FAMR230

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Angelyn
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33724
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FAMR230
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2010-09-09 18:41:45
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Human development
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  1. Critical Period
  2. time when particular type of development must happen if its ever going to happen.
  3. Bio-social development
    growth and change that occur in a person’s body and the genetic, nutritional and health factors that affect growth and change
  4. Life Span Perspective
  5. Paul & Margaret Baltes – study of human development that takes into account all phases of life is multidirectional, multi-contextual, multi-cultural, multidisciplinary and plastic.
  6. Guided participation
    the process by which mentors guide novices to master the skills and habits expected within a culture
  7. Ethnic group
    people whose ancestors were in the same region who share the same language, culture and religion
  8. Freud
    • Birth - 1 year: oral stage
    • 1-3 years: anal
    • 3-6 years: phallic
    • 6-11 years: latency
    • Puberty: genital
  9. Erikson
  10. Psycho-social): emphasizes family and culture not sexual urges.
    • Birth to 1 year: Trust vs. Mistrust
    • 1-3 years: Autonomy vs. shame and doubt, children either became self-sufficient or doubt their own abilities
    • 3-6 years: Initiative vs. Guilt, feel adventurous or guity.
    • 6-11: Industry vs. Inferiority, children feel competent or inferior
    • 12: Identity vs. Role Confusion
  11. John B. Watson
    (Behaviorism/Learning theory): theory of human development that studies observable behavior. Conditioning is crucial, patterns and habits can be shaped using reinforcement and punishment
  12. B.F. Skinner
    (Operant conditioning): animals perform action and response occurs: If response is pleasurable, it is likely to be repeated, if response is painful action is unlikely to be repeated.
  13. Bandura
    (Social learning theory/Imitation): humans learn from observing even without receiving reinforcement
  14. John Piaget
    (Cognitive Theory): focuses on how people think over time. Our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs and behavior
  15. Piaget's Stages
  16. Sensorimotor (birth-2 yrs): infants use senses and motor abilities to understand the world.
    • Pre-operational (2-6): children view the world through their own perspective (egocentric)
    • Concrete operational (6-11): children learn to apply logic
    • Formal operational (12-adulthood): apply abstractions & hypothetical concents and can take on a broader more theoretical approach to experience.
  17. Dynamic Systems theory
  18. human development is an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical emotional being and his or her environment including family and culture.
  19. Experiment
    method to determine cause and effect of 2 variables on each other by manipulating one (independent variable) and then recording the ensuing change in the other (dependent variable).
  20. Independent variable:
  21. the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the dependent variable.
  22. Dependent variable
    the variable that may be changed as a result of whatever new condition the experimenter adds
  23. Cross sectional research
  24. compares groups of people off different age but similar in all other ways.
  25. Longitudinal research
  26. same people are studied over time and development is repeatedly assessed.
  27. Cross sequential
  28. study groups of people of different ages and then follow those groups over time. (hybrid)
  29. Correlation
    exist if one variable is more likely to occur if the other does. Indicates only that two variables are related not that one variable causes the other to occur
  30. Positive correlation
    if the two variables increase or decrease together
  31. Negative correlation
    if one variable increases and the other decreases
  32. Zygote
    the single cell that is formed by the fusing of two gametes (sperm and ovum)
  33. Allele
    variation of a gene
  34. Polygenic
    referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes ex: eye color
  35. Multi-factorial
    trait that is influenced by many factors
  36. Regulator gene
    a gene that directs the interactions of other genes
  37. Germinal period
    first 2-weeks of development
  38. Embryonic period
    3rd through 8th week of conception
  39. Fetal period
    9th week of conception through birth
  40. Age of viability
    22 weeks after conception where a fetus can survive
  41. Erikson's 8 stages of psycho-social development
  42. Birth to 1 year: Trust vs. Mistrust
    • 1-3 years: Autonomy vs. shame and doubt, children either became self-sufficient or doubt their own abilities
    • 3-6 years: Initiative vs. Guilt, feel adventurous or guity.
    • 6-11: Industry vs. Inferiority, children feel competent or inferior
    • 12: Identity vs. Role Confusion
    • Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation, young adults seek compansion or become isolated for fear of rejection or disappointment.
    • Middle Age: Generativity or Stagnation
    • Integrity v. Despair: older adults see life as meaningful whole or despair over goals that were never reached

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