The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards.
How broiler chickens compare to other domestic feed animals
The most favorable feed conversion ratio (1.8, better than cattle, sheep, swine, and turkeys
- Specialized facilities designed to hatch fertilized eggs received from breeder farms
- placed in incubators and carefully monitored for humidity and temperature
Top consumption and production
- Americans consume the most chicken
- Mexicans consume the most eggs
- Georgia, Arkansas, Alabama, NC, Mississippi, Texas produce the most chickens
three biggest broiler companies
- Pilgrim’s Pride
- Perdue Farms Inc
- 46.5% of industry
- Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
- protocol of cleanliness and safety by plants, restaurants and food service industries
Top producers and consumers of eggs
- US: 263.3 eggs/person
- Mexico: 335 eggs/person
- Production states: Iowa, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, California
- Tope 10 companies have 48% of industry.
- Made by chickens with brown ear lobes.
- Protoporphyrin responsible, nutritionally the same
Broiler breeds (3)
- Cornish Hen
- Cornish Cross
- White Plymouth Rock
Layer breeds (2)
- Small bodied and selected for high egg production
- White leghorns: mediterranean class, lay white eggs. Basis of commercial industry.
- Rhode Island Red: American class. Production bred strains. Brown eggs
FDA rule for egg laying farms
- Prevention of Salmonella in shell eggs during production, storage and transport
- producers with 3,000 hens or more
- Salmonella testing, biosecurity
Turkey industry numbers
- 228 million turkeys raised in US
- $805 million export (14%)
- 5 export markets: Mexico, china, Hong Kong, Canada, Dominican Republic
commercial varieties of turkeys
- broad-breasted bronze
- broad-breasted white
- 35-42lbs in 16-19 lbs
- Butterball #1
- Minnesota, NC, Arkansas, Indiana, Missouri etc
turkey production houses
- AI every 3 weeks
- Brooder barn/house 0-5wks
- Grower/finisher house after
Common viral diseases of chickens (6)
- Marek’s Disease
- Infectious Bronchitis
- Avian Influenza
- Infectious Laryngotracheitis
- Fowl Pox
Common bacterial diseases in chickens (4)
- E coli
- pasteurella (backyard chickens)
Nutritional diseases of chickens
- Ca/Vit D3
- Backyard: A, E, B
Parasitic diseases of chickens (3, 4)
- External (backyard): lice, mites, ticks
- internal: nematodes (backyard), cestodes (backyard), coccidia, protozoa
- Tumor causing disease
- caused by Herpesvirus
- chicks infected by ingestion or inhalation of virus
- transmission from infected premises
- dander from feather follicles infectious for more than 1 year
- Illness between 10-20 weeks. Mortality 5-50% in unvax
- signs: weight loss. Paralysis (classic form), tumors in multiple organs. Tumors of feather follicles, irregular pupil and discolored iris. Look for swollen nerves sciatic.
- Dx: signs (paralysis), gross lesions, histo, PCR***, immunohistochem with virus-specific abs
- tx: control is vax at 1d!
Lymphoid leukosis virus
- Neoplastic dz in chickens older than 25wks
- transmitted vertically from egg or horizontal exposure at hatching
- signs: pale, listless, thin, prominent keel. Enlarged abdomen (huge liver, tumors of internal organs (liver, spleen, kidneys, bursa. NEVER NERVES)
- Etiologies agent: Avian leukosis virus
- tx: no tx. Breed from leukosis-free breeders, test frequently.
Poultry resp diseases
- infectious bronchitis
- avian influenza
- infectious laryngotracheitis
- fowl pox (wet form, dry is skin)
Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis
- VERY SIMILAR
- Newcastle: paramyxovirus affecting chickens and turkeys. Neuro form, exotic is high mortality
- IBV: coronavirus affecting chickens only
- signs: resp (labored breathing, wheezing, gurgling) and reproduction, drop in egg production. Lacrimation, sinusitis, dyspnea, depression, mucoid oral and tracheal discharge. Thin shelled eggs or no shell
- Spread: VERY contagious through droppings and resp discharge
- Tx: vax! No tx
- Zoo: conjunctivitis in humans from Newcastle
- Extremely contagious orthomyxovirus
- Lots of combinations, type A in humans, swine, avian, equine etc. MIX!
- wild birds esp waterfowl, asymptomatic (natural reservoir). Transmission: airborne, direct contact. Infected shed in saliva, nasal secretions, feces.
- types: low path = mild illness and drop in egg production, some can switch to high. High path = severe, high mortality.
- Signs: resp disease, drop in egg production, swelling of head and neck, swollen sinuses, comb cyanosis.
- Dx: Lab for subtype.
- Zoo: HUMAN HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE. Some have 50% mortality
- Tx: none.
- Two types: wet and dry
- specific for chickens
- transmission by direct contact with infected birds or mosquitos.
- VAX - only control. Immune for life.
- Dry: Yellow/brown scabs on non-feathered
- wet: yellow, caseous lesions in mouth, esophagus, trachea. Like ILT.
Infectious Laryngotraceheitis (ILT)
- Resp spread (or fomites).
- severe resp distress from clotted blood and caseous exudate.
- E. coli is main or secondary pathogen.
- Air sacculitis, pericarditis, ophalitis (egg sac), peritonitis (includes yolks), salpingitis, synovitis
- tx: abx rarely, but terramycin or duramycin in water, 24h w/d
- salmonella pullorum: host specific, vertical in chicks and turkeys. White diarrhea in first week. Eliminated in commercial (exotic)
- paratyphoid salmonella: not host specific (not just poultry). Signs in young. Drowsy, eyes closed, ruffled feathers, cold, diarrhea, dehydration, pasty vent, inflamm of repro organs, liver, heart
- prevent with biosecurity, commercial vax. Rarely abx.
- tx if abx: terramycin or duramycin in water, 24h w/d
- Gallisepticum and synoviae
- Turkeys and broilers
- infecious sinusitis in turkeys
- hard to control
- Vertical - hatchery infections, exposure to infected birds or fomites/equipment
- signs: conjunctivitis, infraorbital swelling, eyelids swollen shut, synovitis.
- Tx: tylosin in water
- usu where feed is made not bought
- vitamins unstable and destroyed by sun
- rickets: Ca and vit D def.
- Oocysts in droppings, horizontal spread to others in pen
- Eimeria - 9 types in chx
- worse in wet and humid, outbreaks in spring/summer
- mgmt with coccidiostats in feed and cleaning up litter (dry!)
- tx: coccidiostats, amprolium, sulfa drugs (not for layers)
Sampling for chicken viral resp diseases
- Choanal, tracheal or oropharyngeal swabs for chickens and turkeys, cloacal swabs for ducks.
- Place in Viral Transport Media (VTM)
- or submit trachea, lungs, cecal tonsils, kidneys and spleen in ziplock for VI or PCR
- Infectious disease of poultry characterized by acute septicemia with high morbidity and mortality or a chronic, localized form of the disease. Swollen, ulcerated lesions on hairless/head
- pasteurella multocida (gram neg bi-polar staining bacillus)
- tx: sulfa drugs and abx like pencillin, tetracycline, streptomycin (no sulfas in layers). Move to clean premises to slow. Early marketing if you can’t control it.
Histomoniasis (blackhead) = histomonas meleagridis
- esp pathogenic for turkeys under 3mo
- ingestion of contaminated feces or earthworms containing cecal worm (which carries it)
- signs: sulfur-colored diarrhea and pathognomonic “target” lesions in liver, ceca. High mortality in turkeys.
- Caseous cores in enlarged cecum.
Lice - menacanthus,stamineus,menopon gallinae
- Species specific
- head louse (head and neck), body louse (vent, breast, head), shaft louse (feather shaft), wing louse (feather barbules)
- signs: restless, constant preening and scratching,poor weight gain and egg production, feather loss and irritation around vent, tail and breast. Severe can cause mortality esp in chicks.
- Grossly visible esp during the day
- eggs are white cemented clumps around base of feather shaft like salt or sugar.
- tx: carbaryl (Sevin) spray or dust, malathion spray, permethrin spray or dust. q2wks, inspect monthly.
- Lots of time OFF bird, spread by fomites. Come out at night, hide during day.
- Wild birds involved.
- Northern fowl mite, chicken mite (red mite), scaly leg mite - ivermectin or coat leg with petroleum jelly or sulfur to suffocate. Brush kerosine + linseed oil on legs and perches to prevent.
- signs in heavy infestation: poor growth, reduced egg production and fertility
- Lesions: erosion of intestinal lining and severe inflammation +/- hemorrhage. Adults in intestinal tract with heavy infestation.
cecal worms - heterakis gallinae
- doesn’t affect health of bird
- but transmits histomonas meleagridis
- Eggs are viable for a long time
- Ascaridia Galli most common
- chickens and turkeys
- adults seen during necropsy or occasionally found in eggs
- eggs for 2y in lab or 1y outside.
- Extra-label tx
we usually see vitamin deficiencies in chickens because
People try to make their own feed
- Local injury to integumentary of avian foot leads to scab formation and inflammation of SQ tissues with staph infection
- sequelae includes tendonitis and osteomyelitis
- trauma and poor litter conditions predispose.
- Tx: Clinda, doxy, or lincomycin, or amoxi. Remove pus/caseous material, wash and disinfect with iodine. Put a pad over, then put a cast or cut up tennis ball over that to prevent pressure. Stay out of water (ducks). Abx until healed. Fix mgmt.
causes of swollen abdomen in chickens
- fat deposition
- cystic oviduct
- impacted oviduct
ascites or pulmonary hypertension syndrome
- abdominal distension, reluctance to move, resp distress
- lesions = hypertrophy and dilation of R ventricle with or without accumulation of fluid in coelomic cavity. Or hydropericardium, fibrin clots in ascetic fluid and fibrotic liver.
- Recommend feed restriction programs (fat!)
- sporadic in older hens, can increase in outbreaks involving salmonella, mycoplasma, pasteurella and E. coli
- left abdominal lair sac or coelomic cavity can extend into oviduct.
- ascending can occur with cloacal injuries (cannibalism)
- mucosal folds of viaduct become edematous early, adherent fibrinopurulent exudate accumulates.
- Ovaduct stretches due to masses of laminated cheesy exudate, ovduct non-functional, ovaries atrophy.
- Emaciation, diarrhea, death