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- veterinary feed directive
- alternative to prescription status, allows veterinary supervision. Antimicrobials for use in feed (except coccidiostat) require this.
- Vet determines drug is needed, issues directive on multi-part form, O orders from feed supplier. Keep papers for 2y
- No abs for growth promotion
- Extralabel of APPROVED drugs in MEDICATED feed for "minor species" (not cow, horse, pig, chicken, turkey, dog, cat - so sheep, goat, ducks, etc).
extra-label label must include
- name and address of vet
- name of owner, animal
- name of drug
- directions including duration of therapy
- conditions of storage, cautions
- expiration date
- milk and meat withdrawals, even if zero
ELUD withdrawal periods
- doubling dose increases withdrawal by one half life. 10 often appropriate for meat. Use drug company's advice. Sick animals won't clear as well.
- FARAD - food animal residue avoidance and depletion
- milk test on farm, then done at plant.
- Extra-label use of drugs
- ONLY a vet can rx for dif species, disease, dose, route
- Legal under AMDUCA (animal medicinal drug use clarification act). Requires veterinary client-patient relationship
- no marketed drug is specifically labeled or labelled dose doesn't work.
- records kept for 2 (AMDUCA) or 3 (NYS) years
- can't substitute another brand even if same active ingredient.
- Animal must be ID'd
- SIGNIFICANTLY extended withdrawal period, steps taken to make sure withdrawals are followed.
- Okay to relieve pain and suffering, not save money or improve production.
- need extra-label label
Rx label info
- statement: CAUTION - federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian
- adequate instruction cannot be printed on the label
- must label with prescribing veterinarian's name and address
veterinary client patient relationship
- Vet assumed responsibility for medical judgements, O agrees to follow advice
- vet has knowledge of animal to initiate a preliminary diagnosis (don't have to wait for culture to come back) (examine!)
- vet available for follow-up if adverse reaction or treatment failure occurs.
abx in milk
- regulations and penalties set by Pasteurized Milk Ordinance - PMO.
- There are tolerance levels unless ELUD, then must be zero.
- Milk tests at plant. Also done at farm to make sure no penalties at plant!
abx in meat
- urine or kidney swab test for beta lactams, sulfas, oxytet, ceftiofur, tylan.
- If it's in the kidney, entire carcass is condemned.
- New tests for phenylbutazone, flunixin
forbidden drugs in food animals
- diethylstibestrol (DES)
- metronidazole, dimetridazole, ipronidazole
- extralabel fluoroquinolones like enro or danofloxacin
- clenbuterol (ONLY syrup in horse)
- Enro only for pneumonia in beefle cattle, swine and dairy heifers <20mo
- gentamicin except oral in pigs
- nitrofurazone, topazone
- phenylbutazone prohibited in dairy cattle >19mo.
- NO cephalosporins at unapproved anything. Only for SA. but some ELUD?
- okay to modify or combine FDA approved drugs if available label won't tx.
- NOT okay to compound from bulk sources for food animals.
sheep and goats as food animals
ALL are by law, no matter what O says!
CAFO - confinement animal feeding operation
- permitting system based on number of animal units based on potential to cause manure
- comprehensive nutrient managment plan determines how much manure can be applied to a field - phosphorus is of greatest concern.
Clean water act
- fines for manure spills if lagoon fails
- fines for fish kills if manure spread on fields run into stream
- effluent from silos and compost piles must be contained and treated.
- SYSTEM OF PRODUCTION, not safety or quality of food
- National Organic Standards Board advises USDA on standards
- rules lack consistency, may seem irrational
- Lg farms have pretty much taken over the niche market
- Fields and crops and feeds must be certified (expensive!). No fertilizers, pesticides or GMO, fungicides, herbicides, for at least 3 years. No abx during LIFE of animal, no matter how sick! (supposed to remove from organic system.
- no coccidiostats, no dewormers but moxidectin, fenbendazole (but offspring not organic if tx in late preg or lactation). Fiber okay with parasiticide (90d withdrawal)
- PASTURE must be 30% of dry matter intake for 120d/year.
- Milk replacer only in emergency
- no MARKING CRAYONS
- no tail docking
- AI but no estrus control, hormones
- vax and supplements okay, anything "natural" okay (FDA says no)
Proposition2 - California
for all or the majority of any day, farm animals must not be confined for tethered in a manner that prevents lying down, standing up, turning round or completely stretching out without touching the sides - all chickens moved out.
cornual nerve location
- behind the eye
- underneath temporal line, on the bone
- at the outer edge (where the icicle attaches to the roof)
- may need partial ring block in older
- block lasts more than 1 hour
- clip hair after blocking
- BLOCK with (2)-4cc of lidocaine. Just use 4, your aim doesn't have to be so good.
- small and large
- Quick and easy with a good block, but you have to PUSH
- Like hedge trimmers
- for calves, too large animals need a keystone.
- like hedge trimmers, guillotine.
- Takes 2 STRONG people
- for animals too big for the Barnes dehorner
- Not recommended
ways to dehorn (8)
- lye paste
- portasol: butane, what we used, not great in cold. Get GOOD butane or will plug, burn to bone and scoop out, and Express - butane/propane mix, larger tip, better in cold
- electric dehorner: battery operated, don't have to have a plug or refill butane, good for large farms. Gets cherry red. Direct ophthalmoscope-looking.
- roberts: antique, spreads BLV, don't use. Looks like a microphone
- Barnes: small and large. Quick and easy with a good block, but you have to PUSH. Like hedge trimmers
- keystone dehorner: MORE like hedge trimmers, guillotine. Takes 2 STRONG people, for animals too big for the Barnes dehorner
- flat backed saw: exactly what it sounds like. Anesthesia.
- obstetrical wire: exactly what it sounds like.
- Callicrate bander: over time, rubberband works its way through bone and skin to kill. Brutal. Not recommended.
pain relief in dehorning
- Meloxicam: extralabel. 3 15mg pills/100lbs, 12h in advance. 3d of pain relief (<$0.25)
- Lidocaine cornual block: 4mL. Keep lido or procaine warm - it seems to work better.
- flunixin: only lasts a few hours and should be IV, not recommended
burning too long in dehorning
- can damage bone.
- Pus at site indicates dead bone, just get the nickel of dead bone out and it will be fine.
- Can also damage brain, bad news.
Portasol or Express dehorners
- what we used
- butane, not great in cold. Need GOOD butane or the tip will clog.
- Burn all the way to the bone and then scoop the bud out.
- Express: butane/propane mix, larger tip, better in the cold.
battery operated, don't have to have a plug or refill butane, good for large farms. Gets cherry red. Direct ophthalmoscope-looking.
antique, spreads BLV, don't use. Looks like a microphone
- Routine in beef--angus and Polled Hereford
- Polled don't produce as well (so far) in dairy.
- Polled trait is dominant. Genetic test available for homozygous
- could also genome edit (from Angus) inserted into dairy breeds, but GMO so there may be FDA regulation
- twist of hair over horn buds.
- Burn buck kids at 3d, does at 5-7, later in Nubians and Pygmies.
- Owners do with no anesthesia. We tranquilize and block, then use portasol and flick out the bud. Can't get enough skin with a Barnes without also getting some brain.
- DON'T leave a brown circle on the bone, don't stay too long!!! no frontal sinus to protect brain. Must be hot enough to kill bud before cooking brain. Can't suckle, brain damage!
- give tetanus prophylaxis!
blocks for dehorning goat kids
- cornual nerve, beneath the temporal line
- infratrochlear nerve, above the rim of the orbit towards medial canthus
- dilute lidocaine and buffer with bicarb, 25g needle
- xylazine (reverse!) and meloxicam.
dehorning adult goats
- tranquillize with 3mg xylazine/100lbs IV
- local nerve blocks with 2mL 1% lidocaine (can't use too much lido!)
- clip, scrub, cut skin all the way around with a scalpel, leave a strip of skin up the middle between the horns
- saw off with obstetrical wire
- pull arteries and bandage for a few days.
- horn regrowth after disbudding
- common in bucks and intersex if done too late
genetically disbudded kids
polled gene is dominant, so homozygous PP polled doe is intersex, and buck get sperm granulomas
- just choose a different breed!
- select for rams where horns don't grow back into skull
- Jacob and Navajo Churro are polycerate (many-horned)
sinusitis in cattle post-dehorning
- possible after dehorning at >6mo (ONLY in winter because flies).
- OPEN frontal sinus, but infection rare
- Maxillary sinusitis can happen from dental disease (rare)
- HAVE to drill in from outside to drain
- for restraint of bulls
- to prevent sucking on other heifers (crown weaning rings, weaner for beef calves (plastic snap on)
- if pull out, immediate surgical repair, rest 6mo.