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  1. 28 June 1389
    • Battle of Kosovo
    • Beginning of 500 years of Turkish Ottoman rule
    • Christian serbs leave the region over next few decades
    • Over next few centuries religious and ethnic balance tips towards Muslims and Albanians
  2. 1689 - 90
    Austrian invasion is repelled
  3. 1960s
    Belgrade shows increasing tolerance for Kosovar autonomy
  4. 1974
    • Yugoslav constitution recognizes autonomous status of Kosovo
    • de facto self-government
  5. Root cause
    • collapse of Yugoslavia
    • nationalism
  6. 2008
  7. 1878
    • Congress of Berlin
    • Albanian nationalists created League of Prizren
    • in defense of language and culture
  8. Albanians under Ottoman Empire
    • around 750,000
    • mercenaries, advisers to Sultans
    • important
    • 70% adopted Islam
  9. Balkan Wars
    • 1912 - 1913
    • first all-european conflict in 20th century
    • mass armies, industrial warfare and civilian displacement on a large scale
  10. First Balkan War
    • 1912-1913
    • loose alliance of Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro against Ottoman Empire
    • alliance was called Balkan League
    • Russia supported
    • Montenegro began it in October
    • Turkey already fighting Italy
    • successful
    • Turkey collapse followed by an armistice in Dec, also peace conference
    • peace conference in London
  11. Treaty of London
    • May 1913
    • removed almost all Ottoman Empire's Europe territory
    • Albania gained sovereignty
    • Macedonia divided between Balkan allies
  12. Second Balkan War
    • June 1913
    • Serbia, Romania and Greece vs Bulgaria concerning Macedonia
    • Serbia and Greece form alliance
    • defeat Bulgaria
    • Bulgaria left with little portion of Macedonia
  13. WW1
    • Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip assassinated Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914
    • Albania retained neutrality
    • Serbian and Italian nationalism - if victory, would consume Balkans
    • October 1918 Serbia occupied Kosovo (regarded as heartland of Serbia)
    • Unease among Albanians - not slav
  14. between the wars
    • as compensation to Serbia the union of Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
    • 1929 renamed Yugoslavia: Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia
    • dominated by Serbia
    • held together for 20 years
    • croats and slovenes wanted economic and political balance
    • characteristics: economic underdevelopment, ethnic tensions, weak institutions
    • stresses which would eventually result in military or monarchical dictatorship
  15. military and monarchical dictatorship
    • Serbian monarch King Aleksandar declared dictatorship in 1929, a year after assassination of Croatian leader Stjepan Radic
    • assassinated in Marseilles in 1934 by Croatian extremists
    • Bulgaria and Romania in 1930s
    • Greeks dissolved parliament + dictatorship under Ioannis Metaxas
    • Turkey one-party state under Kemal Ataturk until 1938
  16. Albanian dictatorship
    • Kosovo under Serb rule but caught up in Albanian politics
    • Ahmed Zogu seized power in 1922
    • declared himself King Zog in 1928
    • Albania = puppet state under Italian influence
    • annexed to Mussolini's Italy in 1939
    • Kosovo part of Greater Albania in 1941
  17. WW2
    • axis powers invaded Yugoslavia, occupied whole Balkan Peninsula
    • ethnic division turn into civil war: croats vs serbs
    • croats allied with axis powers
    • croat leader pavelic campaigns against non-croatian minorities (serbs, roma jews) - genocide
    • ustaša: croatian fascist movement, modelled on italian fascism, wanted croatian independence from yugoslavia
    • croatia: concentration camps (Jasenovac - killed mostly serbs)
    • resistance to axis powers: chetniks (royalists, pro-serbian, under Draza Mihailovic) and partisans (communist under Josip Broz Tito)
    • armed conflict between chetniks and partisans
    • 1994 allies switch from supporting chetniks to supporting partisans (more aggressive)
    • partisans: most effective resistance, drove German forces out by 1945, Yugoslavia suffered most per capita
  18. after WW2
    • political vacuum
    • surrender of Italy and Albania in 1943
    • Kosovo is a pawn, liberated in 1944 with the help of albanian partisans and communists
    • annexed to Serbia in February 1945 - autonomous region
    • Hoxha in Albania: isolated country
  19. beginning of Yugoslavia
    • liberated itself, independent
    • under Tito
    • tried to model it after Soviet Union
    • Stalin felt threatened
    • after January 1948 relationship between Yugoslavia and soviet union broke apart
    • finding a 'third way'
    • reconciling elements of both right and left politics and economy
    • west offered Tito money to move towards western bloc
    • mid-1950s becomes one of the leaders of the Non-Aligned Movement
  20. Albania during Cold War
    • 1948 gives up demands for kosovo
    • under Hoxha: more authoritarian, aligned with Moscow, closed borders with Yugoslavia, a programme of social engineering
    • 1953 Stalin dies, relations with Soviets worsened
    • regime breaks with Soviet Union in early 1960s
    • alignment with China (limited assistance)
    • stagnation of economy
    • attempt at cultural revolution modeled on Mao's (closed religious institutions, sent intellectuals to countryside)
    • within a decade relations with China broke down
  21. Tito's rule
    • 'open' socialist country
    • attempt to balance power between republic
    • repression of nationalism
    • managing a course between east and west
    • re-established relations with Khurshchev
    • retained independence
    • did not break methods of communist rule
    • self-management: decision making could be taken to workers' councils in different republics
    • 1945 Kosovo and Vojvodina made autonomous units within Serbia - to weaken serbia
    • separated Montenegro into an independent republic
    • 1970s economic growth stagnates
    • 1974 new constitution - gave Kosovo an equivalent status to those of republics
    • exercised absolute power until death in May 1980
    • granted autonomy, but didn't surrender power
  22. Kosovo during Tito's rule
    • policies favored Albanian minority
    • migration of Serbs out of Kosovo
    • 1968: riot of albanian students in Pristina
    • followed by: establishment of University in Pristina in 1969-1970, allowed to display Albanian flag
  23. rise of nationalism
    • rise of serb nationalism in mid 1980s
    • began with protest over quality of food in the university canteen in pristina in March 1981
    • became more widespread - criticism of authorities
    • kosovo: unemployment levels highest in country
    • protests warranted state of emergency, troops from federal government
    • deaths unleashed nationalism of both serbs and albanians
    • reaction increased lack of trust and hostility between kosovo and government
    • mid 1980s steady stream of propaganda from belgrade - heavy impact on public serbian opinion
    • serbs still held most positions of power in kosovo
    • economic migrants perceived as victims of atrocities
    • albanian majority growing due to emigration of serbs and greater birth rates among muslim albanians
  24. rise of slobodan milosevic
    • SANU published claim serbs were being subject to genocide in 1984
    • 1987 stambolic sent milosevic to kosovo
    • used nationalism to further own purpose
    • meeting on kosovo polje meant to quell trouble and reassure serbs
    • planned broadcast of events
    • rallying call: no one should dare to beat you
    • stambolic forced to resign in december 1987, replaced by milosevic
  25. constitutional reform in yugoslavia
    • 1989 - 1991
    • role of media
    • milosevic continued to orchestrate demonstrations
    • made kosovo a lading issue
    • in order to gain control of yugoslav state he secured four votes
    • by winning over people through nationalism he secured vojvodina in 1988, montenegro in 1989
    • stripped kosovo of autonomy in 1988, gained kosovo vote
    • when albanian leaders were replaced, miners of trepca demonstrated, marched to pristina (mine was 70% of country's wealth)
    • federal parliament adopted constitutional changes - kosovo voted for its own dissolution as an autonomous unit
    • 28 march 1989 new constitution was declared
    • serbia controlled four of eight votes
  26. gazimestan speech
    • on 600th anniversary of battle of kosovo
    • 28 june 
    • speech not inflammatory in itself
    • referred to historical uncertainty of the battle
    • allusions to nationalism
  27. 1989 year of change
    • protests continued, were dealt with by forces of law and order
    • slovenia changed its constitution
    • slovenia and croatia left the last party congress of yugoslavia on january 1990 in belgrade
  28. disintegration of yugoslavia
    • 1991 slovenia and croatia break away from yugoslav federation
    • milan kucan and franjo tudjman as presidents
    • problems in croatia due to 12% serbian population - opposed secession
    • gained status of national minority
    • croatian serbs in knin formed a separatist body calle SAO Krajina (resistance to croatian authorities in summer 1990)
    • december 1991 croatian serbs created the republic of serbian krajina
  29. croatia's war for independece
    • declared independence in June 1991
    • fighting already in April (serbian krajina, supported by yugoslav people's army which was mostly serb)
    • war in croatia due to ethnic hatreds, brutal, yugoslav army targeted civilian areas including dubrovnik and split
  30. slovenia's war for independence
    • declared independence in June 1991
    • 10 days
    • most developed state
    • largest tourist revenue
    • june 1991 government took control over border posts and international airport
    • after three days european community proposed ceaseire
    • conflict ended on June 7
    • less than 100 dead on both sides
    • small number of ethnic serbs
    • independence recognized by european community in following year
  31. repression of albanian independence campaign
    • kosovo's campaign for independence overshadowed
    • 1989 special measures adopted to control dissent in the province to separate from serbia
    • summer 1990 further protests in kosovo
    • july - albanian delegates meet in front of assmbly building to declare kosovo an independent republic
    • a week later serbian parliament dissolved the kosovo assembly and banned albanian language media and broadcasts
    • september 1990 same delegates met and drew up constitution for the republic of kosovo
    • decided they would seek full independece
    • september 1991 referendum, 99% vote in favour of independent state - was proclaimed
    • role of LDK founded in 1989 led by Ibrahim Rugova
  32. Rugova
    • pacifist
    • advocated province should be a democratic sovereign state independent of serbia
    • worked to develop a parallel system of education, health services and local government (denied to albanians by serbs in 1990)
    • peaceful approach led to kosovo being ignored in the dayton agreements 
    • after 1995 serbs turned attention back towards kosovo, rugova's role changed
    • elected as president in 1992, not granted international recognition
    • KLA formed in 1996 due to increasing frustration
    • re-elected in 1998, 2002, 2004
    • president until death in January 2006
  33. bosnian war
    • April 1992 - December 1995
    • lessons learned from rwanda had an impact
    • intervention in 1999 in kosovo
    • 44% muslims, 31% serbs, 17% croats, 5% other
    • serb minority objected to secession - would leave them a minority
    • declared independence in April 1992
    • serbs and croats in bosnia wanted to annex bosnian territory for their own states
    • milosevic and tito met in march 1991 to work out a deal over the division of bosnia
    • milosevic created a serbian army in bosnia - began 'cleansing' large areas
    • genocide
    • over 100,000 killed, 1 mill displaced, 50,000 women raped
    • massacres in Prijedor in 1992 and Srebrenica 1995
    • Omarska detention camp in Northern Bosnia 1992
    • siege of Sarajevo in 1992 (11,500 dead)
    • destruction of old bridge by croats in 1993
    • declaration of safe zones for muslims by un in 1995: srebrenica, sarajevo, tuzla, bihac, zepa, gorazde
    • nato air strikes in 1994 and 1995
    • use of air power in bosnia in 1995
  34. impact of bosnian war on kosovo
    • rugova refused to back the croats against the serbs in early 1990s - prevented ethnic cleansing in kosovo
    • bosnian war made situation more dangerous for albanians
    • economic deterioration in serbia affected kosovo
    • KLA begins attacks in 1996
  35. slide into war
    • 1995 dayton agreements don't acknowledge kosovo's status
    • slide into war 1996-1998
    • KLA: founded in early 1990s, disorganized collection of disaffected kosovar albanians
    • 1996 KLA starts actively engaging in coordinated attacks on serbian police stations and public places
    • attacks escalated over next two years
    • terrorist methods
    • weapons easily available due to financial collapse of albania in summer of 1997
    • clashes between students and authorities in pristina
    • Serbia and US see KLA as terrorists
    • June 1998 US initiates talks with KLA
    • March attempted arrest of one of the founders of KLA by Serbian police - killed in the attempt, made a martyr
  36. shadow state
    • 1990 - 1998
    • in protest against serbia
    • rugova
    • boycotting serbain authorities in kosovo - boycotted elections
    • by doing so they actually kept milosevic in power (they needed him to have something to fight against - a cause that would lead them to independence)
  37. 1981 student protests
    • provoked by economic and social deterioration
    • labeled as counter revolutionary
    • protesters sentenced to prison
    • yugoslav authorities unwilling to recognize their demands - only rallied more albanians to the cause
    • radicalized both nationalisms
  38. 1981 census
    • proved serbs had become a minority
    • used for political gain
Card Set:
2017-12-04 10:30:28
conflict and intervention: kosovo
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