Ventilation Quiz

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noah.aisner
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33754
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Ventilation Quiz
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2010-09-09 21:44:17
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Ventilation Quiz
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  1. 1. Which of the following pressures van throughout the normal breathing cycle?
    I. alveolar pressure
    II. body surface pressure
    III. mouth pressure
    IV. pleural pressure
    A. I. II, III, and IV
    B. II and IV
    C. I and IV
    D. II, I and IV
    C. I and IV
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. 2. Which of the following pressures normally remains negative (relative to atmospheric pressure) during quiet breathing?
    A. Palv
    B. Ppl
    C Pao
    D Pbs
    B. Ppl
  3. 3. Which of the following pressure gradients is responsible for the actual flow of gas into and out of the lungs during breathing?
    A. transcanadian pressure gradient (Ppc - Pb)
    B. transpulmonary pressure gradient (Palv – Ppl)
    C. transrespiratory pressure gradient (Palv – Pao)
    D. transthoracic pressure gradient (Ppl - Pbs)
    C. transrespiratory pressure gradient (Palv – Pao)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. 4. Which of the following pressure gradients is responsible for maintaining alveolar intlation?
    A Transpulmonary pressure gradient (Palv – Ppl)
    B. Transthoracic pressure gradient (Ppl - Pbs)
    C. Transcanadian pressure gradient (Ppc - Pb)
    D. Transrespiratory pressure gradient (Palv – Pao)
    A Transpulmonary pressure gradient (Palv – Ppl)
  5. 5. Which of the following statements about alveolar pressure (P during normal quiet breathing is true?
    A. It is positive during inspiration and negative during expiration.
    B. it is the same as intrapleural pressure
    C It is negative during inspiration and positive during expiration.
    D. It always remains less than atmospheric pressure.
    C It is negative during inspiration and positive during expiration.
  6. 6. During normal tidal ventilation, the transpulmonary pressure gradient (Palv – Ppl) reaches its maximum value at what point in the cycle?
    A. mid-expiration
    B. end-inspiration
    C. mid-inspiration
    D. end-expiration
    B. end-inspiration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. 7. During expiration why does gas flow out from the lungs to the atmosphere?
    A. P is less than at the airway opening.
    B. P is the same as at the airway opening.
    C Palv is greater than at the airway opening.
    D. Airway pressure is greater than P
    C Palv is greater than at the airway opening
  8. 8. What forces must be overcome to move air into the respiratory system? I. tissue movement
    II. elastic forces of lung tissue
    III. airway resistance
    IV. surface tension forces
    A. I, II, and III
    B. II and IV
    C. IV only
    D. I, II, III, and IV
    D. I, II, III, and IV
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. 9. What term is used to note the difference between inspiratory lung volume and expiratory lung volume at any given pressure?
    A, alveolar aphasia
    B. hysteresis
    C. pleural pressure variance
    D. transpulmonary pressures
    B. hysteresis
  10. 10. The presence of surfactant in the alveoli tends to do which of the following?
    A. increase elastance
    B. decrease compliance
    C. decrease surface tension
    D. increase resistance
    C. decrease surface tension
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. 11. How is compliance computed?
    A. change in pressure/change in volume
    B. change in volume/change in pressure
    C. change in pressure/change in flow
    D. change in volume/change in flow
    B. change in volume/change in pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. 12. Normal lung compliance is approximately which of the following?
    A. 2.00 L/cm H
    B. 0.01 L/cm H
    C. 0.20 L/cm H
    D. 10.00 L/cm H
    C. 0.20 L/cm H
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. 13. A lung that loses elastic fibers (as in emphysema) would exhibit which of the
    following characteristics?
    A. increased pulmonary compliance
    B. increased airway resistance
    C. decreased airways resistance
    D. decreased pulmonary vascular resistance
    A. increased pulmonary compliance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. 14. A fibrotic lung would exhibit which of the following characteristics?
    A. decreased lung compliance
    B. decreased airway resistance
    C. decreased surface tension
    D. decreased PVR
    A. decreased lung compliance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. 15. Total lung—thorax compliance in normal subjects is about what level?
    A. 0.1 L/cmH
    B. 1.0 L/cm H
    C. 0.2L/cmH
    D. 2.OL/cmH
    A. 0.1 L/cmH
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. 16. How is airway resistance (Raw) computed?
    A. change in volume/change in pressure
    B. change in pressure/flow
    C. change in pressure/change in volume
    D. change in volume x change in pressure
    B. change in pressure/flow
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. 17. Normal Raw is approximately which of the following?
    A. 0.5 to 2.5 cm H
    B. 0.1 to 0.2 cm H
    C. 15.0 to 20.0 cm H
    D. 20.0 to 25.0 cm H
    A. 0.5 to 2.5 cm H
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. 18. Which of the following factors affects Raw?
    I. pattern of gas flow (e.g., laminar versus turbulent)
    II. characteristics of the gas being breathed
    III. diameter and length of the airways
    IV. variations in surrounding lung compliance from auto-PEEP
    A. I, II, and III
    B. IV only
    C. II and IV
    D. I, II, III, and IV
    D. I, II, III, and IV
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. 19. According to Poiseuille’s law, which of the following statements are true if we wish to maintain a constant flow of gases?
    A. The driving pressure varies directly with the airway circumference.
    B. Large jumps in driving pressure are needed to overcome airway narrowing.
    C. Alveolar recruitment has its greatest affect on flow.
    D. Halving the tube radius will require a 16-time increase in driving pressure.
    D. Halving the tube radius will require a 16-time increase in driving pressure.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. 20. Most of the drop in pressure due to frictional resistance to gas flow occurs in what region?
    A. terminal respiratory unit
    B. respiratory bronchioles
    C. terminal bronchioles
    D. nose, mouth, and large airways
    D. nose, mouth, and large airways
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. 21. traditional physical terms, how is work defined?
    A force x distance
    B. force x time
    C. mass x acceleration
    D. mass x force
    A force x distance
  22. 22. Which of the following formulas is used to compute the mechanical work of breathing?
    A. change in volume/change in pressure
    B. change in pressure x change in flow
    C. change in pressure x change in volume
    D. change in pressure/flow
    C. change in pressure x change in volume
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. 23. In a normal individual, what is the oxygen cost of breathing as a percentage of the body’s total oxygen consumption?
    A. 20%
    B. 35%
    C. 75%
    D. 10%
    C. 75%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. 24. Regional factors affecting the distribution of gas in the normal lung result in which of
    the following?
    A. More ventilation goes to the bases and lung core.
    B. More ventilation goes to the bases and lung periphery.
    C. More ventilation goes to the apexes and lung core.
    D. More ventilation goes to the apexes and lung periphery.
    B. More ventilation goes to the bases and lung periphery.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. 25. During normal inspiration, which of the following occurs?
    A. Alveoli at the apexes expand more than those at the bases.
    B. Central alveoli expand more than those at the periphery.
    C. Alveoli at the apexes expand less than those at the bases.
    D. Alveoli at the bases expand less than those at the apexes.
    C. Alveoli at the apexes expand less than those at the bases.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. 26. Given a constant resistance, how will increasing the compliance of a lung unit alter gas movement into and out of the alveolus?
    A. The alveolus will fill more quickly but empty more slowly.
    B. Both filling and emptying will be slower.
    C. The alveolus will fill more slowly but empty more quickly.
    D. The alveolus will fill and empty more quickly.
    B. Both filling and emptying will be slower.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. 27. Which of the following statements apply to a lung unit with higher resistance than normal?
    A. There will be less volume change for a given pressure change.
    B. It will fill and empty more rapidly than a normal lung unit.
    C. Volume to this area will remain the same under all conditions.
    D. A given volume change will require less of a pressure change.
    A. There will be less volume change for a given pressure change.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. 28. Which of the following formulas are used to compute the time constant of a lung unit?
    A. change in pressure x flow
    B. resistance x compliance
    C. resistance/elastance
    D. compliance/resistance
    B. resistance x compliance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. 29. Which of the following lung units would empty and fill most slowly?
    A. a unit with low resistance and low compliance
    B. a unit with low resistance and high compliance
    C. a unit with high resistance and high compliance
    D. a unit with high resistance and low compliance
    C. a unit with high resistance and high compliance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. 30. If a patient has a VT of 370 ml and a respiratory rate of 20 breaths per minute, what is
    the minute ventilation?
    A. 6.45 L/min
    B. 3.70 L/min
    C. 2.40 L/min
    D. 7.40 L/min
    D. 7.40 L/min
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. 31. A patient has a VT of 625 ml and a physiological dead space of 275 ml and is breathing at a frequency of 16 per minute. What is the alveolar ventilation (VA)?
    A. 4400 mil/min
    B. 7000 mil/min
    C. 3000 mil/mm
    D. 5600 mil/min
    D. 5600 mil/min
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. 32. A normal 150-lb man is breathing at a rate of 17 with a tidal volume of 450 ml. By estimation, what is his approximate alveolar ventilation?
    A. 2.60 L/min
    B. 5.10L/min
    C. 3.85 L/min
    D. 7.65 L/min
    B. 5.10L/min
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. 33. Blockage of the pulmonary arterial circulation to a portion of the lung would cause which of the following?
    A. decrease in anatomical dead space
    B. decrease in physiologic dead space
    C. increase in alveolar dead space
    D. increase in anatomical dead space
    C. increase in alveolar dead space
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. 34. In what portion of the lungs does alveolar dead space normally occur?
    A. bases
    B. terminal respiratory units
    C. apices
    D. middle portions of the lungs
    C. apices
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. 35. Which is the correct formula to calculate the alveolar minute ventilation of a spontaneously breathing subject?
    A. f x V
    B. f x (VT - VDSphys)
    C. f x VDS/VT
    D. f x (VT + VDsphys)
    B. f x (VT - VDsphys)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. 36. In clinical practice measuring the physiologic dead space ventilation is achieved by using which formula?
    A. Bernoulli’s equation
    B. modified Bohr equation
    C. modified Shunt equation
    D. Reynold’s equation
    B. modified Bohr equation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. 37. In normal individuals, approximately what fraction of the VT is wasted ventilation (does not participate in gas exchange)?
    A. 1/3
    B. 1/2
    C. 2/3
    D. l/4
    A. 1/3
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. 38. Which of the following diseases or disorders is most likely to result in an increased
    Vd/VT ratio?
    A. pulmonary embolus
    B. pulmonary fibrosis
    C. pneumonia
    D. atelectasis
    A. pulmonary embolus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. 39. What will happen if the rate of breathing increases without any change in total minute ventilation
    A. The VA per minute will decrease.
    B. The VA per minute will remain constant.
    C. The dead space ventilation per minute will decrease.
    D. The VA per minute will increase.
    A. The VA per minute will decrease.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. 40. Which of the following ventilatory patterns would result in the MOST wasted ventilation per minute (assume constant physiologic dead space)?
    Frequency Tidal Volume
    A. 30 170
    B. 16 220
    C. 8 800
    D. 25 200
    A. 30 170
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. 41. How can the body effectively compensate for an increased V
    A. increased respiratory rate
    B. decreased drive to breath
    C. decreased respiratory rate
    D. increased tidal volume
    D. increased tidal volume
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. 42. Under resting metabolic conditions, how much carbon dioxide does a normal adult produce per minute?
    A. 150 ml/min
    B. 200 ml/min
    C. 300 ml/min
    D. 250 ml/mm
    B. 200 ml/min
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. 43. Hypoventilation is defined as:
    A. very slow respiratory rate ‘
    B. low blood oxygen level
    C. elevated blood carbon dioxide level
    D. decreased tidal volume
    C. elevated blood carbon dioxide level
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. 44. A patient has a PCO of 56 mm Hg. Based on this information, what can be concluded?
    A. The patient’s breathing rate is fast.
    B. The patient’s VT is low.
    C. The patient is hypoventilating.
    D. The patient is hyperventilating.
    C. The patient is hypoventilating.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. 45. Given a constant carbon dioxide production, how will changing the level of VA affect the PaCO
    A. An increase in VA will increase PaCO
    B. decrease in VA will decrease PaCO
    C. PaCO is unaffected by changes in VA.
    D. An increase in VA will decrease PaCO
    D. An increase in VA will decrease PaCO
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. 46. What is ventilation in excess of metabolic needs called?
    A. hyperpnea
    B hyperventilation
    C. hypopnea
    D. hypoventilation
    B hyperventilation
  47. 47. What is the single best indicator of the adequacy or effectiveness of VA?
    A. Pa02
    B. PAO2
    C PaCO2
    D.VT
    C PaCO2

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