Body Structure

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Body Structure
2010-09-09 18:45:21
Body Structure

Body Structure Key Terms
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  1. chromatin
    Structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins
  2. chromosome
    Threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that carries hereditary information encoded in genes
  3. cytoplasm
    Jellylike substance found within the cell membrane composed of proteins, salts, water, dissoved gases and nutrients
  4. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    Molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenver the cell divides
  5. diaphragm
    Muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
  6. metabolism
    Sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism
  7. organelle
    Cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus (reproduction), ribosomes (protein synthesis), Golgi apparatus (removal of material from the cell), and lysosomes (digestion).
  8. pathology
    Study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development and consequences.
  9. peristalsis
    Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular organ to propel its contents onward.
  10. Levels of organization
    • Cell
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • System
    • Organism
  11. Body Systems
    • Gastrointestinal
    • Reproductive
    • Respiratory
    • Urinary
    • Cardiovascular
  12. Planes of the Body
    • 1. Midsagittal (median) - right & left halves
    • 2. Coronal (frontal) - anterior (ventral) & posterior (dorsal)
    • 3. Transverse (horizontal) - superior (upper) & inferior (lower)
  13. Body Cavities
    • 1. Dorsal (posterior), including the cranial and spinal cavities
    • 2. Ventral (anterior), including the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
  14. Major organ in the CRANIAL cavity
  15. Major Organ in the SPINAL cavity
    Spinal cord
  16. Major organs in the THORACIC cavity
    Heart, lungs and associated structures
  17. Major organs in the ABDOMINOPELVIC cavity
    Digestive, excretory and reproductive organs and structures
  18. Quadrants of the body
    • 1. Right upper (RUQ)
    • 2. Left upper (LUQ)
    • 3. Right lower (RLQ)
    • 4. Left lower (LLQ)
  19. Major structures in the RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT
    Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
  20. Major structures of the LEFT UPPER QUADRANT
    Left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines.
  21. Major structures in the RIGHT LOWER QUADRANT
    Part of small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter
  22. Major structures in the LEFT LOWER QUADRANT
    Part of small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
  23. Divisions of the spine
    • Cervical (neck)
    • Thoracic (chest)
    • Lumbar (loin)
    • Sacral (lower back)
    • Coccyx (tailbone)
  24. Nine abdominopelvic regions
    • Left hypochondriac
    • Epigastric
    • Right hypochondriac

    • Left lumbar
    • Umbilical
    • Right Lumbar

    • Left inguinal (iliac)
    • Hypogatric
    • Right inguinal (iliac)