Poultry

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  1. How broiler chickens compare to other domestic feed animals
    The most favorable feed conversion ratio (1.8, better than cattle, sheep, swine, and turkeys
  2. Hatcheries
    • Specialized facilities designed to hatch fertilized eggs received from breeder farms
    • placed in incubators and carefully monitored for humidity and temperature
  3. Top consumption and production
    • Americans consume the most chicken
    • Mexicans consume the most eggs
    • Georgia, Arkansas, Alabama, NC, Mississippi, Texas produce the most chickens
  4. three biggest broiler companies
    • Tyson
    • Pilgrim’s Pride
    • Perdue Farms Inc
    • 46.5% of industry
  5. HACCP
    • Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
    • protocol of cleanliness and safety by plants, restaurants and food service industries
  6. Top producers and consumers of eggs
    • US: 263.3 eggs/person
    • Mexico: 335 eggs/person
    • Production states: Iowa, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, California
    • Tope 10 companies have 48% of industry.
  7. colored eggs
    • Made by chickens with brown ear lobes. 
    • Protoporphyrin responsible, nutritionally the same
  8. Broiler breeds (3)
    • Cornish Hen
    • Cornish Cross
    • White Plymouth Rock
  9. Layer breeds (2)
    • Small bodied and selected for high egg production
    • White leghorns: mediterranean class, lay white eggs. Basis of commercial industry. 
    • Rhode Island Red: American class.  Production bred strains.  Brown eggs
  10. FDA rule for egg laying farms
    • Prevention of Salmonella in shell eggs during production, storage and transport
    • producers with 3,000 hens or more
    • Salmonella testing, biosecurity
  11. Turkey industry numbers
    • 228 million turkeys raised in US
    • $805 million export (14%)
    • 5 export markets: Mexico, china, Hong Kong, Canada, Dominican Republic
  12. commercial varieties of turkeys
    • broad-breasted bronze
    • broad-breasted white
    • 35-42lbs in 16-19 lbs
    • Butterball #1
    • Minnesota, NC, Arkansas, Indiana, Missouri etc
  13. turkey production houses
    • AI every 3 weeks
    • Brooder barn/house 0-5wks
    • Grower/finisher house after
  14. Common viral diseases of chickens (6)
    • Marek’s Disease
    • Newcastle
    • Infectious Bronchitis
    • Avian Influenza
    • Infectious Laryngotracheitis
    • Fowl Pox
  15. Common bacterial diseases in chickens (4)
    • E coli
    • Salmonella
    • Mycoplasma
    • pasteurella (backyard chickens)
  16. Nutritional diseases of chickens
    • Ca/Vit D3
    • Backyard: A, E, B
  17. Parasitic diseases of chickens (3, 4)
    • External (backyard): lice, mites, ticks
    • internal: nematodes (backyard), cestodes (backyard), coccidia, protozoa
  18. Marek’s Disease
    • Tumor causing disease
    • caused by Herpesvirus
    • chicks infected by ingestion or inhalation of virus
    • transmission from infected premises
    • dander from feather follicles infectious for more than 1 year
    • Illness between 10-20 weeks.  Mortality 5-50% in unvax
    • signs: weight loss. Paralysis (classic form), tumors in multiple organs. Tumors of feather follicles, irregular pupil and discolored iris. Look for swollen nerves sciatic. 
    • Dx: signs (paralysis), gross lesions, histo, PCR***, immunohistochem with virus-specific abs
    • tx: control is vax at 1d!
  19. Lymphoid leukosis virus
    • Neoplastic dz in chickens older than 25wks
    • transmitted vertically from egg or horizontal exposure at hatching
    • signs: pale, listless, thin, prominent keel. Enlarged abdomen (huge liver, tumors of internal organs (liver, spleen, kidneys, bursa. NEVER NERVES)
    • Etiologies agent: Avian leukosis virus
    • tx: no tx. Breed from leukosis-free breeders, test frequently.
  20. Poultry resp diseases
    • Newcastle
    • infectious bronchitis
    • avian influenza
    • infectious laryngotracheitis
    • fowl pox (wet form, dry is skin)
  21. Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis
    • VERY SIMILAR
    • Newcastle: paramyxovirus affecting chickens and turkeys. Neuro form, exotic is high mortality
    • IBV: coronavirus affecting chickens only
    • signs: resp (labored breathing, wheezing, gurgling) and reproduction, drop in egg production.  Lacrimation, sinusitis, dyspnea, depression, mucoid oral and tracheal discharge.  Thin shelled eggs or no shell
    • Spread: VERY contagious through droppings and resp discharge
    • Tx: vax! No tx
    • Zoo: conjunctivitis in humans from Newcastle
  22. Avian influenza
    • Extremely contagious orthomyxovirus
    • Lots of combinations, type A in humans, swine, avian, equine etc. MIX!
    • wild birds esp waterfowl, asymptomatic (natural reservoir). Transmission: airborne, direct contact. Infected shed in saliva, nasal secretions, feces.
    • types: low path = mild illness and drop in egg production, some can switch to high.  High path = severe, high mortality. 
    • Signs: resp disease, drop in egg production, swelling of head and neck, swollen sinuses, comb cyanosis. 
    • Dx: Lab for subtype.
    • Zoo: HUMAN HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE. Some have 50% mortality
    • Tx: none.
  23. Fowl Pox
    • Two types: wet and dry
    • specific for chickens
    • transmission by direct contact with infected birds or mosquitos. 
    • VAX - only control. Immune for life.
    • Dry: Yellow/brown scabs on non-feathered
    • wet: yellow, caseous lesions in mouth, esophagus, trachea. Like ILT.
  24. Infectious Laryngotraceheitis (ILT)
    • Resp spread (or fomites). 
    • Herpes
    • severe resp distress from clotted blood and caseous exudate.
  25. colibacillosis
    • E. coli is main or secondary pathogen. 
    • Air sacculitis, pericarditis, ophalitis (egg sac), peritonitis (includes yolks), salpingitis, synovitis
    • tx: abx rarely, but terramycin or duramycin in water, 24h w/d
  26. salmonellosis (2)
    • salmonella pullorum: host specific, vertical in chicks and turkeys. White diarrhea in first week. Eliminated in commercial (exotic)
    • paratyphoid salmonella: not host specific (not just poultry). Signs in young. Drowsy, eyes closed, ruffled feathers, cold, diarrhea, dehydration, pasty vent, inflamm of repro organs, liver, heart
    • prevent with biosecurity, commercial vax. Rarely abx.
    • tx if abx: terramycin or duramycin in water, 24h w/d
  27. Mycoplasma
    • Gallisepticum and synoviae
    • Turkeys and broilers
    • infecious sinusitis in turkeys
    • hard to control
    • Vertical - hatchery infections, exposure to infected birds or fomites/equipment
    • signs: conjunctivitis, infraorbital swelling, eyelids swollen shut, synovitis. 
    • Tx: tylosin in water
  28. nutritional diseases
    • usu where feed is made not bought
    • vitamins unstable and destroyed by sun
    • rickets: Ca and vit D def.
  29. coccidiosis
    • Oocysts in droppings, horizontal spread to others in pen
    • Eimeria - 9 types in chx
    • worse in wet and humid, outbreaks in spring/summer
    • mgmt with coccidiostats in feed and cleaning up litter (dry!)
    • tx: coccidiostats, amprolium, sulfa drugs (not for layers)
  30. Sampling for chicken viral resp diseases
    • Choanal, tracheal or oropharyngeal swabs for chickens and turkeys, cloacal swabs for ducks. 
    • Place in Viral Transport Media (VTM)
    • or submit trachea, lungs, cecal tonsils, kidneys and spleen in ziplock for VI or PCR
  31. Fowl cholera
    • Infectious disease of poultry characterized by acute septicemia with high morbidity and mortality or a chronic, localized form of the disease. Swollen, ulcerated lesions on hairless/head
    • pasteurella multocida (gram neg bi-polar staining bacillus)
    • tx: sulfa drugs and abx like pencillin, tetracycline, streptomycin (no sulfas in layers).  Move to clean premises to slow. Early marketing if you can’t control it.
  32. Histomoniasis (blackhead) = histomonas meleagridis
    • esp pathogenic for turkeys under 3mo
    • ingestion of contaminated feces or earthworms containing cecal worm (which carries it)
    • signs: sulfur-colored diarrhea and pathognomonic “target” lesions in liver, ceca. High mortality in turkeys.  
    • Caseous cores in enlarged cecum.
  33. Lice - menacanthus,stamineus,menopon gallinae
    • Species specific
    • head louse (head and neck), body louse (vent, breast, head), shaft louse (feather shaft), wing louse (feather barbules)
    • signs: restless, constant preening and scratching,poor weight gain and egg production, feather loss and irritation around vent, tail and breast.  Severe can cause mortality esp in chicks. 
    • Grossly visible esp during the day
    • eggs are white cemented clumps around base of feather  shaft like salt or sugar.
    • tx: carbaryl (Sevin) spray or dust, malathion spray, permethrin spray or dust. q2wks, inspect monthly.
  34. Mites
    • Lots of time OFF bird, spread by fomites.  Come out at night, hide during day. 
    • Wild birds involved. 
    • Northern fowl mite, chicken mite (red mite), scaly leg mite - ivermectin or coat leg with petroleum jelly or sulfur to suffocate. Brush kerosine + linseed oil on legs and perches to prevent.
  35. Capillaria
    • Nematode
    • signs in heavy infestation: poor growth, reduced egg production and fertility
    • Lesions: erosion of intestinal lining and severe inflammation +/- hemorrhage. Adults in intestinal tract with heavy infestation.
  36. cecal worms - heterakis gallinae
    • doesn’t affect health of bird
    • but transmits histomonas meleagridis
    • Eggs are viable for a long time
  37. Ascarids
    • Ascaridia Galli most common
    • chickens and turkeys
    • adults seen during necropsy or occasionally found in eggs
    • eggs for 2y in lab or 1y outside. 
    • Extra-label tx
  38. we usually see vitamin deficiencies in chickens because
    People try to make their own feed
  39. Bumblefoot
    • Local injury to integumentary of avian foot leads to scab formation and inflammation of SQ tissues with staph infection
    • sequelae includes tendonitis and osteomyelitis
    • trauma and poor litter conditions predispose. 
    • Tx: Clinda, doxy, or lincomycin, or amoxi. Remove pus/caseous material, wash and disinfect with iodine. Put a pad over, then put a cast or cut up tennis ball over that to prevent pressure. Stay out of water (ducks). Abx until healed. Fix mgmt.
  40. causes of swollen abdomen in chickens
    • Ascites
    • tumors
    • fat deposition
    • cystic oviduct
    • impacted oviduct
    • salpingitis
  41. ascites or pulmonary hypertension syndrome
    • abdominal distension, reluctance to move, resp distress
    • lesions = hypertrophy and dilation of R ventricle with or without accumulation of fluid in coelomic cavity. Or hydropericardium, fibrin clots in ascetic fluid and fibrotic liver. 
    • Recommend feed restriction programs (fat!)
  42. Salpingitis
    • sporadic in older hens, can increase in outbreaks involving salmonella, mycoplasma, pasteurella and E. coli
    • left abdominal lair sac or coelomic cavity can extend into oviduct.
    • ascending can occur with cloacal injuries (cannibalism)
    • mucosal folds of viaduct become edematous early, adherent fibrinopurulent exudate accumulates.
    • Ovaduct stretches due to masses of laminated cheesy exudate, ovduct non-functional, ovaries atrophy. 
    • Emaciation, diarrhea, death

Card Set Information

Author:
XQWCat
ID:
336549
Filename:
Poultry
Updated:
2017-12-05 17:04:39
Tags:
Vb
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Description:
Vb Poultry
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