Medical Terms Ch. 5 extensive list

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VASUpharm14
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33738
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Medical Terms Ch. 5 extensive list
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2010-09-09 22:56:55
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im too cool
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IBHS lab CH. 5 med terms + more!. good luck :D it's everything bolded in the chapter basically (not all though)
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  1. Put this in order from simplest to most complex.
    cells, organisms, organs, tissues, chemicals, body systems
    chemicals --> cells --> tissues --> organs --> body systems --> organisms
  2. What is the fundamental unit of life?
    the cell
  3. Somatic cells
    all the body cells except for the reproductive cells (sperm and ova)
  4. Tissues
    groups of cells that perform the same basic activity
  5. What are the 4 main types of tissues and their functions?
    • 1) epithelial - covering
    • 2) connective - supporting and protecting
    • 3) muscular - contracting
    • 4) nervous - conducting impulses
  6. organs
    • two or more tissue types that work together to perform one or more functions and form a more complex structure.
    • ex: skin, stomach, ear
  7. body system
    consists of several organs that work together to accomplish a set of functions.
  8. Context: Body system
    muscular system
    makes movement possible
  9. Context: Body system
    skeletal system
    provides protection, form, and shape for the body; stores minerals and forms some blood cells
  10. Context: Body system
    cardiovascular system
    delivers oxygen, nutrients, and vital substances throughout the body; transports cellular waste products to the lungs and kidneys for excretion.
  11. Context: Body system
    lymphatic system
    helps maintain the internal fluid environment; produces some types of blood cells; regulates immunity
  12. Context: Body system
    respiratory system
    brings oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide and some water waste
  13. Context: Body system
    digestive system
    provides the body with water, nutrients, and minerals; removes solid wastes
  14. Context: Body system
    urinary system
    filters blood to remove wastes of cellular metabolism; maintains the electrolyte and fluid balance
  15. Context: Body system
    reproductive system
    facilitates procreation (producing offspring) aka bow chika ... nvm.
  16. Context: Body system
    integumentary system
    provides external covering for protection; regulates the body temperature and water content
  17. Context: Body system
    nervous system
    coordinates the reception of stimuli; transmits messages to stimulate movement
  18. Context: Body system
    endocrine system
    secretes hormones and helps regulate body activities
  19. Homeo stasis
    • home/o = sameness
    • -stasis = controlling
  20. -plasia
    formation
  21. dys plasia
    abnormal development of tissues or organs
  22. a plasia
    the lack of development of an organ or tissue
  23. hypo plasia
    less severe than aplasia
  24. hyper plasia
    an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in tissue
  25. hyper trophy
    an increase in the size of an organ cause by an increase in the size of the cells rather than the number of cells
  26. ana plasia
    a change in the structure and orientation of cells, characterized by a loss of differentiation and reversal to a more primitive form, characteristic of malignancy
  27. context: reference planes
    frontal plane
    • aka coronal plane
    • divides the body into front and back portions
  28. context: reference planes
    transverse plane
    • trans - = across
    • divides the body into upper and lower portions (at any level)
  29. context: reference planes
    sagittal plane
    divides the body into right and left sides
  30. context: reference planes
    midsagittal plane
    divides the body into two equal halves
  31. context: anatomical locations
    anterior
    front
  32. context: anatomical locations
    posterior
    behind
  33. context: anatomical locations
    lateral
    side
  34. context: directional terms
    anter/o
    • ex: anterior
    • nearer to or toward the front; ventral
  35. context: directional terms
    poster/o
    • ex: posterior
    • nearer to or toward the back; dorsal; situated behind
  36. context: directional terms
    ventr/o
    • ex: ventral
    • belly side; same as anterior surface in human beings
  37. context: directional terms
    dors/o
    • ex:dorsal
    • directed toward or situated on the back side; same as posterior surface in human beings
  38. context: directional terms
    medi/o
    • ex: medial, median
    • middle or nearer the middle; the prefix mid- also means middle
  39. context: directional terms
    later/o
    • ex: lateral
    • toward the side; denoting a position farther from the midline of the body or from a structure
  40. context: directional terms
    super/o
    • ex: superior
    • uppermost or above
  41. context: directional terms
    infer/o
    • ex: inferior
    • lowermost or below
  42. context: directional terms
    proxim/o
    • ex: proximal
    • nearer the origin or point of attachment
  43. context: directional terms
    dist/o
    • ex: distal
    • far or distant from the origin or point of attachment
  44. context: directional terms
    cephal/o
    • ex: cephalad
    • toward the head
  45. context: directional terms
    caud/o
    • ex: caudad
    • toward the tail or in an inferior direction in human beings
  46. antero median
    front and middle
  47. postero median
    middle of the back
  48. postero external
    back and outer side
  49. postero internal
    back and the inner side
  50. antero posterior projection
    front to the back
  51. postero anterior
    back to front
  52. dorso ventral
    • back and belly surfaces
    • (sometimes means from the back to the belly surfaces)
  53. -al
    pertaining to
  54. dorso lateral
    pertaining to the back and the two sides
  55. postero lateral
    as well as dorsolateral, located behind and at the side
  56. antero lateral
    pertaining to the front and to one side
  57. medio lateral
    in the middle and to one side
  58. antero superior
    in front and above
  59. infero median
    situated in the middle of the underside
  60. Caud al
    pertaining to the tail
  61. tele cardiogram
    tracing of the electrical impulses of the heart recorded by a machine distant from the patient
  62. tel/e
    distant
  63. prone
    position of a person who is lying face down
  64. supine
    position of a person who is lying on the back
  65. pronation
    of the arm = the rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces downward
  66. supination
    rotation of a joint that allows the hand or foot to turn upward
  67. recumbent
    lying down
  68. ambulant
    person who is able to walk
  69. context: 2 main cavities: space within the body that contain internal organs
    dorsal cavity
    located near the posterior part of the body
  70. context: 2 main cavities: space within the body that contain internal organs
    ventral cavity
    • located near the anterior part.
    • large organs contained in this cavity are called viscera
  71. context: dorsal cavity
    cranial cavity
    contains brain
  72. context: dorsal cavity
    spinal cavity
    contains the spinal cord and the beginnings of the spinal nerves
  73. context: ventral cavity
    thoracic cavity
    chest
  74. context: ventral cavity
    abdominopelvic cavity
    abdominal and pelvic
  75. diaphragm
    • muscular, dome-shaped partition that functions in respiration
    • divides the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
  76. periton eum
    • periton/o = peritoneum
    • -eum = membrane
  77. adhesion
    a sticking together of two structures that are normally separated
  78. torso
    includes the chest, abdomen, and pelvis
  79. extremities
    four limbs (arms and legs)
  80. Context: body regions or structures
    abdomin/o
    abdomen
  81. Context: body regions or structures
    acr/o
    extremities (arms and legs)
  82. Context: body regions or structures
    blephar/o
    eyelid
  83. Context: body regions or structures
    cyst/o
    cyst, bladder, or sac
  84. Context: body regions or structures
    dactyl/o
    digit (toes, fingers, or both)
  85. Context: body regions or structures
    lapar/o
    abdominal wall
  86. Context: body regions or structures
    omphal/o
    umbilicus (navel)
  87. Context: body regions or structures
    onych/o
    nail
  88. Context: body regions or structures
    pelv/i
    pelvis
  89. Context: body regions or structures
    periton/o
    peritoneum
  90. Context: body regions or structures
    som/a, somat/o
    body
  91. Context: body regions or structures
    thorac/o
    chest (thorax)
  92. abdomen
    portion of the body trunk that is located between the chest and the pelvis
  93. abdominal quadrants
    used to describe the location of pain or body structures
  94. abdominothoracic
    an adjective that pertains to the abdomen and the thorax
  95. abdomino centesis
    • abdomin/o = abdomen
    • -centesis = surgical puncture
  96. abdominal pracentesis
    surgical procedure that is performed to remove excess fluids (ascites) from the abdominal cavity or to inject a therapeutic agent.
  97. periton itis
    • periton/o = peritoneum
    • -itis = inflammation
  98. thoracocentesis, thoracentesis
    surgical puncture of the chest wall for aspiration of fluids
  99. laparo tomy
    • lapar/o = abdominal wall
    • -tomy = incision
  100. laparoscopy
    examination of the interior of the abdomen by means of a laparoscope
  101. laparoscope
    an instrument that is inserted into the peritoneal cavity to inspect it
  102. pelvis
    lower portion of the body trunk
  103. cephalo pelvic
    • cephal/o = head
    • pelv/i = pelvis
    • (head of fetus and maternal pelvis)
  104. omphal ic
    concerning the umbilicus (umbilical)
  105. omphalitis
    inflamed condition of the navel
  106. omphalorrhexis
    rupture of the navel
  107. omphalorrhagia
    umbilical hemorrhage
  108. omphalo cele
    congenital herniation of the navel
  109. cephalo metry
    measurement of the dimensions of the head
  110. cephalalgia, cephalodynia
    pain in the head of headache
  111. cephalad
    means toward the head
  112. dactylo graphy
    study of fingerprints
  113. dactylospasm
    cramping of a finger or toe
  114. dactylitis
    inflammation of the bones of the fingers or toes
  115. chiro pody
    pertaining to the hands and feet
  116. chiropodist
    one who treats corns, bunions, and other afflictions of the hands and feet
  117. chirospasm
    cramping of the hand (writer's cramp)
  118. chiroplasty
    plastic surgery of the hand
  119. onycho phag ist
    • onych/o = nails
    • phag/o = eat
    • -ist = one who
  120. intra cellular
    body fluids found within the cells
  121. extra cellular
    body fluids found outside the cells
  122. interstitial fluid
    extracellular fluid that fills the space between most of the cells of the body
  123. edema
    a condition, accumulation of the fluid in the interstitial compartment
  124. context: body fluids
    crin/o, -crine
    secrete
  125. context: body fluids
    dacry/o, lacrim/o
    tear, tearing, crying
  126. context: body fluids
    -emia
    condition of the blood
  127. context: body fluids
    hem/o, hemat/o
    blood
  128. context: body fluids
    hidr/o
    sweat or perspiration
  129. context: body fluids
    hydr/o
    water
  130. context: body fluids
    lymph/o
    lymph (sometimes refers to the lymphatics)
  131. context: body fluids
    muc/o
    mucus
  132. context: body fluids
    -poiesis
    production
  133. context: body fluids
    -poietin
    substance that causes production
  134. context: body fluids
    py/o
    pus
  135. context: body fluids
    sial/o
    saliva (sometimes refers to salivary glands)
  136. context: body fluids
    ur/o
    urine (sometimes refers to the urinary tract)
  137. lacrimation
    crying or discharge of tears
  138. ophthalm itis
    inflammation of the eye
  139. calculi
    stones or concretions
  140. dacryo lith
    a lacrimal stone/calculus, tear stones
  141. dacryo lith iasis
    presence of lacrimal stone
  142. dacryo cyst
    tear sac
  143. dacryo cyst itis
    inflammation of the tear sac
  144. sialo graphy
    x-ray of the ducts of the salivary glands
  145. exo crine
    glands that have ducts that carry their secretions to an epithelial surface, sometimes to the outside
  146. endocrine
    ductless and glands that secrete their hormones into the bloodstream
  147. sudoriferous glands
    sweat glands
  148. hidr osis
    the formation and excretion of sweat
  149. hidr aden itis
    • inflammation of a sweat gland
    • aden/o = gland
  150. hidradenoma
    tumor of a sweat gland
  151. hydro therapy
    treatment using water
  152. hydro phobia
    abnormal fear of water
  153. an uria
    without urine
  154. hemat uria
    blood in the urine
  155. mucous
    • pertaining to mucus
    • muc/o - mucus
  156. mucoid
    resembling mucus
  157. muco lytic
    agents break up or destroy mucus
  158. py uria
    pus in the urine
  159. pyo genic
    those that produce pus
  160. hydrocephalus
    condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  161. neuro logic
    pertaining to the nervous system
  162. hemato logy
    study of blood and the blood-forming tissues
  163. -cyte
    cell
  164. erythr/o
    red
  165. leuk/o
    white
  166. thromb/o
    clot
  167. hemolysis
    destruction of red blood cells with the liberation of hemoglobin
  168. hemodialysis
    process of diffusing blood through a semipermeable membrane to remove toxic materials form the bodies of persons with impaired kidney function
  169. coagul/o
    coagulation
  170. fibr/o
    fiber or fibrous
  171. -graph
    instrument for recording
  172. micro-
    small
  173. thrombosis
    formation of internal blood clots
  174. thrombo cytes
    • thromb/o = blood clot
    • -cyte = cell
    • --> blood platelets
  175. thrombocytopenia, thrombopenia
    deficiency in blood platelets
  176. hemoglobin
    • hem/o = blood
    • globin = a type of protein
  177. an emia
    • an- = without
    • -emia = blood
  178. phago cytic
    • phag/o = eat
    • cyt/o = cell
  179. hemato poiesis
    • hemat/o = blood
    • -poiesis = production
  180. Opposites!
    anter/o
    poster/o
  181. Opposites!
    ventr/o
    dors/o
  182. Opposites!
    proxim/o
    dist/o, tel/e
  183. Opposites!
    medial
    lateral
  184. Opposites!
    prone
    supine

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