PoliSci Final

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  1. the absence of political rule or sovereign authority. in realist and nonrealist international relations theory, the international sphere is considered to be this because there is no sovereign authority standing above the individual states that make up the sphere. states therefore have no choice but to defend themselves
  2. legitimate power, in the sense that the individual or group exercising it is regarded as having the right to do so
  3. an approach to the study of social phenomena based on the methods used in the natural sciences. objective measurement of the social world was the goal and values were considered to have no place in social inquiry
  4. a system of government in which the legislature is divided between two separate chambers
    • ex. Canada - House of Commons
    • United States - House of Representatives and Senate
    • United Kingdom - House of Commons and House of Lords
  5. a term associated with Marxist analysis, referring to the merchant or propertied class that possesses essential economic power and therefore has control over the working class or proletariat
  6. a type of political party that has a relatively limited membership and is dominated by professional politicians
    cartel party
  7. broadly, the community of citizens; today, however, the term is often used specifically to refer to institutions such as interest groups and nongovernmental organizations that stand in an intermediary position between the individual and the state
    civil society
  8. analysis that centres on socioeconomic class (proletariat, peasantry, bourgeoisie, aristocracy); the type of political analysis associated with traditional Marxism
    class analysis
  9. a school of thought that emphasized the individual's particular community as the source of his or her identity, rights, and duties, often contrasted with cosmopolitanism
  10. originally referred to as a top-down model (ex. fascism) in which the state incorporates economic interests in order to control them and civil society general. Today/modernly, it refers to a more recent model in which governments incorporate key economic interests (ex. trade unions and business groups) into the decision making process
  11. a system in which the people rule directly, not through representatives
    direct democracy
  12. a crime under international law by the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime. It's the wilful destruction of a human group united through national, ethnical, racial or religious ties
  13. a term often preferred now to government since it reflects the broader nature of modern government, which includes not just the traditional institutions of government but also the many other factors that may influence the decisions that steer society, such as subnational and supranational institutions, the workings of the market and the role of interest groups
  14. the term has invited numerous interpretations in philosophy, politics and international relations. in IR it is usually taken to refer to a particular school of liberal thought that emerged in the wake of WWI and sought positive change in world affairs, including the elimination of warfare, it remains an appropriate designation for any school of thought in the IR that envisions a world order in which peace and justice are the norm
  15. a state in which elections are held but there is relatively little protection of rights and liberties and state control over the means of communication means that the party of power generally remains there
    illiberal democracy
  16. groups within civil society that seek to press specific interests on governments. aka, pressure groups
    interest groups
  17. a state characterized by free and fair elections, universal suffrage, a relatively high degree of personal liberty and protection of individual rights
    liberal democracy
  18. political parties that attracted millions of grassroots members (typical of the first half of the twentieth century)
    mass parties
  19. liberty that can be increased by removing external obstacles, such as physical constrains or legal prohibitions. ability to not help
    negative liberty
  20. a political theory developed in the US that focuses on the expansion of US military power to accomplish democratic regime change and other goals to further US primacy. it values patriotism, the ability to distinguish between allies and rivals internationally, and has a tendency to distrust international institutions like the UN
  21. a model in which the state concentrates on ensuring security, playing little role in civil society, and allowing the economic market to operate relatively unhindered
    night-watchman state
  22. a term used by John Rawls to denote a hypothetical situation in which individuals under a "veil of ignorance" as to their personal circumstances would decide which rules of justice should govern the society in which they will live
    original position
  23. the principle that governments are formed by prime ministers, as opposed to the heads of state, and are therefore primarily responsible to parliament. Canada uses this system
  24. originated as a normative argument against monoism or sameness. in political theory it is usually associated with a theory of the state according to which political power is diffuse, all organized groups having some influence on state outputs. in international relations, it is associated both with the "English School" and with neoliberal theory, highlighting the multiplicity or plurality of forces at work in the international system
  25. a simple majority of votes ("first-past-the-post wins") as distinct from an absolute majority (51%+)
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PoliSci Final
2017-12-02 19:35:46
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