history of conservation
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BOB MARSHALL (1901-1939)
- Founder of the wilderness society
- head of recreation and lands for the US Forest Service
- Shaped US Forest Service Policy on "wilderness designation and management"
ALDO LEOPOLD (1887-1948)
- "father of wildlife ecology"
- 1924 with bob marshall designated the first forest service wilderness area
- 1933 published "game management"
- 1935 helped found the wilderness society
- 1939 helped found the wildlife society
- 1949 published "sand county almanac"
- promoted sustainable land use
WHAT DID THE RESTORATION OF THE 1930'S INCLUDE?
- preservation had become restoration
- soil and water recognized as a natural resource
- - this was because of "the dust bowl" and "the great depression"
CCC-1933 (CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS)
2,652 camps in North America did soil and water conservation reforestation etc.
TVA-1933 (TENNESSE VALLEY AUTHORITY)
conservation of soil, water, forest and wildlife in an entire drainage basin
SCS-1935 (SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE)
help farmers and teach them proper farming practices, developed because of the dust bowl
WHAT HAPPENED IN 1940's?
US Fish and Wildlife service created in the Dept of the interior, divided into regions
WHAT HAPPENED IN THE 1950'S?
increased urbanization resulted in increase of fragmentation of natural ecosystems
WHAT WAS THE RESULT OF WWII?
- atomic energy creates a new source of "clean" electrical power
- but: nuclear power = bombs
WHO WAS PART OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY?
JFK and stewart udall during the 1960's
RACHEL CARSON (1907-1964)
1964 pivotal work on pesticide contamination also wrote a book called "silent spring"
- part of the "quiet crisis" which called for comprehensive environmental planning and
- environmental regulation by the government
- lyndon johnson
- a place where vehicles would not be allowed, where no permanent camps or structures could be made
- where wildlife and its habitat would be kept in as primitive condition as possible
NEPA-1969, EPA-1970 FEDERAL PLANS MUST?
- attain the widest range of benefical uses of the environment without degradation, risk to health or safety or other
- undesierable and unintended consequences.
EPA added that environmental impact statements must be prepared before federal monies could be expended
WHO WAS THE SENATOR ASSOCIATED WITH EARTH DAY 4/22/70?
Gaylord Nelson senator from Wisconsin
WHAT IS THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT 1972?
moratorium on taking and importing marine mammals their parts and products
WHAT WAS THE US ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT 1973?
it stated that you could list endangered species but you also had to come up with something to help protect them.
few positive federal environmental laws have been passed
UNDER RONALD REAGAN WHAT HAPPENED?
- faltering world economy & cost of environmental clean up resulted in a (retreat of the federal government
- from the committment to environmental quality of 1980's
lack of federal aid left a void in state and local governments
WHAT HAPPENED UNDER GEORGE HW BUSH?
- campaigned as the environmental president
- was a mixed president had a moratorium on drilling on the US coast
- spotted owl placed on the endangered species list
- valdez oil spill response
WHAT HAPPENED IN THE 2000'S?
the role of nongovernmental agencies have increased tremendously in influencing government environmental policy
WHATS PART OF SUSTAINABILITY?
economy, environment and society
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