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  1. VFD
    • veterinary feed directive
    • alternative to prescription status, allows veterinary supervision.  Antimicrobials for use in feed (except coccidiostat) require this.
    • Vet determines drug is needed, issues directive on multi-part form, O orders from feed supplier. Keep papers for 2y
    • No abs for growth promotion
    • Extralabel of APPROVED drugs in MEDICATED feed for "minor species" (not cow, horse, pig, chicken, turkey, dog, cat - so sheep, goat, ducks, etc).
  2. extra-label label must include
    • name and address of vet
    • name of owner, animal
    • name of drug
    • directions including duration of therapy
    • conditions of storage, cautions
    • expiration date
    • milk and meat withdrawals, even if zero
  3. ELUD withdrawal periods
    • doubling dose increases withdrawal by one half life.  10 often appropriate for meat. Use drug company's advice.  Sick animals won't clear as well. 
    • FARAD - food animal residue avoidance and depletion
    • milk test on farm, then done at plant.
  4. ELUD
    • Extra-label use of drugs
    • ONLY a vet can rx for dif species, disease, dose, route
    • Legal under AMDUCA (animal medicinal drug use clarification act).  Requires veterinary client-patient relationship
    • no marketed drug is specifically labeled or labelled dose doesn't work. 
    • records kept for 2 (AMDUCA) or 3 (NYS) years
    • can't substitute another brand even if same active ingredient. 
    • Animal must be ID'd
    • SIGNIFICANTLY extended withdrawal period, steps taken to make sure withdrawals are followed.
    • Okay to relieve pain and suffering, not save money or improve production. 
    • need extra-label label
  5. Rx label info
    • statement: CAUTION - federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian
    • adequate instruction cannot be printed on the label
    • must label with prescribing veterinarian's name and address
  6. veterinary client patient relationship
    • Vet assumed responsibility for medical judgements, O agrees to follow advice
    • vet has knowledge of animal to initiate a preliminary diagnosis (don't have to wait for culture to come back) (examine!)
    • vet available for follow-up if adverse reaction or treatment failure occurs.
  7. abx in milk
    • regulations and penalties set by Pasteurized Milk Ordinance - PMO. 
    • There are tolerance levels unless ELUD, then must be zero. 
    • Milk tests at plant. Also done at farm to make sure no penalties at plant!
  8. abx in meat
    • urine or kidney swab test for beta lactams, sulfas, oxytet, ceftiofur, tylan. 
    • If it's in the kidney, entire carcass is condemned.
    • New tests for phenylbutazone, flunixin
  9. forbidden drugs in food animals
    • chloramphenicol
    • diethylstibestrol (DES)
    • metronidazole, dimetridazole, ipronidazole
    • extralabel fluoroquinolones like enro or danofloxacin
    • clenbuterol (ONLY syrup in horse)
    • Enro only for pneumonia in beefle cattle, swine and dairy heifers <20mo
    • gentamicin except oral in pigs
    • nitrofurazone, topazone
    • phenylbutazone prohibited in dairy cattle >19mo. 
    • NO cephalosporins at unapproved anything. Only for SA. but some ELUD?
  10. compounding
    • okay to modify or combine FDA approved drugs  if available label won't tx. 
    • NOT okay to compound from bulk sources for food animals.
  11. sheep and goats as food animals
    ALL are by law, no matter what O says!
  12. CAFO - confinement animal feeding operation
    • permitting system based on number of animal units based on potential to cause manure
    • comprehensive nutrient managment plan determines how much manure can be applied to a field - phosphorus is of greatest concern.
  13. Clean water act
    • fines for manure spills if lagoon fails
    • fines for fish kills if manure spread on fields run into stream
    • effluent from silos and compost piles must be contained and treated.
  14. organic
    • SYSTEM OF PRODUCTION, not safety or quality of food
    • National Organic Standards Board advises USDA on standards
    • rules lack consistency, may seem irrational
    • Lg farms have pretty much taken over the niche market
    • Fields and crops and feeds must be certified (expensive!).  No fertilizers, pesticides or GMO, fungicides, herbicides, for at least 3 years.  No abx during LIFE of animal, no matter how sick! (supposed to remove from organic system. 
    • no coccidiostats, no dewormers but moxidectin, fenbendazole (but offspring not organic if tx in late preg or lactation).  Fiber okay with parasiticide (90d withdrawal)
    • PASTURE must be 30% of dry matter intake for 120d/year. 
    • Milk replacer only in emergency
    • no tail docking
    • AI but no estrus control, hormones
    • vax and supplements okay, anything "natural" okay (FDA says no)
  15. Proposition2 - California
    for all or the majority of any day, farm animals must not be confined for tethered in a manner that prevents lying down, standing up, turning round or completely stretching out without touching the sides - all chickens moved out.
  16. cornual nerve location
    • behind the eye
    • underneath temporal line, on the bone
    • at the outer edge (where the icicle attaches to the roof)
    • may need partial ring block in older
    • block lasts more than 1 hour
    • clip hair after blocking
    • BLOCK with (2)-4cc of lidocaine.  Just use 4, your aim doesn't have to be so good.
  17. Barnes dehorner
    • small and large
    • Quick and easy with a good block, but you have to PUSH
    • Like hedge trimmers
    • for calves, too large animals need a keystone.
  18. Keystone dehorners
    • like hedge trimmers, guillotine.
    • Takes 2 STRONG people
    • for animals too big for the Barnes dehorner
    • Not recommended
  19. ways to dehorn (8)
    • lye paste
    • portasol: butane, what we used, not great in cold. Get GOOD butane or will plug, burn to bone and scoop out, and Express - butane/propane mix, larger tip, better in cold
    • electric dehorner: battery operated, don't have to have a plug or refill butane, good for large farms. Gets cherry red. Direct ophthalmoscope-looking. 
    • roberts: antique, spreads BLV, don't use. Looks like a microphone
    • Barnes: small and large.  Quick and easy with a good block, but you have to PUSH.  Like hedge trimmers
    • keystone dehorner: MORE like hedge trimmers, guillotine. Takes 2 STRONG people, for animals too big for the Barnes dehorner
    • flat backed saw: exactly what it sounds like. Anesthesia. 
    • obstetrical wire: exactly what it sounds like.
    • Callicrate bander: over time, rubberband works its way through bone and skin to kill.  Brutal. Not recommended.
  20. pain relief in dehorning
    • Meloxicam: extralabel. 3 15mg pills/100lbs, 12h in advance.  3d of pain relief (<$0.25)
    • Lidocaine cornual block: 4mL. Keep lido or procaine warm - it seems to work better. 
    • flunixin: only lasts a few hours and should be IV, not recommended
  21. burning too long in dehorning
    • can damage bone. 
    • Pus at site indicates dead bone, just get the nickel of dead bone out and it will be fine.
    • Can also damage brain, bad news.
  22. Portasol or Express dehorners
    • what we used
    • butane, not great in cold.  Need GOOD butane or the tip will clog. 
    • Burn all the way to the bone and then scoop the bud out.  
    • Express: butane/propane mix, larger tip, better in the cold.
  23. electric dehorner
    battery operated, don't have to have a plug or refill butane, good for large farms. Gets cherry red. Direct ophthalmoscope-looking.
  24. Roberts dehorner
    antique, spreads BLV, don't use. Looks like a microphone
  25. Polled cattle
    • Routine in beef--angus and Polled Hereford
    • Polled don't produce as well (so far) in dairy.
    • Polled trait is dominant. Genetic test available for homozygous
    • could also genome edit (from Angus) inserted into dairy breeds, but GMO so there may be FDA regulation
  26. Disbudding kids
    • twist of hair over horn buds. 
    • Burn buck kids at 3d, does at 5-7, later in Nubians and Pygmies.
    • Owners do with no anesthesia.  We tranquilize and block, then use portasol and flick out the bud. Can't get enough skin with a Barnes without also getting some brain.
    • DON'T leave a brown circle on the bone, don't stay too long!!!  no frontal sinus to protect brain. Must be hot enough to kill bud before cooking brain.  Can't suckle, brain damage!
    • give tetanus prophylaxis!
  27. blocks for dehorning goat kids
    • cornual nerve, beneath the temporal line
    • infratrochlear nerve, above the rim of the orbit towards medial canthus
    • dilute lidocaine and buffer with bicarb, 25g needle
    • xylazine (reverse!) and meloxicam.
  28. dehorning adult goats
    • tranquillize with 3mg xylazine/100lbs IV
    • local nerve blocks with 2mL 1% lidocaine (can't use too much lido!)
    • clip, scrub, cut skin all the way around with a scalpel, leave a strip of skin up the middle between the horns
    • saw off with obstetrical wire
    • pull arteries and bandage for a few days.
  29. scurs
    • horn regrowth after disbudding
    • common in bucks and intersex if done too late
  30. genetically disbudded kids
    polled gene is dominant, so homozygous PP polled doe is intersex, and buck get sperm granulomas
  31. dehorning sheep
    • just choose a different breed!
    • select for rams where horns don't grow back into skull
    • Jacob and Navajo Churro are polycerate (many-horned)
  32. sinusitis in cattle post-dehorning
    • possible after dehorning at >6mo (ONLY in winter because flies).
    • OPEN frontal sinus, but infection rare
    • Maxillary sinusitis can happen from dental disease (rare)
    • HAVE to drill in from outside to drain
  33. Nose rings
    • for restraint of bulls
    • to prevent sucking on other heifers (crown weaning rings, weaner for beef calves (plastic snap on)
    • if pull out, immediate surgical repair, rest 6mo.
Card Set:
2017-12-08 14:12:02

Vb misc
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