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What is Mary Ainsworth's Theory?
Mary Ainsworth's Famous Experiment?
A Strange Situation
Ainsworth's 4 types of Attachment?
- Secure Attachment
- Anxious Resistant Attachment
- Anxious Avoidant Attachment
- Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment
Ainsworth Secure Attachment Signs
A child will explore freely with caregiver present, will be upset when caregiver leaves, happy when they return.
Ainsworth Anxious Attachment Signs?
- Child is anxious to explore strangers even with caregiver present. Is extremely distressed when caregiver leaves, and ambivalent when they return. May be resentful/hit if she tries to engage.
- Happens when caregiver engages only on their terms.
Ainsworth Avoidant Attachment Signs?
- Child ignores caregiver when she leaves/returns, shows little emotion, may run away, not cling on or explore. Strangers are treated same as caregiver.
- Happens b/c childs needs are not being met and they believe communication has no effect on caregiver.
John Bowlby is known for?
Attachment Theory: Fake mommy monkey experiment.
Tenets of Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
- Attachment is an instinct for survival and ensures protection.
- Will eventually form a true attachment to caregiver.
- This attachment affects later relationships. Internal Working Model
- Attachment devleops in four stages.
4 Stages of Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
- Preattachment Phase (Birth to 6 weeks)
- Attachment in the Making Phase (6 weeks to 6-8mo)
- Clear Cut Attachment Phase (6-8mo to 18mo-2yrs)
- Formation of reciprocal relationship ((18mo-2yrs on)
More on Bowlby's Attachment Stages. . .
Preattachment phase (birth to 6 wks) description?
Built-in signals: grasping smiling, crying, looking into eyes help bring babies in close contact with other humans.
Bowlby's Attachment in the Making Phase (6wks to 6-8mo) details?
- Infants respond differently from caregivers to strangers.
- Infants learn their own actions affect others behaviors.
- Develop a sense of trust (expectation they will be responded to)
Bowlby's Clear cut attachment phase (6-8mo to 18mo-2yrs) details?
- Seperation Anxiety: becoming upset when their caregiver leaves.
- Will have a preference for caregivers over others.
- Use caregviers as a secure base from which to explore.
Bowlby's Formation of reciprocal relationship (18mo-2yrs and on) details?
- Growth in language development leads to less seperation anxiety.
- Children may negoitate (ie read a story before left with a babysitter) to increase their comfort.
Erick Erickson's Theory?
Stages of Psycho-social Development
Erickson's First Stage?
- Trust v. Mistrust (Infants-2yr.): Task for the infant is to learn if others regularly satisfy basic needs.
- Trust (successful): Will understand others are dependable/reliable.
- Mistrust (unsuccessful): Will see the world as unpredictable, dangerous
Erickson's Second Stage?
- Autonomy V. Shame & Doubt (2-3yr.): will either gain a sense of being able to handle things on their own, or devleop shame and doubt about their ability to solve their problems.
- Parents to demand too much, refuse to let them handle tasks they are capable of, or ridicule their efforts at autonomy foster shame and doubt.
Erickson's Third Stage?
- Initiative V. Guilt (4-6yr.)
- If parents/teachers encourage/support childrens'efforts while helping them make realistic goals and appropriate choices, they devleop Initiative: independence in planning/undertaking activities. If adults discourage the pursuit of independent activities/dismiss them, children develop Guilt about their needs and desires.
Erickson's Fourth Stage?
- Industry V. Inferiority (7-11yrs): Critical time for development of Self Confidence!
- If children are praised and encouraged to make and do things they will demonstrate industry: being dilligent, persevering at tasks until completed, delaying gratification.
- If children are ridiculed/punished or feel incapable of meeting expectations they develop inferiority about their capabilities.
Erickson's Fifth Stage?
- Identity V. Role Confusion (12-19yrs): A crossroads, synthesis of earlier stages and anticipation of upcoming stages. Actually ends in 20's.
- An adolescent who can freely explore and experiment and emerge a firm sense of identity, an emotionally deep awareness of who he/she is.
- If an adolescent is discouraged or not provided opportunity to explore, may develop role confusion: about self in the world, sexual orientation, who he/she is.
Erickson's Sixth Stage?
- Intimacy V. Isolation (20-34 yrs.): Once an individual has established their IDENTITY, they are ready to make intimate, recropical relationships with others, make sacrafices and compormises.
- Does the young adult establish meaningful romantic and platonic relationships?
Erickson's Seventh Stage?
Generaivity V. Stagnation (35-65 yrs): Either will contribute to society/future generations or be self-centered, unable or unwilling to help society.
Erickson's Eighth Stage?
- Integrity V. Despair (65 yrs. +)
- Integirty/Contentment if they with retrospection they believe they had a happy/productive life.
- Despair/Depression if they see disappointment/unachieved goals.
Sigmund Freud's Theory?
Psychosexual Stages of Development (5 stages)
What are Freud's Five Stages of Psychosexual Development?
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
Freud's Oral Stage?
Age and Info.
- Birth to 18mo.
- Oral satisfaction from nursing. If satisfied, personality will be characterized by optimism, being guillable, and admiration of others.
- If infant is not satisfied, personality will be characterized by pessimism, envy, suspicion, sarcasm.
Freud's Anal Stage?
Age and Info.
- 18mo-2 yrs: Advent of toilet training. Main task is proper toilet training that leads to possession/attitudes towards authority.
- Anal Explusive Character if parents are too relaxed. Child will become messy, disorganzied, defiant because the ID is in charge.
- Anal-Retentive Character is retaining feces to defy parents. Will become neat, precise, orderly, stingy, withholding, obstinate.
Freud's Phallic Stage?
Age and Info.
- Oedipus and Electra complexes operant.
- Superego restrains sexual desire for parent.
- Girls have "penis envy" and "blame mother/envy mother."
- Failure to progress past this stage=Phallic Character: reckless, resolute, self-assured,
- narcassistic, excessively vain and proud, incapable of close relationships, homosexuality.
Freud's Latency Stage?
Age and Info.
- Grade School-puberty
- Sexual energy is properly diverted into other interests
- With the onset of puberty desire returns.
Freud's Genital Stage
Age and Info?
- Puberty and on.
- "Properly" progressed through previous stages, interest turns towards heterosexual relationships.
- The less energy spent trying to resolve prior stage issues, the more energy avalibile to develop normal relationships with the opposite sex.
Freud's Contributions to Psychology (4 areas)
- Defined Mourning: Happens over a period of time as an ind. faces reminders=>Grief Work
- Free Association (therapist tool)
- Transference (therapist tool)
Freud's Structural Model
- ID: Instincts
- Ego: Organized, realistic part
- Superego: Moralizing parent
Carol Gilligan's Study?
- Gender Studies.
- Criticized Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development, stating the study was sexist.
- Girls in childhood have an inter-relational intelligence Kohlberg did not recognize.
Lawerence Kohlberg's Theory?
Stages of Moral Development (Six Stages)
What are Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development?
- 1. Obedience
- 2. Self-Interest
- 3. Conformity
- 4. Law and Order
- 5. Human Rights
- 6. Universal human ethics
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross' Theory?
- Theory on Death and Dying: D.A.B.D.A.
- Can occur in any order over varying periods of time.
- Studied terminally ill individuals.
Daniel Levinson's Theory?
Stages of Adult Development (4 Stages)
What are Daniel Levinson's 4 Stages of Adult Development?
- 1. Preadulthood
- 2. Early adulthood
- 3. Middle adulthood
- 4. Late adulthood
What did Levinson define as "Lifestructure"
- Lifestructure: is an underlying pattern of an individual's life, and it's shaped by the social and physical environment.
- Includes similarly family and work, but also religion, race, and economic status. f
Levinson: Transitional and Stable Periods
A transitional period begins a stage, approx. 5 years long, followed by a stable period of 5-7 years.
Levinson's 3 major adult transitions discussed
- Early adulthood transition (17-22 yrs): An individual dreams; an image of themselves in an adult world which guides career decisions/other choices.
- Age 30 Transition: Men and Women re-evaluate goals, but women make the most change professionally and in relationships.
- Age 40 Transition: Mid-life transition. People evaluate success in meeting early adulthood goals. May make drastic revisions, focus on inward/meaningful living.
Levinson's 4 Tasks of Middle Adulthood
Margaret Mahler's Theory?
According to Mahler, what is Separation? What is Individuation?
Separation refers to the development of limits, the differentiation between the infant and the mother, whereas individuation refers to the development of the infant's ego, sense of identity, and cognitive abilities.
What are the 2 phases Mahler refers to?
- Normal Symbiotic Phase - Lasts until about 5 months of age.
- The child is now aware of his/her mother but there is not a sense of individuality. The infant and the mother are one, and there is a barrier between them and the rest of the world.
- Separation-Individuation Phase (3 parts)
Mahler's 3 Parts of the Separation-Individuation Phase?
- Hatching – first months. The infant ceases to be ignorant of the differentiation between him/her and the mother. "Rupture of the shell".
- Increased alertness and interest for the outside world. Using the mother as a point of orientation.
- Practicing – 9-about 16 months. Brought about by the infant's ability to crawl and then walk freely, the infant begins to explore actively and becomes more distant from the mother. The child experiences himself still as one with his mother.Rapprochement –15-24 months. In this subphase, the infant once again becomes close to the mother. The child realizes that his physical mobility demonstrates psychic separateness from his mother, may want his mother to be in sight so that, through eye contact and action, he can explore his world. The mother may misread this need and respond with impatience or unavailability, leading to fear of abondonment.
- A basic ‘mood predisposition’ may be established at this point
What is Internalization? (Mahler)
- Object Constancy (understanding the mother as a separate entity) leads to Internalization, the internal representation the child has formed of the mother.
What happens when there is insufficent Seperation? Internalization? (Mahler)
- If there is a disruption in seperation, there will be a separation of individuation, which may lead to a
- disturbance in the ability to maintain a reliable sense of individual identity in adulthood.
If there is a deficiency in internalization,
the child may become insecure and have low self esteem.
Abraham Maslow's Theory?
Hierarchy of Needs
How Many Levels are in Maslow's Hierarchy? What are they?
- 5 Levels. (From top down):
- Self Actualization: morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts.
- Esteem: Self esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of/by others
- Love/Belonging: Friendship, family, sexual intimacy
- Safety: Body, employment, resources, family, health, prosperity safety
- Physiological: Breathing/food/water/sleep.