / respiratory

    • Death is imminent
    • Antitoxins

    If available and identified
  55. Neurotoxin
    White powder or clear crystal
    Most lethal toxin known to man
    Rate of Action

    Ingested: 12-72 hrs; Inhaled: 3-6 hrs
    Symptoms (appear > 6 hours to two weeks)

    Muscle weakness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting,  fever, double/blurred vision, droopy eyelids, dry mouth
    Death Rate >60% (from respiratory failure)

    Anti-toxin available from CDC

    Vaccine available

     
    Stability/ Persistency
    open air: 12 hrs; water: 1 week
    BOTOX
  56. Cytotoxin (< 1 mg lethal dose)
    Rate of Action
    Ingested 45 min
    Inhaled 6-10 hrs
    Symptoms/Effects of Exposure
    cramps, bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, low blood pressure
    Death Rate > 60%
    Prevents cells from making proteins
    victims last  3-12 days or recover
    RICIN TOXIN
  57. WHAT ARE THE FOUR METHODS OF DETECTING BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS (BWA)?
    • Joint Biological Point Detection System (JBPDS)
    • Dry Filter Unit (DFU) with Hand Held Assays (HHAs)
    • Biological Response Kit (BRK) with HHA
    • Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic Systems (JBAIDS)
  58. WHAT TYPE OF IDENTIFICATION DOES THE DFU / BRK & HHA PROVIDE?
    PRESUMPTIVE ID
  59. WHAT KIND OF ID DOES JOINT BIOLOGICAL AGENT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM(JBAIDS) PROVIDE?

    FOUND ON CVN, LHD, LHA OR SHORE SITE
    CONFIRMATORY
  60. WHAT TYPE OF ID DOES BIO DEFENSE RESEARCH DIRECTORATE PROVIDE?

    US ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES (ARIID)

    CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL (CDC)
    DEFINITIVE ID
  61. _____ is the first fully automated rapid detection and warning system that provides joint U.S. services with the capability to operate and survive in a Biological Warfare Agent (BWA) threat environment.
    • JOINT BIOLOGICAL POINT DETECTION SYSTEM
    • (JBPDS)
  62. WHEN DO ALL SHIPS USE THE DFU?
    • Quarterdeck Area in Foreign Port & During Transit of Straits/Rivers
    • Flight Deck or Helo Hangar in Foreign Port or while at Sea
    • Mail Room while Overseas
    • Decon Stations
    • CPS Fan Rooms
    • Amphibious Ships:
    • Troop Passageways & Well Deck Areas during Marine & Material On-load
  63. HOW LONG DO YOU HAVE TO WAIT BEFORE YOU START SURVEILLANCE / SAMPLING WITH THE DFU?
    • Allow a minimum 15 minute run time before testing
    • 15 minutes – 12 hours: Collect sample at 12 hour mark from DFU filters
    • 2 min: Allow for sample prep using DFU Kit
    • 15 min: Presumptive Identification using HHA’s
    • Transport sample to LAB: Confirmatory Sample
  64. CAN THE DFU ACHIEVE PRESUMPTIVE ID?
    NO!  The DFU alone can not achieve a Presumptive ID!!!  IT NEEDS THE HHA
  65. HOW LONG WILL THE HHA LAST IF REFRIGERATED?
    Refrigerated (39°F/4°C): Will last three years from date on packaging
  66. WHO IS ON THE BIOLOGICAL DETECTION SAMPLING TEAM?
    1 Sampler (Lead)

    1 Assistant

    1 Boundaryman/Packager
  67. WHAT IS THE PPE USED FOR INDIVIDUAL? SHIP? DECONTAMINATION?
    • Individual
    • MCU-2/P Mask
    • JSLIST (Joint Service Light Weight Integrated Suit Technology) may not be required

    • Ship
    • CMWDS
    • CPS
    • Circle William

    • Avoidance
    • Decontamination
    • Primary – HTH Solution
    • Secondary – Soap & Water
  68. A man-made chemical that is intended for use in military operations to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate people because of their physiological effect.
    CHEMICAL AGENTS
  69. Decomposition of an agent by reaction with water.
    HYDROLYSIS
  70. The metabolic process, given sufficient time, removes some of the agents from the body.
    DETOXIFICATION
  71. Amount of a chemical agent vapor or aerosol present in a unit volume of air.
    CONTAMINATION CONCENTRATION
  72. to crush, beat or grind something into an aerosol (e.g. atomization).
    MICRO-PULVERIZATION
  73. A measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow.
    VISCOSITY
  74. Cause either deaths or serious injuries that make personnel unavailable for a long period of time.
    CASUALTY AGENT
  75. Prevent personnel from performing their duties effectively for hours to days after exposure.
    INCAPACITATING AGENT
  76. A measure of how readily an agent evaporates.
    VOLATILITY
  77. Disrupt the transmission of nerve impulses and produce systemic effects.
    NERVE AGENT
  78. (Vesicant) Can produce both damage to body tissue in the area of contact, causing severe pain, and systemic effects.
    BLISTER AGENT
  79. Attack an enzyme that is important in the transfer of oxygen from the bloodstream to the cells of the body, causing cells to be starved for oxygen (anoxia).
    BLOOD AGENT
  80. Fills lungs with fluid, producing an oxygen deficiency (anoxia) and severe systemic effects.
    CHOKING AGENT
  81. Suppresses or overstimulates the central nervous system.
    PSYCHOCHEMICAL AGENT
  82. Synthetic products similar to chemicals released by the central nervous system in response to strong emotional stimulus.
    PHYSIOCHEMICAL
  83. Riot control agent causing a series of symptoms from eye irritation to vomiting.
    VOMITING AGENT
  84. Riot control agent which causes tears to flow and may also irritate the skin, especially moist parts of the body.
    TEAR AGENT
  85. WHAT ARE THE CHEMICAL AGENT CHARACTERISTICS?
    • HIGHER CONCENTRATIONS REQUIRED
    • IMMEDIATE EFFECTS
    • LESS PERVASIVE
    • TEMPERATURE INFLUENCES VOLATILITY
    • WIND AFFECTS DISPERSAL
    • RAIN PREVENTS SOME ABSORPTION
    • DIFFICULT TO DETECT
    • EASY TO PRODUCE
    • HIGHLY WEATHER DEPENDENT
  86. WHAT IS THE DOWNWIND HAZARD AREA FOR CHEMICAL AGENTS?
    35NM
  87. WHAT ARE THE METHODS OF DISSEMINATION FOR CHEMICAL AGENTS?
    • Aerosol Spray
    • Line Source
    • Munitions
    • Point Source
    • Multiple Point Source
  88. WHAT ARE THE TACTICAL GROUPINGS OF CHEMICAL AGENTS?
    • CASUALTY CAUSING
    • NERVE
    • BLISTER 
    • BLOOD
    • CHOKING

    • INCAPACITATING 
    • PSYCHOCHEMICAL 
    • PHYSIOCHEMICAL

    • CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS 
    • RIOT CONTROL AGENTS (RCAs)
    • TEAR / VOMITING 
    • HERBICIDES
    • TRAINING
  89. WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF NERVE AGENTS?
    • G SERIES PERSISTENT / NON-PERSISTENT: SARIN (GB) US (NON-PERSISTENT)
    • SOMAN (GD) RUSSIAN (PERSISTENT) 
    • V SERIES PERSISTENT: VX (US) / VR-55 (TGD) RUSSIAN
  90. WHAT ARE THE NERVE AGENT PHYSICAL PROPERTIES?
    • Variable Persistency
    • Gas (minutes)
    • liquid
    • solid (days)
    • Odorless
    • Tasteless
    • Percutaneous & Inhalation hazard
    • Slow hydrolysis (detoxification)
    • Rapidly destroyed by decontaminating agents
  91. First aid for chemical nerve agent exposure
    Two phases
    Pre treatment
    Post exposure

    ONLY FOR NERVE AGENTS!!!!!!!
    MEDICINALS
  92. WHAT IS TAKEN DURING THE PRE-TREATMENT  OF CHEMICAL AGENTS?
    • Pyridostigmine Bromide (PB)
    • Creates reserve of AchE
    • 1 blister pack per person
    • 21 tabs3 per day (every 8 hrs
  93. Colorless liquid and vapor
    Odorless
    Slow detoxification
    Rapid acting
    Methods of entry
    eyes
    skin
    nose
    Protection
    MCU-2P mask
    JSLIST
    SARIN (GB)
  94. _____ is the most volatile of all nerve agents.

    Symptoms appear within a few seconds after exposure of the vapor form, and within a few minutes to up to 18 hours after exposure to the liquid form.
    SARIN (GB)
  95. Colorless liquid and vapor
    Fruity or camphor smell
    Slow detoxification
    Rapid acting
    Methods of entry
    eyes
    skin
    nose
    Protection
    MCU-2P mask
    JSLIST
    SOMAN (GD)
  96. _____   is more volatile than VX, but less volatile than Sarin.

    Primarily a liquid exposure hazard.

    Symptoms appear within a few seconds after exposure of the vapor form, and within a few minutes to up to 18 hours after exposure to the liquid form.
    SOMAN (GD)
  97. Amber colored liquid (motor oil)
    Odorless
    Slow detoxification
    Rapid acting
    Methods of entry
    eyes
    skin
    Protection
    MCU-2P mask
    JSLIST
    VX
  98. ______ is the most lethal of all nerve agents.
    ______is the least volatile of all nerve agents.

    Primarily a liquid exposure hazard, but if it is heated to very high temperatures, it can turn into small amounts of vapor.
    Symptoms appear within a few seconds after exposure of the vapor form, and within a few minutes to up to 18 hours after exposure to the liquid form
    VX
  99. WHAT ARE THE MILD SYMPTOMS OF NERVE AGENT EXPOSURE?
    • Sudden headache
    • Reduced vision
    • Unexplained runny nose
    • Drooling
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Stomach cramps
    • Nausea
    • Muscular twitching
  100. WHAT ARE THE SEVERE SYMPTOMS OF NERVE AGENTS?
    • Strange/Confused Behavior
    • Gurgling Sounds
    • Pinpointed Pupils
    • Red Eyes/Tears
    • Vomiting
    • Severe Muscle Twitching
    • Involuntary Urination & Defecation
    • Convulsions
    • Breathing Stopped
  101. WHAT MEDICINALS ARE AVAILABLE FOR POST EXPOSURE OF NERVE AGENTS?
    • Atropine Sulfate (Atropine)
    • 16mg per person
    • 3 auto injectors (2mg each)
    • Remaining 10 mg in ampoules maintained by medics
    • Pralidoxime Chloride (2 pam Cl)
    • 900mg per person
    • 3 auto injectors 300mg each
    • Diazepam (valium)
    • Convulsion Antidote Nerve Agent (CANA)
    • Controls nervous system convulsions
    • From nerve agents
    • From using all 3 atropine injectors
    • 1 auto injector per person

    NOT GIVEN OUT TO CREW BEFORE HAND; MEDICAL WILL ADMINISTER
  102. A broad spectrum skin decontamination product personal use after exposure or suspected exposure to certain nerve agents, blister agents.

    3 individually packaged sponges per pack.
    Authorization is 138% SMD
    1 pack per person
    33% for training
    REACTIVE SKIN DECONTAMINATION LOTION (RSDL)
  103. WHAT ARE THE IMMEDIATE ACTIONS FOR NERVE AGENTS?
    • Protect Yourself
    • Stop breathing & don mask
    • Remove any liquid or skin contamination (RSDL)
    • Protect Others
    • Sound alarm
    • Mask Victim
    • Identify Symptoms
    • mild case in self
    • severe case in others
    • Treat symptoms accordingly (Buddy Aide or Self Aide)
    • Self: 1 Atropine/2 pam-Cl, wait 10-15 min. Administer remaining 2 if symptoms persist
    • Buddy: All 3 Atropine/2 pam-Cl
    • Report locations of injured
    • Move injured if time permits
    • Continue with mission
  104. WHAT ARE THE THREE TYPES OF BLISTER AGENTS?
    • MUSTARDS (DELAYED BURNS): LEVENSTEIN (H)
    • NITROGEN MUSTARD (HN3) 
    • ARSENICALS (BURNS IN 1-2 MIN): LEWISITE (L) 
    • PHENYLDICHLOROARSINE (PD)
    • URTICANTS (IMMEDIATE BURNS):
    • PHOSGENE OXIME (CX)
  105. Cause blistering of the skin and mucous membranes on contact.

    Military designations are H, HD, and HT.

    Mustard agents were introduced in WWI as a chemical warfare agent.
    MUSTARD AGENTS
  106. Very Persistent (days to weeks)
    Oily liquid or dusty agent
    Colorless to yellow
    Smells like garlic or horseradish
    Heavier than water (small droplets tend to float)
    Slow hydrolysis
    Neutralized by HTH
    MUSTARD AGENT PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
  107. No immediate pain
    Skin reddens in 4-6 hrs
    Blisters form in 1-2 days
    Healing takes 3-8 weeks
    Lung tissue contact rare
    (Dusty agents)
    MUSTARD AGENTS SYMPTOMS
  108. Blister Agent, Very Persistent (days to weeks)
    Liquid, colorless to brown
    Smells like geraniums
    vapors may cause sneezing/irritation
    React with water to form less toxic substances
    Neutralized by HTH
    ARSENICAL AGENT PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
  109. Immediate pain with eye contact

    Blindness if not removed in 1 min
    Pain in 10-20 sec on skin contact
    Pain continues for 48-72 hrs
    Deep tissue burns (blood blisters)
    Bonus effects
    Heavy metal poisoning
    internal bleeding
    PD also causes vomiting
    ARSENICAL SYMPTOMS
  110. Exposure to a large dose of arsenicals by any route

    may result in the following additional health effects:
    Loss of consciousness
    Convulsions
    Kidney failure
    Paralysis
    Respiratory failure, possibly death
    ARSENICAL SYMPTOMS
  111. Blister Agent, Non-persistent (the exception)
    2 hrs in soil, less in water and on exposed surfaces
    Solid/Liquid
    colorless or crystalline
    Disagreeable Odor
    Violently Irritating
    URTICANT PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
  112. Immediate pain at point of contact
    Reactions occurs in 30 sec
    Skin bleaches white and lifeless
    Area turns brown within 24 hrs
    Scabs form in 1 week
    Healing takes 3 weeks
    URTICANT SYMPTOMS
  113. BLISTER AGENT IMMEDIATE ACTIONS
    • Protect Yourself
    • Stop breathing & don mask
    • Remove any liquid (RSDL)
    • Remove from eyes by flushing with water
    • Protect Others
    • Sound alarm
    • If contaminated report to CCA
    • Treatment same as conventional chemical burns
    • Continue with mission
    • Additional Medical Action
    • Antibiotics, rest & ointments
  114. BLOOD AGENT PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • Block oxygen transfer from blood to cell tissue
    • Non-persistent
    • <15min hazard duration
    • Gas colorless
    • Inhalation hazard only
    • Degrade mask filters
    • Smells like bitter almonds
  115. WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF BLOOD AGENTS?
    • Hydrogen Cyanide
    • Capital Punishment
    • Cyanogen Chloride
    • Union Carbide
  116. Colorless vapor
    lighter than air
    Liquid under rare conditions
    floats
    can be absorbed through skin
    Smells like crushed peach kernels
    Rapid acting
    Incapacitates in 1-2 min
    death  within 15 min
    Protection
    MCU-2/P mask (degrades C2 filters)
    HYDROGEN CYANIDE
  117. Colorless vapor
    heavier than air
    Liquid under rare conditions
    stable in water
    sinks
    Highly irritating to nose and eyes
    Rapid acting
    Incapacitates in 1-2 min
    death within 15 min
    Bonus Effect
    Changes to HCl (acid) in blood stream
    Protection
    MCU-2/P mask (degrades C2 filters)
    CYANOGEN CHLORIDE
  118. WHAT ARE THE IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF BLOOD AGENTS?
    • Irritation of nose, throat, eyes
    • Stimulated breathing
    • Headache
    • Giddiness
    • Dizziness
    • Increased pulse rate
    • Skin flushes red
    • Violent convulsions occur in 20-30 sec
    • Breathing ceases in 1 min
    • Heart stops beating in 1-5 min
    • Treatment is limited
    • Protect Yourself
    • Stop breathing & don mask
    • Protect Others
    • Sound alarm
    • Buddy Aid
    • Report to Decon Station upon exposure
    • Additional Medical Treatment (if available)
    • Assisted Ventilation, methemglobin, sodium nitrite, triphosphate, oxygen, antibiotics
    • Continue with mission
  119. WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF CHOKING AGENTS?
    • Phosgene (CG)
    • Diphosgene (DP)
    • Chlorine (CL)
    • Dimethylsulfate (D-stoff)

    Choking agents cause “ Dry Land Drowning”
  120. WHAT ARE THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CHOKING AGENTS?
    Non-persistent

    • 10-20 min hazard duration
    • Gas
    • Colorless
    • Inhalation hazard only
    • Sweet Odor
    • Musty hay
    • Fresh cut grass
    • Fresh corn
  121. WHAT ARE THE MILD EFFECTS OF CHOKING AGENTS?
    • Minor exposure causes:
    • Irritation of nose, throat, lungs
    • Chest pains
    • Tearing eyes
    • Dry throat
    • Nausea/vomiting
    • Headache
  122. WHAT ARE THE SEVERE EFFECTS OF CHOKING AGENTS?
    Pulmonary Edema (“Dry land drowning”)

    • Bonus effect - heart attack
    • Severe exposure Causes:
    • Violent convulsions
    • Coma
    • death
    • Limited treatment options
  123. IMMEDIATE ACTIONS WITH CHOKING AGENTS
    • Protect Yourself
    • Stop breathing & don mask
    • Protect Others
    • Sound alarm
    • Place casualty in upright seated position
    • Report to Decon Station
    • Additional Medical Treatment (if available)
    • Steroids (Corticosteroids), Rest, Oxygen, Antibiotics
    • Continue with mission
  124. WHAT ARE THE TWO INCAPACITATING AGENTS?
    • Psychochemicals
    • Fentanyls
    • Pain Killers, LSD
    • Benzodiazepine (BZ)
    • Physiochemicals
  125. WHAT ARE THE THREE CHEMICAL DETECTION AND ID CATEGORIES?
    • STANDOFF
    • POINT
    • MONITORING
  126. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF STANDOFF DETECTION?
    Purpose: provides advanced warning

    Tactical intelligence determines level of countermeasure preparation

    Conserves critical manpower resources
  127. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF POINT DETECTION?
    • Purpose: to identify the physical arrival of chemical agents at a designated location
    • Methods
    • Automatic (IPDS/IPDS-LR)/Manual (M-8/M-9)
    • Periodic monitoring (M-8/M-9)
  128. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF MONITORING?
    • Purpose: To establish the presence or absence of chemical agent in vapor form in the atmosphere or in liquid form on a surface.
    • Monitoring techniques used in surveys to:
    • verify it is safe to remove protective masks
    • during personnel decontamination
    • Detectors: M-8, M-9, M256-A1/A2
  129. ____is a fixed-point detection system used to detect and alarm for chemical nerve, blister, and blood agent vapor hazards.
    IPDS-LR
  130. Detects the presence liquid nerve & blister agents (G&V Series and H&L agents)  (doesn’t identify)
    droplets >100microns
    response time <10 sec
    Chemical agent sensitive dye on paper
    protective layer
    adhesive coating
    Carcinogenic (old)
    M9 PAPER
  131. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF MONITORING?
    Purpose: to establish the presence of liquid or vapors at designated locations, and if present to determine the extent of the actual hazard (boundaries).

    Ability to differentiate and identify specific hazards.
  132. 6 sampler detectors
    4 Low Volatility Hazard (LVH) packages
    1 M8 paper booklet
    Maintenance
    store in cool dry place
    check expiration date
    Disposal guidelines
    when blood test spot is pink
    expiration date exceeded
    HAZMAT (2.6 mg mercuric cyanide per)
      Do not use for training!
    M256 A2
  133. Used with sampler-detector & M8 to test for LIQUID NERVE/BLISTER
    Used with M9 to test for SOLID NERVE/BLISTER
    Contains
    Mustard Agent Heater Assembly (MAHA)
    Sample Heater Assembly (SHA)Strip of Modified M9 Paper
    LOW VOLATILITY HAZARD (LVH) PACKAGE
  134. Detects and identifies liquid agents
    Blister Agents (H & L)
    Nerve (G and V series)
    response time @20sec FOR LIQUID (part of the M256A1/A2)
    Color change for positive identification
    Booklet with 25 sheets (perforated, 50 samples)
    Used for:
    Surveys
    (primary)
    Point  Detection/Monitoring
    (secondary)
    M8 CHEMICAL DETECTION PAPER
  135. WHO IS ON THE CHEMICAL DETECTION AND SURVEY / MONITORING TEAM?
    1 Team leader

    2 samplers

    1 Messenger/marker
  136. Periodic Monitoring (Point Detection)
    Prior/During attack (M8/M9, IPDS, IPDS-LR)
    On-Station Monitoring
    During attack (M256A1/A2/M8/M9)
    Rapid Internal Survey
    After attack (M256A1/A2)
    Rapid External Survey
    After RIS (M8/M9)
    Supplemental Surveys
    As required/as time permits
    CHEMICAL SURVEYS
  137. WHAT ATMOSPHERE WILL THE MCU2P MASK BE INEFFECTIVE?
    CO, CO2, NH3, LOW O2
  138. HOW MANY DAYS WILL THE MASKS BE EFFECTIVE FOR IN FRESH AIR, CW ENVIRONMENT?
    • 60 DAYS IN FRESH AIR
    • 30 DAYS IN CW ENVIRONMENT
  139. Shelf life/Operational effectiveness
    Coat/trousers packaged separately
    Heat sealed
    Vacuum packed
    5 year shelf life (unopened in original package)
    Wear Time: 45 days of use out of 120 days
    Must be logged if opened ,can be washed up to six times
    24 hrs of constant wear in a CW environment

    Authorizations
    105% of crew (i.e. 300 bags plus 15 more)

    Note:  Embarked staff and other embarked personnel are not included in these percentages.
    JSLIST
  140. CPS is a system that provides protection against CBR agents by means of fulltime CBR filtration, Total Protection Zone over pressurization of 1.5-2.5” W.G., and controlled access via air locks and pressure locks.
    COLLECTIVE PROTECTION SYSTEM (CPS)
  141. A zone within a collective protection system that provides a toxic free environment by filtering air and maintaining an overpressure in the zone to prevent contaminants from leaking into it. Protects against liquid, solid, and gaseous CBR agents.
    TOTAL PROTECTION ZONE (TP)
  142. An unpressurized zone within a collective protection system that provides filtered air protecting against liquid and solid CBR agents but not agents in vapor form.
    LIMITED PROTECTION ZONE (LP)
  143. Certain compartments within a TP pressure zone (PZ) that are required to be opened to the weather during normal ship operation. These selected compartments can be isolated from the PZ by manipulation of closures in the distribution supply and exhaust ductwork. The compartments to which these requirements apply are considered to be provided with conditional protection.
    CONDITIONAL PROTECTION
  144. a special class of subdivision. Fire zones are physical boundaries designed to retard the passage of smoke and the spread of fire.
    FIRE ZONE (FZ)
  145. Small controlled chambers with a quick acting watertight (QAWT) door on either end situated at zone boundaries that allows personnel to transit into or out of the zone without reducing zone pressure.
    AIR LOCK
  146. Unlike an air lock, a pressure lock does not have air sweep fittings for purging contaminated air. Therefore, is only used to provide access to and from a TP zone to other areas of the ship in an uncontaminated environment.
    PRESSURE LOCK
  147. Contains both a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter and a Gas Absorber Filter. The CBR HEPA filter is a two stage, pleated-medium filter for removing solid and aerosol CBR contaminants and has a rated flow capacity of 200 cubic feet per minute (CFM). The gas absorber filter consists of activated charcoal for removing chemical warfare agents.
    TP CBR FILTER SET
  148. An LP HEPA filter is used to remove fine particulates and aerosol CBR contaminants from the air supply in an LP zone and each filter has a rated flow capacity of 1500-2000 CFM
    LP HEPA FILTER
  149. WHAT ARE THE PURPOSES OF SHIPBOARD CPS?
    • TOXIC FREE ENVIRONMENT
    • CPS generates pressurized toxic free spaces
    • TOTAL PROTECTION VS LIQUID, SOLID AND GASEOUS CBR AGENTS
    • Collective Protection System (CPS) – provides filtered air to designated zones to protect personnel against Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) contamination onboard ship.
    • PERSONNEL SAFE W/O PROTECTIVE CLOTHING OR MASKS
    • Personnel in these protected spaces do not need to wear cumbersome gas masks or protective clothing, allowing little or no degradation in mission accomplishment
  150. WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF PROTECTION?
    • Total Protection
    • Protection from Solid, Liquid & Gas
    • HEPA & Gas Filters
    • Airlocks and Pressure locks
    • Operational/Habitable Spaces
    • Limited Protection (MASK REQ’D)
    • Protection from Solid & Liquid ONLY
    • HEPA Filters ONLY
    • Primarily Engineering Spaces
  151. WHAT IS THE SHELF LIFE FOR THE M98 CPS TP CBR FILTER SET?
    • Air flows from inside to outside
    • Bag Pre-filter (Socks)
    • HEPA Filter
    • Gas Filter
    • 200 CFM per set
    • FILTER LIFE 4 YEARS FOR All CPS TP CBR FILTERS. (IAW R 210504Z SEP 12 ZYB: IN-SERVICE ENGINEERING (ISE) ADVISORY 024-12. CPS FILTER SERVICE/LIFE EXTENSION FROM 3 YEARS TO 4 YEARS
  152. Prevent loss of pressurization during transit of TP zone boundaries.

    TWO MIN PURGE TIME IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENT
    CPS AIR LOCKS
  153. Type I Airlock:
    TP Zone to Weather
    Type II Airlock:
    TP Zone to unpressurized space or LP Zone
    Type III Airlock:
    TP Zone to TP Zone
    CPS AIR LOCKS
  154. NOT PRESSURIZED
    SOLID OR LIQUID PROTECTION ONLY
    WEAR MASKS DURING CBR ATTACK
    JSLIST NOT REQUIRED UNLESS HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF PERCUTANEOUS VAPORS
    DDG 51-78 & AOE ONLY
    LIMITED PROTECTION ZONE
  155. A liquid chemical hazard area or a biological infectious hazard area for removal of contaminated individual protective equipment or outer garments and preparation of personnel for processing through a conventional decontamination station.
    CONTAMINATION CONTROL AREA (CCA)
  156. The deposition on and absorption of biological or chemical agents by shipboard structures, areas, personnel, or equipment; the presence of chemical or biological agents in the air in the form of vapors (chemical) or aerosols (chemical or biological).
    CONTAMINATION
  157. The process of making any person, equipment, or structure safe by absorbing, destroying, neutralizing, making harmless, or removing any chemical or biological agent.
    DECONTAMINATION
  158. The standard shipboard dectontaminant for chemical and biological agents. Also known as High Test Hypochlorite (HTH).
    CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE (CA(CIO)2
  159. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE DECON STATION?
    • Provides a predetermined entrance into the uncontaminated interior of the ship
    • Provides a means for personnel decontamination
    • Prevents the spread of contamination throughout the ship
  160. WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF DECON STATIONS?
    • Conventional Decontamination Station
    • Collective Protection System (CPS) Decontamination Station
    • Casualty Decontamination Station
  161. DECON STATION MANNING REQUIREMENTS
    1 each - TEAM LEADER

    1 to 2 each - CUTTERS

    1 each - MEDICAL department representative

    1 each - MONITOR
  162. WHAT ARE THE % OF HTH SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS USED FOR CLEANING?
    • 9% HTH Solution
    • Boot wash
    • Scissors wash
    • Mask Lens wash
    • Decon Station wash
    • Spot Decon
    • .5% HTH Solution
    • Used by medical for wound skin wash
  163. WHAT ARE THE ACTIONS TAKING PLACE DURING GROSS PERSONNEL DECON?
    • Gross Personnel Decontamination
    • Equipment Drop Area located outside of CCA
    • Removal of load bearing equipment, test gear, rain gear, auto injectors, etc.
    • Decon of mask
    • use RSDL
    • Decon of gloves, boots
    • boot wash w/ 9% HTH prior to entry
  164. HOW LONG CAN THE REACTIVE SKIN DECON LOTION (RSDL) BE KEPT IN STORAGE?
    • STORAGE
    • 60 MONTH Shelf Life @ 59° F to 86° F
    • 24 MONTH Operation Shelf Life < 120° FTemperatures above 120° F will cause RSDL to lose potency. effected packets need to be used or disposed of within 24 weeks after exposure
  165. PERSONNEL DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES
    • GDA – Gross Decon Area
    • CCA/OCUA - Removal of protective clothing

    • Position 1 – JSLIST Overgarment
    • Position 2 - Trousers and overboots
    • Doffee sits on bench for boot removal
    • Position 3 – Gloves / exit to Decon station
    • Decontamination Station
    • Position 4 - Removal of inner clothing (If pullover shirt is worn medical Rep will cut shirt off)
    • Position 5 - Thorough shower
    • Dressing Area
    • Position 6 - Doffing of mask if all clear
    • Check by medical personnel
    • Issue clothing
    • Contamination Purge Lock for CPS Decon
  166. EMERGENCY PERSONNEL DECONTAMINATION
    • In case of direct skin contact, prioritize by type of agent:
    • Nerve/Blister agent: skin hazard - immediate action (M-291 or RSDL)
    • Blood/choking agent: non-skin hazard - immediate action not required
    • Tear/riot control: unique situation -special procedures
  167. CPS DECON STATION LAYOUT
    Image Upload
  168. INNER CLOTHING UNDRESSING AREA
    Image Upload
  169. SHOWER AREA
    Image Upload
  170. CONTAMINATION PURGE LOCK
    Image Upload
  171. CASUALTY DECON STATION MANNING REQUIREMENTS

    1 each – Triage Officer

    2 each – Corpsman

    3 each – Decon Personnel

    8 each – Cutters

    2 each – Senior Corpsman

    1 each – Non-medical Assistant
    Image Upload
  172. US Policies

    –Biological Warfare - No Use

    –Chemical Warfare - No Use

    –Nuclear Warfare - Maintain first strike option
    US Naval forces must:

    –survive the first strike

    –sustain warfighting capability
    CBRN DEFENSE
  173. EARLY WARNING
    • Intelligence Reports
    • NBC Warning & Reporting System
    • Remote Chemical/Biological Detection
    • Sources
    • National Security Agency
    • Navy Maritime Intelligence Center
    • Other DOD Intelligence sources
    • Internet and TV news sources
    • Propaganda or fact?
    • Purpose of Information
    • Threat analysis
    • MOPP analysis
    • Determine best course of action
  174. AVOIDANCE
    • Best Possible Solution
    • Relies on good intelligence
    • enemy intent
    • enemy weapons systems
    • early attack indicators
  175. AVOIDANCE Vulnerability
    • Ships are most vulnerable during:
    • Port operations
    • Chokepoint Transits
    • Amphibious operations
    • Minesweeping/mineclearing
    • Littoral operations
  176. PROTECTION
    • Ship Protection
    • Countermeasure Washdown (CMWD)
    • Ventilation Management
    • Collective Protection
    • Mission Oriented Protective Posture
    • Individual Protection
    • MCU-2/P Mask
    • JSLIST
    • Medical antidotes
  177. PROTECTION CMWD
    • First line of defense
    • Removal of chemical agents
    • liquid (up to 95% effective)
    • some vapors
    • Removal of biological agents
    • wet
    • dry
    • Best used prior to and during attackNSTM-470 appendix F (CHAG)
  178. PROTECTION VENTILATION MANAGEMENT
    • Before attack:
    • Set Circle William 
    • After the attack:
    • Leave contaminated area!
    • Test Intakes
    • Operational Decon (as necessary)
    • Relax Circle William
    • Purge Ship - “Rule of 6”
    • 6 complete air changes of all compartments in zone will remove approximately 99.9 % of toxic vapor or aerosol
    • Retest with M256A1/A2 (twice!)
    • If all clear - Unmasking Procedures
  179. PROTECTION CPS
    • Purpose:
    • Provides a toxic free environment within the ship so that in a contaminated atmosphere personnel can function inside the protected areas of the ship without IPE.
    • Zone Types
    • Total Protection (TP)
    • Limited Protection (LP)
  180. MISSION ORIENTED PROTECTIVE POSTURE (MOPP)
    • MOPP = Mission Oriented Protective Posture
    • Definition
    • A management tool for coordinating the effects of individual and collective protection, and shipboard systems as a timely and effective countermeasure against the entire spectrum of the CBR threat.
    • 5 Levels of protection based on the threat
  181. MOPP 0: NO MOPP
    1.Inspect, size, fit and issue IPE (to include mask, unopened canisters, suit, gloves, boots, canteen, belt, and skin decon kit) to all personnel. (Do not yet install new canister on mask. Retain training canister.)

    IPE bags/MCU-2/P are maintained in chemical warfare storerooms
  182. MOPP 1: SUSPECTED THREAT
    • IPE available and medical supply items are issued
    • shipboard personnel
    • maintained at respective battle stations
    • protective masks are fitted for immediate use
    • Inventory equipment and supplies
    • Conduct operational inspection of portable and installed detection and monitoring systems
    • Conduct an operational inspection of the CPS (if installed)
    • Set Condition III and material condition Yoke
  183. MOPP 2: POSSIBLE THREAT
    • Protective mask is in carrier and worn on person.
    • Pre-position detection and monitoring equipment (CBRD Bill), decontamination supplies in decon stations and at repair lockers
    • Set material condition modified ZEBRA.
    • CPS zones pressurized and airlocks are properly utilized.
    • Activate/monitor detection and sampling equipment (if not already activated).
  184. MOPP 3: PROBABLE THREAT
    • Go to general quarters (readiness Condition II may be set at CO’s discretion); set material condition ZEBRA.
    • Install new C2 filter canisters on protective masks
    • Maintain mask in carrier and on person
    • provide wet weather gear
    • don overgarment trousers and coat with hood down
    • don protective overboots
    • stow personnel decontamination kit in mask carrier
    • stow chemical protective glove set and medical supply items in pocket on overgarment coat
    • initiate pyridostigmine pretreatment regimen.
    • Fill pre-positioned canteens with potable water.
    • Activate decontamination stations and Contamination Control Areas (CCAs) and assure operability; post detection and monitoring teams.
    • Post and monitor detection equipment and materials as designated by the ship’s CBR Defense Bill.
    • Activate countermeasures washdown system intermittently.
  185. MOPP 4: IMMINENT THREAT
    • Don protective mask and secure hood over head and around mask; don chemical protective glove set.
    • Direct ship to general quarters (if not previously in effect).
    • Set Circle WILLIAM.
    • Activate countermeasures washdown system to operate continuously.
  186. MOPP Reduction
    • Verification with detection equipment
    • Decon/Purge
    • Unmasking w/ or w/o an M256A1/A2 Kit
    • If all clear:

    –Only CO can authorize
  187. PROTECTION Individual - Mask Only Posture
    Mask-only Posture can be used on:

    • –Non-CPS ships
    • CO can authorize if;

    –1st - no liquid contamination present

    –2nd - No blister vapors present

    • –CPS ships
    • Be precautious of hull penetrations
  188. DECONTAMINATION
    • Key to restoring operations
    • Shipboard (4 levels)
    • Personnel and Patient
    • Individual Decon and Aid
    • Limited Operational
    • Reduces spread of contamination
    • Mission essential areas
    • No reduction of MOPP
    • Operationally Complete
    • Can reduce MOPP. Highest level achieved by S/F
    • Chemically Complete
    • Conducted at Shipyard
    • Personnel
    • emergency (M291/RSDL)
    • Gross Decon (decon station)
  189. TREATMENT
    • Three Phases
    • Triage
    • Medical determines care priority
    • Decontamination
    • DCA designates area and manages
    • Medical supervises and performs with S/F assistance
    • Treatment
    • Medical performs
    • Logistics
    • Additional:
    • litters
    • bandages
    • clothing
    • Personnel
    • Contaminated Dead
  190. The DCA is responsible for maintaining the CBRD Bill under direction from the Engineering Officer (RPM CHAPTER 7!)

    NTTP 3-20.31, Surface Ship Survivability, Appendix B
    Provides a sample outline of the CBRD Bill
    All enclosures are ship specific but do not apply to all ships
    CBRB BILL
  191. DCA CBRD RESPONSIBILITIES
    • Advise the CO on matters concerning CBRD
    • Supervise CBRD Training
    • Propose suitable battle problems to evaluate the crew
    • Be responsible for the custody and issuance of all CBRD equipment not maintained by other departments
    • Designate and ensure decon stations are equipped
    • Supervise training of DCTT in combat of a CBR casualty
    • Maintain stock of personnel detection and decon equipment
    • Log issuance of personnel dosimeters
    • CBR efforts shall not impair efforts to control immediate hazards of major damage, fire or flood.
    • Establish CBRD coordination with embarked units
  192. Provide the groups of Infectious Agents:
    • Bacteria
    • Rickettsiae
    • Viruses
    • Fungi
    • Protozoa
    • Prions
  193. What are the methods of pathogen transmission?:
    ̶vectors, direct contact, aerosol spray, food & water
  194. Provide some general characteristics of pathogens. Would this make them suitable for use in a “tactical” environment?:
    • Unstable in most environments
    • Cheap to make
    • Fairly difficult to weaponize effectively
    • Can carry up to 150 nm downwind
    • Highly weather dependent
    • High temperature (>170° F) will kill
    • UV rays will destroy
  195. Group Biological Toxins by Source
    • Mycotoxin (fungi)
    • Bacterial Toxin (endotoxin/exotoxin)
    • Algal Toxin (algal bloom)
    • Animal Toxin (rattlesnakes, dart frogs, etc.)
    • Plant Toxin (curare, poison ivy)
  196. Group Biological Toxins by physiological effects:
    • Neurotoxin (Systemic Central Nervous System Effects, Botulinum Toxin)
    • Cytotoxin (Cell Destruction, Ricin Toxin) 
    • Necrotoxin (skin cells)
    • Hemotoxin (blood cells)
    • Enterotoxin (food poisoning)
    • Dermatoxin (skin damage)
  197. Provide some general characteristics of toxins. *These make them advantageous to use over what other agents?:
    • Stable in most conditions
    • Easily extracted from nature or produced in labs
    • Relatively easy to disseminate/weaponize
    • Very persistent
    • Quick-acting
    • Carry up to 150nm downwind
    • Weather dependent
    • Limited medical treatment
  198. What are Methods of Dissemination for toxins?:
    • Line Source: Aerosol Spray
    • Point Source: Missile/Munition, artillery
    • Multiple Point Source: Missile/Munition, bomblets
  199. What are these the same for?
    Chemical Warfare Agents
  200. What is available for biological detection?:
    • Joint Biological Point Detection System (JBPDS)
    • DFU (Dry Filter Unit)
    • HHAs (Hand Held Assays)
    • BRK (Biological Response Kit)
    • Joint Biological Agent Identification & Diagnostic System (JBAIDS)
  201. Briefly describe the categories of biological detection & Identification. Tie in sample package/shipment procedure:
    • Presumptive ID
    • (JBPDS, DFU/BRK & HHA)
    • DDG, CG, FFG, etc.
    • Confirmatory ID
    • (JBAIDS)
    • CVN, LHD, LHA
    • Definitive ID
    • CDC, ARMIID
    • Sample gathered, mixed in conical tube with PBS, HHA response 15 min, positive ID packaged, sent off ship with appropriate documentation
  202. What are treatment methods available for personnel afflicted by a biological agent?
    • Palliative/Supportive  Treatment-for symptoms
    • Shock, fever, etc but not the agent itself
    • Intensive Care - life support
    • Maintain critical organ functions
    • Ensure victim is as comfortable as possible
    • If symptoms allow identification of agent, administer antidote/antitoxin if available
  203. What are the four categories of Casualty Causing Chemical Agents (provide an example of each)?
    • Nerve (skin and inhalation hazard)
    • G-series (Sarin, Soman, Tabun)
    • V-series (VX and others)
    • Blister (skin and inhalation hazard)
    • H-series (Mustards)
    • L- series (Arsenicals)
    • CX (Urticants)
    • Blood (inhalation hazard)
    • Hydrogen Cyanide (AC)             
    • Cyanogen Chloride (CK)
    • Choking (inhalation hazard)
    • Phosgene (CG) 
    • Chlorine (CL)
  204. To understand different categories of casualty causing agents, discuss the following as they apply to nerve, blister, blood and choking agents:
    • Physical state (most likely) and associated persistency
    • Symptoms of exposure
    • Immediate actions after exposure/symptoms
    • Treatment available
  205. Discuss the following detectors with regard to the level (stand-off, point, monitoring), agent, and physical state they detect:
    • IPDS
    • Point Detection
    • G & V, H & L Vapor
    • IPDS-LR
    • Point Detection
    • G & V, H & L, AC & CK Vapor
    • M9 paper/tape
    • Point Detection/Monitoring
    • G & V, H & L Liquid
    • M8 paper
    • Point Detection/Monitoring
    • G & V, H & L Liquid 20 seconds
    • M256A2 sampler detector
    • Monitoring
    • G & V, H & L, AC & CK Vapor 17-20 minutes
  206. CHEMICAL AGENTS DETECTION ID
    Image Upload
  207. Which mask(s) utilize a C2A1 and M61 filter canisters?
    • MCU-2/P & M40A1 (C2A1)
    • M50 JSGPM (M61)
  208. What is the C2A1 rated for? M61
    • C2A1 protects 60 days in uncontaminated environment, 30 days in contaminated environment
    • M61 provides 24 hours of constant protection in a CW/BW environment
  209. What degrades the C2A1 & M61 filter canisters?
    Degraded when exposed to blood agent and water
  210. Who can authorize unmasking after all clear is given?
    CO
  211. Provide shelf life and wear limitations of the JSLIST (Joint Service Light Weight Integrated Suit Technology):
    • Shelf life in vacuum sealed package: 5 years
    • Protects for 45 of wear/120 days after opening in uncontaminated environment, 24 hours in contaminated environment
  212. What is available for Pre-Treatment?
    • PB (pyridostigmine bromide) tablets
    • 3 per day, 1 every 8 hours, packs of 21
    • Should be announced on 1MC when everyone should take one (all personnel take at same time)
  213. What about Post-exposure?
    • Atropine, 2 PAM-Cl, and CANA (Diazepam, Valium) Injectors
    • Self Aid for mild symptoms (1, wait 10-15 min, remaining 2)
    • Buddy Aid for severe symptoms (all 3)
  214. CHEMICAL AGENT GENERAL IMMEDIATE ACTIONS
    • Protect yourself
    • Stop breathing, don mask
    • Remove liquid contaminants with RSDL Skin Decon Kit
    • Protect others
    • Mask victims
    • Sound alarm
    • Move victims/casualties to CCA/Decon Station
    • Alert Medical personnel to location of casualties
    • Continue with mission
  215. Who is on a Chemical Survey & Monitoring team?
    Team Leader, 2 Surveyors, Messenger/Marker
  216. What is there purpose?:
    • Locate, Mark and Isolate areas of contamination
    • Colored signs with grease pencil info on back
    • Hang to prevent access to contaminated area
  217. Who is on a Biological Sampling team?:
    Sampler, Assistant Sampler, Boundaryman/Packager
  218. What is the typical makeup of a Topside Decon Team
    • Team Leader
    • 2-4 Hosemen
    • 4-6 Scrubbers
    • Can be augmented with surveyors & monitors after monitoring is complete
  219. Describe the Levels of Shipboard Decontamination:
    • Personnel and Patient (Immediate) Decontamination
    • Self/Buddy Aid
    • Limited Operational (Operational) Decontamination
    • Mission essential areas; prevents the spread
    • Operationally Complete (Thorough) Decontamination
    • Highest level ship can obtain; reduces MOPP level
    • Complete (Clearance) Decontamination
    • All contamination removed; industrial facility
  220. What are the Methods of Decontamination; how do we clean the ship inside and out
    • PHYSICAL REMOVAL
    • CMWDS (#1 method)
    • Fire hose flush
    • Scrubbing
    • NATURAL DECAY
    • Weathering
    • CHEMICAL NEUTRALIZATION
    • Calcium Hypochlorite (HTH)
  221. Internal methods: HTH solution (per NSTM 470) and brushes/swabs
    • Agents
    • HTH (#1), bleach, with GP cleanerSoap & water (#1 for people, sensitive electronics equipment
  222. Who is on a Personnel Decon Station (Conventional or CPS) Team?
    • Team Leader
    • 1-2 Decon Station Assistants (Cutters) (inside station)
    • Station Monitor (Operator)
    • Medical representative
  223. Describe the doffing procedure
    GDA, OCUA, ICUA
  224. How do we prioritize contaminated casualties at a Casualty Decon Station?
    –Triage (prioritize need for care and decon), Decon and Treat
  225. VENTILATION MANAGEMENT
    • Before attack:
    • Set Circle William 
    • After the attack:
    • Leave contaminated area!
    • Test Intakes - Perform Operational Decon (as necessary)
    • Relax Circle William
    • Purge Ship
    • Retest with M256A2 to confirm decon complete
    • If all clear, initiate unmasking procedures (only authorized by CO)
  226. MOPP 0 Key Actions
    Sizing and issue of CBRN Individual Protective Equipment (IPE)

    –With exception of masks, maintained in storerooms, workspaces, etc
  227. MOPP 1: SUSPECTED threat
    Key actions:

    –Inventory of CBR equipment

    –Verify CBRN teams identified

    –Conduct CBRN training
  228. MOPP 2: threat POSSIBLE
    Key actions:

    –Issue Mask/Carrier (wear)

    –Designate decon stations

    –Preposition CBR equipment

    –Operational test of CMWDS

    –Operational test of alarms
  229. MOPP 3: threat PROBABLE
    Key actions:

    –Install new mask filter canisters

    –Don JSLIST trousers and smock

    –Don protective overboots

    –Initiate PB (if directed)

    –Set general quarters

    –Set material condition Zebra

    –Activate CMWDS intermittently

    –Strike below all porous materials
  230. MOPP 4: threat IMMINENT
    • Key actions:
    • Sound Alarm
    • Don mask, hood and gloves
    • Implement mandatory water drinking
    • Set Circle William
    • Initiate continuous monitoring
    • Continuous CMWD (15 MINUTES)
  231. Where is the sample CBRD Bill taken from?
    NTTP 3-20.31 APPENDIX B
  232. Where is the CBRD Bill located in the RPM?
    CHAPTER 7 SEC 2

Card Set Information

Author:
EL_GUAPO
ID:
336419
Filename:
DCASE UNIT 6A 2017
Updated:
2017-12-02 16:16:03
Tags:
DCASE
Folders:

Description:
The entire unit!
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